|Other names||(3S)-3-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-4-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||679.776 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Thymopentin is an immunostimulant. As such, it has been used in several clinical studies in the early years of the AIDS pandemic (from 1983 to 1985). Thymopentin helped to improve immunological condition in several patients for a brief time under specific treatments.
It interacts with T cells.
It is a thymic polypeptide.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides and cannot cross the lipid bilayer of cells to enter the cytoplasm. Cytokines have been shown to be involved in autocrine, paracrine and endocrine signaling as immunomodulating agents. Their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle. The use of multiple drugs that act on different viral targets is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART decreases the patient's total burden of HIV, maintains function of the immune system, and prevents opportunistic infections that often lead to death. HAART also prevents the transmission of HIV between serodiscordant same sex and opposite sex partners so long as the HIV-positive partner maintains an undetectable viral load.
Immunotherapy or biological therapy is the treatment of disease by activating or suppressing the immune system. Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapies.
Antinuclear antibodies are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. In normal individuals, the immune system produces antibodies to foreign proteins (antigens) but not to human proteins (autoantigens). In some cases, antibodies to human antigens are produced.
Cherry angiomas, also known as Campbell de Morgan spots or senile angiomas, are cherry red papules on the skin. They are a harmless benign tumour, containing an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels, and have no relationship to cancer. They are the most common kind of angioma, and increase with age, occurring in nearly all adults over 30 years.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells and T cells. It has been shown to have a major role in embryonic organ development, specifically in myogenesis, in adult organ regeneration, and in wound healing.
Interleukin-18 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IL18 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine. Many cell types, both hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic cells, have the potential to produce IL-18. It was first described in 1989 as a factor that induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in mouse spleen cells. Originally, IL-18 production was recognized in Kupffer cells, liver-resident macrophages. However, IL-18 is constitutively expressed in non-hematopoietic cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. IL-18 can modulate both innate and adaptive immunity and its dysregulation can cause autoimmune or inflammatory diseases.
Ursolic acid, is a pentacyclic triterpenoid identified in the epicuticular waxes of apples as early as 1920 and widely found in the peels of fruits, as well as in herbs and spices like rosemary and thyme.
CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene. It is a member of pentaspan transmembrane glycoproteins, which specifically localize to cellular protrusions. When embedded in the cell membrane, the membrane topology of prominin-1 is such that the N-terminus extends into the extracellular space and the C-terminus resides in the intracellular compartment. The protein consists of five transmembrane segments, with the first and second segments and the third and fourth segments connected by intracellular loops while the second and third as well as fourth and fifth transmembrane segments are connected by extracellular loops. While the precise function of CD133 remains unknown, it has been proposed that it acts as an organizer of cell membrane topology.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor also known as PAC1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1R1 gene. This receptor binds pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide.
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a recently discovered anti-inflammatory cytokine from the IL-12 family. Member of IL-12 family - IL-35 is produced by wide range of regulatory lymphocytes and plays a role in immune suppression. IL-35 can block the development of Th1 and Th17 cells by limiting early T cell proliferation.
CD3e molecule, epsilon also known as CD3E is a polypeptide which in humans is encoded by the CD3E gene which resides on chromosome 11.
Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 also known as pituitary homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PITX2 gene.
Forkhead box protein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXL2 gene.
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a protein belonging to the cytokine family. It is known to play an important role in the maturation of T cell populations through activation of antigen presenting cells.
Neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL), also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFL gene. Neurofilament light chain is a biomarker that can be measured with immunoassays in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma and reflects axonal damage in a wide variety of neurological disorders. It is a useful marker for disease monitoring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and more recently Huntington's disease.
Polypeptide antibiotics are a chemically diverse class of anti-infective and antitumor antibiotics containing non-protein polypeptide chains. Examples of this class include actinomycin, bacitracin, colistin, and polymyxin B. Actinomycin-D has found use in cancer chemotherapy. Most other polypeptide antibiotics are too toxic for systemic administration, but can safely be administered topically to the skin as an antiseptic for shallow cuts and abrasions.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs. The skin lesions are usually purple in color. They can occur singularly, in a limited area, or be widespread. It may worsen either gradually or quickly. Lesions may be flat or raised. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is found in the lesions of all those who are affected. Risk factors include poor immune function, either as a result of disease or specific medications, and chronic lymphedema.
One of the major characteristics of vertebrate immunology is thymic involution, the shrinking (involution) of the thymus with age, resulting in changes in the architecture of the thymus and a decrease in tissue mass. This process is genetically regulated, with the nucleic material responsible being an example of a conserved sequence — one maintained through natural selection since it arose in a common ancestor of all species now exhibiting it, via a phenomenon known to bioinformaticists as an orthologic sequence homology. The thymus involutes in almost all vertebrates, from birds, teleosts, amphibians to reptiles, though the thymi of a few species of sharks are known not to involute. T-cells are named for the thymus where T-lymphocytes migrate from the bone marrow to mature. Its regression has been linked to the reduction in immunosurveillance and the rise of infectious disease and cancer incidence in the elderly . Though thymic involution has been linked to immunosenescence, it is not induced by senescence as the organ starts involuting from a young age: in humans, as early as the first year after birth.
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an IL12B (IL-12p40) subunit and the IL23A (IL-23p19) subunit. IL-23 is part of IL-12 family of cytokines. A functional receptor for IL-23 has been identified and is composed of IL-12R β1 and IL-23R. Adnectin-2 is binding to IL-23 and compete with IL-23/IL-23R. mRNA of IL-23R is 2,8 kB in length and includes 12 exons. The translated protein contains 629 amino acids, which is a type I penetrating protein includes signal peptide, an N-terminal fibronectin III-like domain and an intracellular part contains 3 potential tyrosine phosphorylation domains. There are 24 variants of splicing of IL-23R in mitogen-activated lymphocytes. IL-23R has some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the domain of binding IL-23 so there can be differences in activation of Th17. There is also variant of IL-23R which has just extracellular part and it´s known as soluble IL-23R. This form can compete with membrane form to bind IL-23 and there can be difference in activation of Th17 immune response and regulation of inflammation and immune function.
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