Sulawesi palm civet

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Sulawesi palm civet
Macrogalidia musschenbroekii.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Genus: Macrogalidia
Schwarz, 1910 [2]
Species:
M. musschenbroekii
Binomial name
Macrogalidia musschenbroekii
(Schlegel, 1877) [3]
Sulawesi Palm Civet area.png
Sulawesi palm civet range

The Sulawesi palm civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii), also known as Sulawesi civet, musang and brown palm civet is a little-known palm civet endemic to Sulawesi. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List due to population decline estimated to have been more than 30% over the last three generations (suspected to be 15 years) inferred from habitat destruction and degradation. [1]

Contents

Macrogalidia is a monospecific genus. [4] It is the only carnivoran native to Sulawesi. [5]

Characteristics

The Sulawesi civet has a light brownish-chestnut coloured soft and short coat with numerous light hairs intermixed. The underparts vary from fulvous to white; the breast is rufescent. There is a pair of indistinct longitudinal stripes and some faint spots on the hinder part of the back. The whiskers are mixed brown and white. The tail is marked with alternating rings of dark and pale brown, which are indistinct on the under surface, and disappear towards the dark tip. The length of head and body is about 35 in (89 cm) with a 25 in (64 cm) long tail. The skull with the bony palate is much produced backwards, but otherwise resembles that of Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). The teeth differ from those of all the Paradoxurus species in that the two cheek-series run nearly parallel, in place of being widely diververgent posteriorly. [6]

Distribution and habitat

Sulawesi palm civets were recorded in lowland forest, lower and upper montane forest at elevations up to 2,600 m (8,500 ft), [1] grasslands and near farms. [7] They appear to be more common in forests than in agricultural areas. Although they appear to be generalists that can probably tolerate some degree of disturbed habitat, there is no evidence that populations can survive independent of tall forest. [8] Between September 2016 and April 2017, Sulawesi palm civets were recorded in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park and in Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve at elevations of 253–1,515 m (830–4,970 ft). [9]

Ecology and behaviour

Sulawesi palm civets are partially arboreal, apparently nocturnal, [1] and omnivorous, feeding on small mammals, fruit and grass. They occasionally take birds and farm animals. Their home range is estimated at about 150 ha (0.58 sq mi). [8]

Related Research Articles

Viverridae family of mammals, the viverrids

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids occur all over Africa, into southern Europe, in South and Southeast Asia across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

Asian palm civet Species of viverrid

The Asian palm civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, it is IUCN Red Listed as Least Concern as it accommodates to a broad range of habitats. It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In Indonesia, it is threatened by poaching and illegal wildlife trade; buyers use it for the increasing production of kopi luwak, a form of coffee that involves ingestion and excretion of the beans by the animal.

African palm civet species of mammal

The African palm civet, also known as the two-spotted palm civet, is a small feliform mammal widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Otter civet species of mammal

The otter civet is a semiaquatic viverrid native to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. It is listed as Endangered because of a serious ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the past three generations, inferred from direct habitat destruction, and indirect inferred declines due to pollutants.

Malabar large-spotted civet species of mammal

The Malabar large-spotted civet, also known as the Malabar civet, is a viverrid endemic to the Western Ghats of India. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List as the population is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals. It has not been recorded during surveys carried out between 1990 and 2014. In the early 1990s, isolated populations still survived in less disturbed areas of South Malabar but were seriously threatened by habitat destruction and hunting outside protected areas.

<i>Paradoxurus</i> genus of mammals

Paradoxurus is a genus of three palm civets within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. The Paradoxurus species have a broad head, a narrow muzzle with a large rhinarium that is deeply sulcate in the middle. Their large ears are rounded at the tip. The tail is nearly as long as the head and body.

Hoses palm civet species of mammal

Hose's palm civet, also known as Hose's civet, is a viverrid species endemic to the island of Borneo. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations and suspected to be more than 30% in the next three generations due to declines in population inferred from habitat destruction and degradation.

Small Indian civet Species of mammal

The small Indian civet is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.

Owstons palm civet species of mammal

Owston's palm civet is a civet native to Vietnam, Laos and southern China. It is listed as Endangered by IUCN because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the last three generations, inferred from over-exploitation, habitat destruction and degradation.

Banded palm civet species of mammal

The banded palm civet, also called banded civet, is a viverrid native to Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, peninsular Thailand and the Sunda Islands of Sipura, Sumatra and Borneo. It is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List because of its large geographic and elevation range and tolerance to some habitat disturbance.

Small-toothed palm civet species of mammal

The small-toothed palm civet, also known as the three-striped palm civet, is a palm civet native to dense forests of Southeast Asia, from the Assam district of India to Indochina and the Malay Peninsula and on Sumatra, Bangka, Java, Borneo, and numerous small nearby islands of Indonesia.

Golden palm civet species of mammal

The golden palm civet is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining.

Brown palm civet species of mammal

The brown palm civet also called the Jerdon's palm civet is a palm civet endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

Malayan civet species of mammal

The Malayan civet, also known as the Malay civet and Oriental civet, is a viverrid native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Riau Archipelago, and the Philippines. It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN as it is a relatively widely distributed, appears to be tolerant of degraded habitats, and occurs in a number of protected areas.

Civet Mammals of the families Viverridae and Nandiniidae

A civet is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which a musky scent used in perfumery was obtained. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

Hemigalinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Hemigalinae are a subfamily of the viverrids denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Hemigalinae species are native to Southeast Asia from southern China through Indochina, Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Borneo and Sulawesi.

<i>Paradoxurus aureus</i> species of mammal

Paradoxurus aureus, the golden palm civet, also called golden paradoxurus and golden wet-zone palm civet is a viverrid species native to Sri Lanka. It was first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822.

Paradoxurus montanus, the Sri Lankan brown palm civet, is a viverrid species endemic to Sri Lanka where it is known as ශ්‍රී ලංකා බොර කලවැද්දා in Sinhala. Until 2009, it was considered as the same species as the golden palm civet, but proposed to be given specific rank.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Tasirin, J.; Dinets, V.; Meijaard, E.; Brodie, J.; Nijman, V.; Loffeld, T.A.C.; Hilser, H.; Shepherd, C.; Seymour, A.S. & Duckworth, J.W. (2015). "Macrogalidia musschenbroekii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T12592A45198901. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  2. Schwarz, E. (1910). "Notes on some Palm-Civets". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8. 5 (29): 422–424.
  3. Schlegel, H. (1879). "Paradoxurus musschenbroekii". Notes from the Royal Zoological Museum of the Netherlands at Leyden. 1 (Note XIV): 43.
  4. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Genus Macrogalidia". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 550. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  5. Groves C. (2001). "Mammals in Sulawesi: Where did they come from and when, and what happened to them when they got there?". In Metcalfe, I.; Smith, J. M.B.; Morwood, M.; Davidson, I. (eds.). Faunal and Floral Migration and Evolution in SE Asia-Australasia. CRC Press. p. 336. ISBN   978-90-5809-349-3.
  6. Lydekker, R. (1896). A Hand-book to the Carnivora, Part I. Cats, Civets, and Mungooses. Edward Lloyd, Limited, London
  7. Wemmer, C. and Watling, D. (1986). Ecology and status of the Sulawesi palm civet. Biological Conservation 35: 1–17.
  8. 1 2 Lee, R. J., Riley, J., Hunowu, I. and Maneasa, E. (2003). The Sulawesi palm civet: Expanded distribution of a little known endemic viverrid. Oryx 37: 378–381.
  9. Hunowu, I.; Patandung, A.; Pusparini, W.; Danismend, I.; Cahyana, A.; Abdullah, S.; Johnson, C.L.; Hilser, H.; Rahasia, R.; Gawina, J. & Linkie, M. (2020). "New insights into Sulawesi's apex predator: the Sulawesi civet Macrogalidia musschenbroekii". Oryx (first view). doi: 10.1017/S0030605319000723 .