Felinae

Last updated

Felinae [1]
Temporal range: MioceneHolocene, 9–0  Ma
Wildkatze (Felis silvestris silvestris) im Tierpark Lange Erlen, 2016-12-03.jpg
European wildcat (Felis silvestris)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Fischer von Waldheim, 1817
Type genus
Felis
Genera

see Taxonomy

Felinae range.png
Native ranges of Felinae

The Felinae are a subfamily of the family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar. [2]

Contents

Other authors proposed an alternative definition for this subfamily: as comprising only the living conical-toothed cat genera with two tribes, the Felini and Pantherini; thus excluding all fossil cat species. [3] [4]

Characteristics

The members of the Felinae have retractile claws that are protected by at least one cutaneous lobe. Their larynx is kept close to the base of the skull by an ossified hyoid. [5] They can purr owing to the vocal folds being shorter than 6 mm (0.24 in). [6] [7] The cheetah Acinonyx does not have cutaneous sheaths for guarding claws. [8]

Taxonomy

The term 'Felini' was first used in 1817 by Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim, at the time for all the cat species that had been proposed as belonging to the genus Felis. [9] In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock also subordinated the following genera to the Felinae that had been proposed in the course of the 19th century: Lynx, Puma, Leptailurus, Prionailurus, Pardofelis, Leopardus, Herpailurus, Neofelis and four more. [5]

The Felinae and Pantherinae probably diverged about 11.5 million years ago. The genera within the Felinae diverged between 10.67 and 4.23 million years ago. [10] [11]

Today, the following living genera and species are recognised as belonging to the Felinae: [2]

GenusSpeciesImage of type species
Acinonyx Brookes, 1828 [12] Cheetah (A. jubatus) Schreber, 1777 [13] Cheetah4.jpg
Caracal Gray, 1843 [14] Caracl (01), Paris, decembre 2013.jpg
Catopuma Severtzov, 1858 [17] Asian golden cat at Edinburgh Zoo.jpg
Felis Linnaeus, 1758 [20] Jammlich crop.jpg
Herpailurus Severtzov, 1858 [17] Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803) [27] Puma yagouaroundi.jpg
Leopardus Gray, 1842 [28] Ocelot (Jaguatirica) Zoo Itatiba.jpg
LeptailurusSevertzov, 1858 [17] Serval (L. serval) (Schreber, 1775) [36] Leptailurus serval -Serengeti National Park, Tanzania-8.jpg
Lynx Kerr, 1792 [37] Lynx.lynx-ZOO.Olomouc1.jpg
Otocolobus Brandt, 1842 [41] Pallas's cat (O. manul) (Pallas, 1776) [42] Manoel.jpg
Pardofelis Severtzov, 1858 [17] Marbled cat (P. marmorata) (Martin, 1836) [43] Marbled cat borneo.jpg
Prionailurus Severtzov, 1858 [17] Close-up of a Leopard Cat in Sundarban.jpg
Puma Jardine 1834 [48] Cougar (P. concolor) Linnaeus, 1771 [49] Cougar sitting.jpg

Extinct taxa

GenusSpeciesImage
Felis Martelli's cat (F. lunensis)
Acinonyx
Lynx
Puma
Leopardus L. vorohuensis
Asilifelis Werdelin, 2011 [52] A. coteae
Diamantofelis Morales, Pickford, Soria & Fraile, 1998 [53] D. ferox
Katifelis Adrian, Werdelin & Grossman, 2018 [54] K. nightingalei
Leptofelis Salesa et al., 2012L. vallesiensis
Miracinonyx Adams, 1979 [55]
  • M. inexpectatus
  • M. trumani
Miracinonyx inexpectatus.jpg
Namafelis Morales, Pickford, Fraile, Salesa & Soria, 2003 [56] N. minor
Pratifelis Hibbard, 1934P. martini
PristifelisSalesa et al., 2012 P. attica
Sivapanthera Kretzoi, 1929 [57]
  • S. arvernensis
  • S. brachygnathus
  • S. linxiaensis
  • S. padhriensis
  • S. pleistocaenicus
  • S. potens

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic relationships of Felinae are shown in the following cladogram: [58]

 Felinae 
Bay cat lineage
  Catopuma  

Catopuma badia (Bay cat)

Catopuma temminckii (Asian golden cat)

 Pardofelis 

Pardofelis marmorata (Marbled cat) Pardofelis marmorata (white background).png

Caracal lineage
  Caracal  

Caracal caracal (Caracal) Felis caracal - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(White Background).jpg

Caracal aurata (African golden cat)

 Leptailurus 

Leptailurus serval (Serval) Felis serval - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Ocelot lineage
  Leopardus  

Leopardus geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat)

Leopardus guttulus (Southern tiger cat)

Leopardus guigna (Kodkod)

Leopardus tigrinus (Oncilla)

Leopardus colocolo (Pampas cat)

Leopardus jacobita (Andean mountain cat)

Leopardus pardalis (Ocelot) Felis pardalis - 1834 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(White Background).jpg

Leopardus wiedii (Margay)

Leopardus vorohuensis

Lynx lineage
  Lynx  

Lynx lynx (Eurasian lynx) Evraziiskaia rys'.png

Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx)

Lynx canadensis (Canada lynx)

Lynx rufus (Bobcat)

Lynx issiodorensis (Issoire lynx)

Lynx rexroadensis

Lynx thomasi

Puma lineage
  Acinonyx  

Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah) Acinonyx jubatus (white background).jpg

Acinonyx pardinensis (Giant cheetah)

Acinonyx aicha

Acinonyx intermedius

  Sivapanthera  

Sivapanthera brachygnathus

Sivapanthera pleistocaenicus

Sivapanthera potens

Sivapanthera linxiaensis

Sivapanthera padhriensis

Sivapanthera arvernensis

 Herpailurus 

Herpailurus yagouaroundi (Jaguarundi) Lydekker - Eyra White background.jpg

  Miracinonyx  

Miracinonyx inexpectatus

Miracinonyx trumani

  Puma  

Puma pardoides (Eurasian puma) De vroeg-pleistocene sabeltandkat, Homotherium crenatidens (2008) Puma pardoides.png

Puma pumoides

Puma concolor (Cougar) Felis concolor - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Leopard cat lineage
  Prionailurus  

Prionailurus javanensis (Sunda leopard cat)

Prionailurus viverrinus (Fishing cat)

Prionailurus bengalensis (Leopard cat) Felis torquata - 1834 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Prionailurus planiceps (Flat-headed cat)

Prionailurus rubiginosus (Rusty-spotted cat)

 Otocolobus 

Otocolobus manul (Pallas's cat)

 Pristifelis 

Pristifelis attica

  Felis  

Felis chaus (Jungle cat) Felis chaus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(White Background).jpg

Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat)

Felis margarita (Sand cat)

Felis lunensis (Martelli's cat)

Felis silvestris (European wildcat) Anatomie descriptive et comparative du chat (1845) Pl-I (white background & colourised).jpg

Felis bieti (Chinese mountain cat)

Felis lybica (African wildcat) Felis caligata - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Felis catus (Cat) Felis obscura - 1834 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - (white background).jpg

Domestic cat lineage    

See also

Related Research Articles

Felidae Family of mammals

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat.

Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae that was named and described by Lorenz Oken in 1816 who placed all the spotted cats in this group. Reginald Innes Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard on the basis of common cranial features. Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN Red List assessors in 2008.

<i>Acinonyx</i>

Acinonyx is a genus within the cat family. The only living species of this genus, the cheetah A. jubatus, lives in open grasslands of Africa and Asia.

Mongoose A family of mammals in Africa and Asia

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. This family is currently split into two subfamilies, the Herpestinae and the Mungotinae. The Herpestinae comprises 23 living species that are native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, whereas the Mungotinae comprises 11 species native to Africa. The Herpestidae originated about 21.8 ± 3.6 million years ago in the Early Miocene and genetically diverged into two main genetic lineages between 19.1 and 18.5 ± 3.5 million years ago.

Viverridae

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids occur all over Africa, southern Europe, and South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

<i>Felis</i> Genus of mammals (cats)

Felis is a genus of small and medium-sized cat species native to most of Africa and south of 60° latitude in Europe and Asia to Indochina. The genus includes the domestic cat. The smallest Felis species is the black-footed cat with a head and body length from 38 to 42 cm. The largest is the jungle cat with a head and body length from 62 to 76 cm.

Jungle cat Medium-sized wild cat

The jungle cat, also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China. It inhabits foremost wetlands like swamps, littoral and riparian areas with dense vegetation. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, and is mainly threatened by destruction of wetlands, trapping and poisoning.

Serval Small wild cat

The serval is a wild cat native to Africa. It is rare in North Africa and the Sahel, but widespread in sub-Saharan countries except rainforest regions. On the IUCN Red List it is listed as Least Concern. Across its range, it occurs in protected areas, and hunting it is either prohibited or regulated in range countries.

Caracal Small wild cat

The caracal is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. It is characterised by a robust build, long legs, a short face, long tufted ears, and long canine teeth. Its coat is uniformly reddish tan or sandy, while the ventral parts are lighter with small reddish markings. It reaches 40–50 cm (16–20 in) at the shoulder and weighs 8–19 kg (18–42 lb). It was first scientifically described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1776. Three subspecies are recognised.

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber German entomologist (1739-1810)

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, often styled J.C.D. von Schreber, was a German naturalist.

<i>Prionailurus</i>

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<i>Paradoxurus</i>

Paradoxurus is a genus of three palm civets within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. The Paradoxurus species have a broad head, a narrow muzzle with a large rhinarium that is deeply sulcate in the middle. Their large ears are rounded at the tip. The tail is nearly as long as the head and body.

<i>Leopardus</i>

Leopardus is a genus of spotted small cats native to Central and South America, with one species extending into the southern United States.. The genus is considered the oldest branch of a lineage of small cats that crossed into the Americas, with the genera Lynx and Puma being later branches of the same group. The largest Leopardus species is the ocelot, and the kodkod is the smallest cat in the Americas. The margay is highly adapted to arboreal life.

Pantherinae

Pantherinae is a subfamily within the family Felidae, which was named and first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1917. The Pantherinae and the Felinae diverged from a common ancestor between 10.8 and 11.5 million years ago.

European wildcat Small wild cat

The European wildcat is a wildcat species native to continental Europe, Scotland, Turkey and the Caucasus. It inhabits forests from the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe to the Caucasus. It has been extirpated in England and Wales.

Golden palm civet

The golden palm civet is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining.

Viverrinae

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Paradoxurinae

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.

Felis chaus chaus is the nominate subspecies of the jungle cat.

Heinrich Carl Küster was a German malacologist. and entomologist.

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