Thunder Mountain (Washington)

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Thunder Mountain
Thunder Mountain from Surprise Gap.jpg
Southwest aspect from Surprise Gap
Highest point
Elevation 6,556 ft (1,998 m) [1] [2]
Prominence 276 ft (84 m) [1]
Parent peak Nimbus Mountain (6,711 ft) [3]
Isolation 0.55 mi (0.89 km) [3]
Coordinates 47°39′21″N121°07′55″W / 47.655699°N 121.131848°W / 47.655699; -121.131848 Coordinates: 47°39′21″N121°07′55″W / 47.655699°N 121.131848°W / 47.655699; -121.131848 [1]
Geography
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Thunder Mountain
Location in Washington
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Thunder Mountain
Thunder Mountain (the United States)
Location King County / Chelan County
Washington state, U.S.
Parent range North Wenatchee Mountains [1]
Cascade Range
Topo map USGS Scenic
Climbing
Easiest route Hiking West Ridge [2]

Thunder Mountain is a 6,556-foot (1,998-metre) mountain summit located above the eastern shore of Glacier Lake, on the common border of King County and Chelan County in Washington state. [4] It's part of the Wenatchee Mountains, which are a subset of the Cascade Range, and is situated in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. [1] Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains west into Surprise Creek, or east into tributaries of Icicle Creek. The nearest higher neighbor is Nimbus Mountain, 0.56 mi (0.90 km) to the northeast, and Surprise Mountain is set 0.88 mi (1.42 km) to the southwest. [1] The Pacific Crest Trail skirts this peak as it passes through Surprise Gap.

Contents

Climate

Thunder Mountain is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America. [2] Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, and travel northeast toward the Cascade Mountains. As fronts approach, they are forced upward by the peaks of the Cascade Range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall onto the Cascades (Orographic lift). As a result, the west side of the Cascades experiences high precipitation, especially during the winter months in the form of snowfall. During winter months, weather is usually cloudy, but, due to high pressure systems over the Pacific Ocean that intensify during summer months, there is often little or no cloud cover during the summer. [2] Because of maritime influence, snow tends to be wet and heavy, resulting in avalanche danger. [2] The months July through September offer the most favorable weather for viewing or climbing this peak.

Geology

The Alpine Lakes Wilderness features some of the most rugged topography in the Cascade Range with craggy peaks and ridges, deep glacial valleys, and granite walls spotted with over 700 mountain lakes. [5] Geological events occurring many years ago created the diverse topography and drastic elevation changes over the Cascade Range leading to the various climate differences.

The history of the formation of the Cascade Mountains dates back millions of years ago to the late Eocene Epoch. [6] With the North American Plate overriding the Pacific Plate, episodes of volcanic igneous activity persisted. [6] In addition, small fragments of the oceanic and continental lithosphere called terranes created the North Cascades about 50 million years ago. [6]

During the Pleistocene period dating back over two million years ago, glaciation advancing and retreating repeatedly scoured and shaped the landscape. [6] The last glacial retreat in the Alpine Lakes area began about 14,000 years ago and was north of the Canada–US border by 10,000 years ago. [6] The "U"-shaped cross section of the river valleys are a result of that recent glaciation. Uplift and faulting in combination with glaciation have been the dominant processes which have created the tall peaks and deep valleys of the Alpine Lakes Wilderness area.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Bryant Peak

Bryant Peak is a 5,801 ft summit located in King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range and is within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness. Bryant Peak is located northwest of Snoqualmie Pass and the Alpental ski area on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Bryant Peak is located south of Snow Lake which is a popular hiking destination. The nearest higher peak is Chair Peak, 0.36 miles (0.58 km) to the north-northwest. Originally called Hemlock Peak, Bryant Peak was renamed in 1925 to honor Sidney V. Bryant of The Mountaineers who made the first ascent of Kaleetan Peak in 1914. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie River.

Preacher Mountain

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Summit Chief Mountain mountain in the United States of America

Summit Chief Mountain is a 7,464-foot (2,275-metre) mountain summit located on the county line separating King County and Kittitas County of Washington state. It is entirely within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Summit Chief Mountain is situated on the crest of the Cascade Range, nine miles northeast of Snoqualmie Pass. Precipitation runoff from the west side of the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie River, whereas the east side drains into tributaries of the Yakima River. The nearest higher peak is Chimney Rock, 1.29 miles (2.08 km) to the southwest.

Hibox Mountain mountain in Washington, United States of America

Hibox Mountain is a 6,547-foot (1,996-metre) mountain summit located in the Cascade Range in Kittitas County of Washington state. It is situated within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness on land managed by Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. The mountain's name "Hibox" is a portmanteau which is derived from its position as the high point of Box Ridge. The peak is five miles east of Snoqualmie Pass, and Alta Mountain lies 1.5 miles to the west-northwest of Hibox. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into Box Canyon Creek and Mineral Creek which both empty to Kachess Lake.

Mount Defiance (Washington)

Mount Defiance is a 5,584-foot (1,702-metre) mountain summit located in King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range and is within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness. Mount Defiance is situated 6.5 mi (10.5 km) west of Snoqualmie Pass on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff on the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie River. The nearest higher peak is Granite Mountain, 3.96 mi (6.37 km) to the east-southeast, and Bandera Mountain is 1.85 mi (2.98 km) to the southeast. Mount Defiance can be reached by trail, with access by the Ira Spring, Talapus Lake, or Pratt Lake trailheads.

Mount Thomson

Mount Thomson is a prominent 6,554-foot (1,998-metre) mountain summit located in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range and is a half mile east of the crest of the range. Mount Thomson is situated 4 mi (6.4 km) northeast of Snoqualmie Pass on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff on the mountain drains into the Middle Fork of Snoqualmie River. The nearest peak is Alaska Mountain 0.81 mi (1.30 km) to the southeast, and the nearest higher peak is Chikamin Peak, 2.08 mi (3.35 km) to the east. The mountain was named for Reginald Heber Thomson (1856-1949), a Seattle city engineer who reshaped the face of Seattle. The first ascent of the peak was made in 1917 by Joe Hazard and B. French.

Big Snow Mountain

Big Snow Mountain is a prominent 6,680-foot (2,040-metre) mountain summit located 7 mi (11 km) north of Snoqualmie Pass in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range and is situated on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers. The nearest higher peak is Overcoat Peak, 3.38 mi (5.44 km) to the east-southeast.

Terrace Mountain (Washington) Mountain summit

Terrace Mountain is a 6,361-foot (1,939-metre) mountain summit located in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range and is situated on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. The peak is situated 4 mi (6.4 km) north of Mount Daniel, and is surrounded by Lake Clarice, Marmot Lake, Ptarmigan Lakes, and the Terrace Lakes. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Skykomish River. The mountain's descriptive name stems from the terrace-like appearance created by a series of benches on its east aspect.

Dungeon Peak (Washington)

Dungeon Peak is a 5,640+ ft mountain summit located in the Cascade Range, in Kittitas County of Washington state. It is situated northeast of Hyak, Washington, near the north end of Keechelus Lake, within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Wenatchee National Forest. Its nearest higher peak is Rampart Ridge, 0.66 mi (1.06 km) to the north-northeast. The mountain is set above the Gold Creek valley on the western side, and Lake Lillian on the eastern side. Precipitation runoff from the peak drains into tributaries of the Yakima River.

Mount Roosevelt

Mount Roosevelt is a 5,835-foot (1,779-metre) mountain summit located 6 mi (10 km) northwest of Snoqualmie Pass, in east King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range and is situated within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Mount Roosevelt is set above the western shore of Snow Lake, and 2 mi (3 km) immediately north of Kaleetan Peak, which is its nearest higher neighbor. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie River. This mountain's name was officially adopted in 1989 by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names.

Malachite Peak

Malachite Peak is a 6,261-foot (1,908-metre) mountain summit located 5.5 mi (8.9 km) south of Skykomish, in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range, and is situated one mile north of Lake Malachite in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Skykomish River. The nearest higher neighbor is Camp Robber Peak, 3.66 mi (5.89 km) to the south. The first ascent of this peak may have been in 1937 by a team from the United States Geological Survey. The USGS named the peak about 1975 based on a triangulation station marked as "Malachite".

Camp Robber Peak

Camp Robber Peak is a 6,286-foot (1,916-metre) mountain summit located above the western shore of Big Heart Lake, in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range, and is situated in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into Camp Robber Creek and Foss River, both tributaries of the Skykomish River. This peak's name is derived from Camp Robber Creek and Camp Robber Lake, which lie in Camp Robber Valley to the northwest of the peak. "Camp robber" is the colloquial name for several North American species of birds known for their fearlessness around humans and their proclivity for stealing food from campers. The nearest higher neighbor is Wild Goat Peak, 1.3 mi (2.1 km) to the south.

Wild Goat Peak

Wild Goat Peak is a 6,305-foot (1,922-metre) mountain summit located above the eastern shore of Gold Lake, in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Cascade Range, and is situated in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers. The nearest higher neighbor is Big Snow Mountain, 1.91 mi (3.07 km) to the southwest. This peak was once called "Big Snowy".

Surprise Mountain

Surprise Mountain is a 6,330-foot (1,930-metre) mountain summit located above the southern end of Glacier Lake, in eastern King County of Washington state. It's part of the Wenatchee Mountains, which are a subset of the Cascade Range, and is situated in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into Surprise Creek and Deception Creek, both tributaries of the Skykomish River. The nearest higher neighbor is Thunder Mountain, 0.88 mi (1.42 km) to the northeast, and Terrace Mountain is set 3 mi (4.8 km) to the southwest. The Pacific Crest Trail skirts this peak as it passes through Surprise Gap.

Little Big Chief Mountain

Little Big Chief Mountain is a 7,225-foot (2,202-metre) mountain summit located immediately southwest of Dutch Miller Gap, on the common border separating King County and Kittitas County in Washington state. It is situated within the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, on land managed by Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Little Big Chief Mountain is set ten miles northeast of Snoqualmie Pass on the crest of the Cascade Range. Precipitation runoff from the west side of the mountain drains into tributaries of the Snoqualmie River, whereas the east side drains into tributaries of the Yakima River. The nearest higher peak is Summit Chief Mountain, 0.7 miles (1.1 km) to the southwest, and Chimney Rock is set 2.2 miles (3.5 km) to the southwest. The first ascent of this peak was made in August 1939 by Fred Beckey, Wayne Swift, Joe Barto, and Campbell Brooks. This mountain was named for Lorenz A. Nelson during the 1925 Mountaineers climb of Summit Chief Mountain. Nelson was a pioneering mountaineer who led first ascents of Mount Olympus, Mount Meany, and Chiwawa Mountain.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Thunder Mountain, Washington". Peakbagger.com.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Beckey, Fred W. Cascade Alpine Guide, Climbing and High Routes. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 2008.
  3. 1 2 "Thunder Mountain - 6,556' WA". listsofjohn.com. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  4. "Thunder Mountain". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  5. Smoot, Jeff (2004). Backpacking Washington's Alpine Lakes Wilderness. Helena, Montana: The Globe Pequot Press.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Kruckeberg, Arthur (1991). The Natural History of Puget Sound Country. University of Washington Press.