Tibotec was a pharmaceutical company with a focus on research and development for the treatment of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. The company was founded in 1994 and then acquired by Johnson & Johnson and merged into its Janssen Pharmaceutica division in 2002.
Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver. During the initial infection people often have mild or no symptoms. Occasionally a fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow tinged skin occurs. The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected. Early on chronic infection typically has no symptoms. Over many years however, it often leads to liver disease and occasionally cirrhosis. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop serious complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or dilated blood vessels in the esophagus and stomach.
In 1994, Rudi Pauwels of the Rega Institute for Medical Research founded Tibotec, together with his wife Carine Claeys, and their first co-workers Marie-Pierre de Béthune, Kurt Hertogs, and Hilde Azijn. In 1995 Paul Stoffels (Janssen Pharmaceutica) joined Tibotec. The company was acquired by Johnson & Johnson in April 2002.The name of the company is derived from the tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepine-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO) compounds discovered at the Rega Institute for Medical Research (Belgium).
Rudi Pauwels is a Belgian pharmacologist. He studied pharmaceutical sciences at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, and obtained a PhD with a dissertation on Development of New Anti-HIV Agents.
He did research on virology at the Rega Institute for Medical Research . In 1994 he founded the Belgian biotech company Tibotec, together with his wife Carine Claeys, and in 1995 he co-founded Virco. At Tibotec he continued his work on HIV. In 1999, he was elected as board member of the Flemish Institute for Biotechnology (VIB).
The Rega Institute for Medical Research is a Belgian scientific establishment that is part of the Catholic University of Leuven (Leuven) in central Belgium. The Rega Institute is an interfacultary biomedical research institute of the Catholic University of Leuven and consists of departments of medicine and pharmacology.
Paul, Baron Stoffels is a Belgian MD, who studied medicine at the University of Hasselt and the University of Antwerp (UA). In addition he studied Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine at the Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium.
Darunavir (DRV), sold under the brand name Prezista among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS. It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals. It is often used with low doses of ritonavir or cobicistat to increase darunavir levels. It may be used for prevention after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure. It is taken by mouth once to twice a day.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Etravirine is a drug used for the treatment of HIV. Etravirine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Unlike the currently available agents in the class, resistance to other NNRTIs does not seem to confer resistance to etravirine. Etravirine is marketed by Tibotec, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. In January 2008, the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for patients with established resistance to other drugs, making it the 30th anti-HIV drug approved in the United States and the first to be approved in 2008. It was also approved for use in Canada on April 1, 2008.
Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C, and viral hemorrhagic fever. For hepatitis C, it is used in combination with other medications such as simeprevir, sofosbuvir, peginterferon alfa-2b or peginterferon alfa-2a. Among the viral hemorrhagic fevers it is used for Lassa fever, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection but not Ebola or Marburg. Ribavirin is taken by mouth or inhaled.
Reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection or AIDS, and in some cases hepatitis B. RTIs inhibit activity of reverse transcriptase, a viral DNA polymerase that is required for replication of HIV and other retroviruses.
Pegylated interferon alfa-2a, sold under the brand name Pegasys among others, is medication used to treat hepatitis C and hepatitis B. For hepatitis C it is typically used together with ribavirin and cure rates are between 24 and 92%. For hepatitis B it may be used alone. It is given by injection under the skin.
In HIV–HCV co-infected patients, the hepatitis C (HCV) viral load is higher than in HCV-mono-infected patients in both the plasma and liver tissue. Patients who are HIV-positive are commonly co-infected with HCV due to shared routes of transmission: percutaneous exposure to blood, sexual intercourse, and from a mother to her infant. Infection with HCV can be asymptomatic, self-limiting, or progress to cirrhosis or cancer.
Diarylpyrimidines (DAPY) and diaryltriazines (DATA) are two closely related classes of molecules resembling the pyrimidine nucleotides found in DNA. They show great potency in inhibiting the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase. Several compounds in this class are non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors used clinically in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, notably etravirine and rilpivirine.
Rilpivirine is a pharmaceutical drug, developed by Tibotec, for the treatment of HIV infection. It is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with higher potency, longer half-life and reduced side-effect profile compared with older NNRTIs, such as efavirenz.
Koen Andries is a Belgian Janssen Pharmaceutica and professor at the University of Antwerp. In 2005 he and his team published a discovery about a new di-Aryl-Quinoline-based drug (R207910) which promises a shorter and simpler treatment for Tuberculosis (TB).
Telaprevir (VX-950), marketed under the brand names Incivek and Incivo, is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of hepatitis C co-developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and Johnson & Johnson. It is a member of a class of antiviral drugs known as protease inhibitors. Specifically, telaprevir inhibits the hepatitis C viral enzyme NS3/4A serine protease. Telaprevir is only indicated for use against hepatitis C genotype 1 viral infections and has not been proven to have an effect on or being safe when used for other genotypes of the virus. The standard therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is less effective on genotype 1.
Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NNRTIs inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of HIV. RT is one of the most popular targets in the field of antiretroviral drug development.
Asunaprevir is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is undergoing development by Bristol-Myers Squibb and is currently in Phase III clinical trials.
Simeprevir, sold under the trade names Olysio among others, is a medication used in combination with other medications for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is specifically used for hepatitis C genotype 1 and 4. Medications it is used with include sofosbuvir or ribavirin and peginterferon-alfa. Cure rates are in 80s to 90s percent. It may be used in those who also have HIV/AIDS. It is taken by mouth once daily for typically 12 weeks.
Faldaprevir was an experimental drug for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). It was being developed by Boehringer-Ingelheim and reached Phase III clinical trials in 2011. Boehringer announced in 2014 that it would not pursue approval of the drug any more because of better HCV treatments having become available.
Deleobuvir was an experimental drug for the treatment of hepatitis C. It was being developed by Boehringer Ingelheim. It is a non-nucleoside hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitor. Deleobuvir was tested in combination regimens with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, and in interferon-free regimens with other direct-acting antiviral agents including faldaprevir.
Elbasvir/grazoprevir is a fixed-dose two drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C, containing elbasvir and grazoprevir. It is used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 or 4 infection in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients.
Dapivirine (TMC120) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) developed at Janssen Therapeutics. The International Partnership for Microbicides (IPM) has held exclusive worldwide rights to dapivirine since 2014, building upon a 2004 royalty-free license to develop dapivirine-based microbicides for women in resource-poor countries.
Narlaprevir, is an inhibitor of NS3/4A serine protease, intended for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C caused by genotype 1 virus) in combination with other antiviral drugs.