Hemigalinae

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Hemigalinae
Banded palm civet 10.jpg
Banded palm civet (Hemigalus derbyanus)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Subfamily: Hemigalinae
Gray, 1864

The Hemigalinae are a subfamily of the viverrids denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. [1] Hemigalinae species are native to Southeast Asia from southern China through Indochina, Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Borneo and Sulawesi. [2]

Contents

Characteristics

The tails of Hemigalinae species are ringed. The toes and the middle of the lower part of the tarsus are bald. The frenum, upper part, and sides of the lower part are hairy. The orbit is imperfect. [1]

Hemigalinae resemble the Viverrinae in having the scent glands present in both sexes and wholly perineal, but differing by their simpler structure, consisting in the male of a shallower, smaller pouch, with less tumid lips, situated midway between the scrotum and the penis, but not extending to either. In the female, the scent glands consist of a pair of swellings, each with a slit-like orifice, situated one on each side of the vulva and a little behind it and on a common eminence, the perineal area behind this eminence being naked. The prepuce is long and pendulous. The feet are nearly intermediate in structure between those of the digitigrade Viverrinae and the semiplantigrade Paradoxurinae, but more like the latter, both the carpal and metatarsal pads being well developed, double, and joining the plantar pad below, and as wide as it is at the point of contact. But the feet, with the pads, are considerably narrower, the carpals and metatarsals converging and meeting above so that a much larger area of the under surface is hairy. The area between the four main digits and the plantar pad is covered with short hair, and the pads of the third and fourth digits of the hind foot are separated as in the Viverrinae, not confluent as in the Paradoxurinae. The retractile claws are not protected by skin-lobes. [3]

Classification

The Hemigalinae subfamily comprises the following five monospecific genera: [2]

GenusSpeciesDistribution and IUCN Red List status
Hemigalus Jourdan, 1837 [4] Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus) Jourdan, 1837 [4]
Banded Palm Civet-2.jpg
VU [5]
Banded Palm Civet area.png
Cynogale Gray, 1836 [6] Otter civet (C. bennettii) Gray, 1836 [6]
Mampalon.jpg
EN [7]
Otter Civet area.png
Macrogalidia Schwarz, 1910 [8] Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii) (Schlegel, 1877) [9]
Macrogalidia musschenbroekii.jpg
VU [10]
Sulawesi Palm Civet area.png
Diplogale Thomas, 1912 [11] Hose's palm civet (D. hosei) (Thomas, 1892) [12]
HemigaleHoseiSmit.jpg
VU [13]
Hose's Palm Civet area.png
ChrotogaleThomas, 1912 [11] Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni) Thomas, 1912 [11]
Chrotogale owstoni PWP.jpg
EN [14]
Owston's Palm Civet area.png

Related Research Articles

Felidae Family of mammals

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat.

Viverridae family of mammals, the viverrids

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids occur all over Africa, into southern Europe, in South and Southeast Asia across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

<i>Catopuma</i> genus of mammals

Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the Asian golden cat and the bay cat . Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head.

African civet largest representative of the African Viverridae

The African civet is a large viverrid native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered common and widely distributed in woodlands and secondary forests. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. In some countries, it is threatened by hunting, and wild-caught individuals are kept for producing civetone for the perfume industry.

Otter civet species of mammal

The otter civet is a semiaquatic viverrid native to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. It is listed as Endangered because of a serious ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the past three generations, inferred from direct habitat destruction, and indirect inferred declines due to pollutants.

Back-striped weasel species of mammal

The back-striped weasel, also called the stripe-backed weasel, is a weasel widely distributed in Southeastern Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List in view of its presumed large population, occurrence in many protected areas, apparent tolerance to some degree of habitat modification and hunting pressure.

Banded palm civet species of mammal

The banded palm civet, also called the banded civet, is a civet found in the Sundaic region and occurs in Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, peninsular Thailand, and in Indonesia on the islands of Sipura, Sumatra and Borneo. It is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List because of its large geographic and elevation range and tolerance to some habitat disturbance.

Small-toothed palm civet species of mammal

The small-toothed palm civet, also known as the three-striped palm civet, is a palm civet native to dense forests of Southeast Asia, from the Assam district of India to Indochina and the Malay Peninsula and on Sumatra, Bangka, Java, Borneo, and numerous small nearby islands of Indonesia.

Masked palm civet species of mammal

The masked palm civet or gem-faced civet is a palm civet species native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008 as it occurs in many protected areas, is tolerant to some degree of habitat modification, and widely distributed with presumed large populations that are unlikely to be declining.

Large-spotted civet species of mammal

The large-spotted civet is a viverrid native to Southeast Asia that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Malayan civet species of mammal

The Malayan civet, also known as the Malay civet and Oriental civet, is a viverrid native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Riau Archipelago, and the Philippines. It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN as it is a relatively widely distributed, appears to be tolerant of degraded habitats, and occurs in a number of protected areas.

Collared mongoose species of mammal

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<i>Herpestes</i> genus of mammals

Herpestes is a genus within the mongoose family Herpestidae. It is the type genus of the family and comprises ten living species, with a number of subspecies, and one extinct species.

Viverrinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Paradoxurinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.

<i>Viverra</i> genus of mammals

Viverra is a mammalian genus that was first nominated and described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 as comprising several species including the large Indian civet. The genus was subordinated to the viverrid family by John Edward Gray in 1821.

Sumatran clouded leopard species of felid

The Sumatran clouded leopard is a subspecies of the Sunda clouded leopard and is native to the Indonesian islands of Batu and Sumatra. It differs in molecular, craniomandibular and dental characteristics from the Bornean clouded leopard. It was recognized as a valid subspecies in 2017.

References

  1. 1 2 Gray, J. E. (1864). "A revision of the genera and species of viverrine animals (Viverridae), founded on the collection in the British Museum". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 1864: 502–579.
  2. 1 2 Veron, G.; Bonillo, C.; Hassanin, A. & Jennings, A.P. (2017). "Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Hemigalinae civets (Mammalia, Carnivora)". European Journal of Taxonomy. 285: 1–20. doi:10.5852/ejt.2017.285.
  3. Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Hemigalinae". The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 450–457.
  4. 1 2 Jourdan, C. (1837). "Mémoire sur deux mammifères nouveaux de l'Inde, considérés comme types des deux genres voisins des Paradoxures, genres Hémigale et Ambliodon". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences: 442–447.
  5. Ross, J.; Brodie, J.; Cheyne, S.; Chutipong, W.; Hedges, L.; Hearn, A.; Linkie, M.; Loken, B.; Mathai, J.; McCarthy, J.; Ngoprasert, D.; Tantipisanuh, N.; Wilting, A. & Haidir, I.A. (2015). "Hemigalus derbyanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T41689A45216918.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. 1 2 Gray, J.E. (1836). "Characters of some new species of Mammalia in the Society's collection". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part IV (October): 87–88.
  7. Ross, J.; Wilting, A.; Ngoprasert, D.; Loken, B.; Hedges, L.; Duckworth, J.W.; Cheyne, S.; Brodie, J.; Chutipong, W.; Hearn, A.; Linkie, M.; McCarthy, J.; Tantipisanuh, N. & Haidir, I.A. (2015). "Cynogale bennettii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T6082A45197343. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  8. Schwarz, E. (1910). "Notes on some Palm-Civets". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8. 5 (29): 422–424.
  9. Schlegel, H. (1879). "Paradoxurus musschenbroekii". Notes from the Royal Zoological Museum of the Netherlands at Leyden. 1 (Note XIV): 43.
  10. Willcox, D.H.A.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.J.; Chutipong, W.; Choudhury, A.; Roberton, S.; Long, B.; Hearn, A. & Ross, J. (2016). "Arctogalidia trivirgata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T41691A45217378.
  11. 1 2 3 Thomas, O. (1912). "Two new Genera and a Species of Viverrine Carnivora". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part II: 498–503.
  12. Thomas, O. (1892). "On some Mammals form Mount Dulit, North Borneo". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part I: 221–226.
  13. Mathai, J.; Duckworth, J.W.; Wilting, A.; Hearn, A. & Brodie, J. (2015). "Diplogale hosei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T6635A45197564.
  14. Timmins, R.J.; Coudrat, C.N.Z.; Duckworth, J.W.; Gray, T.N.E.; Robichaud, W.; Willcox, D.H.A.; Long, B. & Roberton, S. (2016). "Chrotogale owstoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T4806A45196929.