Tile drainage is a form of agricultural drainage system that removes excess sub-surface water from fields to allow sufficient air space within the soil, proper cultivation, and access by heavy machinery to tend and harvest crops. While surface water can be drained by pumping, open ditches, or both, tile drainage is often the most effective means of draining subsurface water.
The phrase "tile drainage" derives from its original composition from ceramic tiles of fired clay, which were similar to terracotta pipes yet not always shaped as pipes. In the 19th century a "C" shaped channel tile commonly was placed like an arch atop a flat tile, denominated the "mug" and "sole", respectively. Today, tile drainage is any variation of this original system that functions in the same mode. Commonly HDPE and PVC tubing denominated "tile line" is used, although precast concrete and ceramic tiles are still used.
The figure illustrates the most used irrigation techniques as well as the least used options for treatment and recycling of water drainage. Collecting nutrient-rich irrigation water in reservoirs and pumping them back to crop fields during drought periods is an affordable practice and gaining increasing popularity among farmers in states like Iowa, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois and Minnesota.In Western U.S. States, water salinity is usually higher and direct recycling is not a viable option. Advanced treatment techniques such as reverse osmosis are required to make water drainage suitable for reuse.
There are two types of drainage systems that are used by farmers:
Subsurface drainage is widely used by farmers. It has many advantages:
Two techniques are generally used to control drainage:
Recycling agricultural drainage water is an effective non-conventional method to overcome water scarcity in arid areas. In the United States, although the Federal Water Pollution Control Act legislates water quality and pollution at the national level, water reuse laws and regulations are the responsibility of states and local governments. Reclaimed water in agriculture is a rapidly increasing practice, especially in arid states such as Texas, Nevada, Arizona, and California. These states have passed the following laws to enforce water agricultural reuse standards.
Irrigated agriculture depends on an adequate quantity and an acceptable quality.
The amount of dissolved salt in water is a primordial factor to determine its suitability for irrigation. As salt accumulates in soil, it retains water and makes it unavailable to crops which results in water stress for plants.According to the University of California Committee of Consultant's Water Quality Guidelines:
Roots of most crop plants require adequate air to prosper. Excess subsurface water fills the pores in soil and inhibits their growth by depriving roots of air, resulting in root rot and plant death.
An additional reason for sub-surface drainage is to ensure sufficient soil firmness for tillage and other access by heavy machinery to tend and harvest a crop.
Most crops require specific soil moisture conditions, and do not grow well in wet, mucky soil. Even in soil that is not mucky the roots of most plants do not grow much deeper than the water table. Early in the growing season when water is in ample supply, plants are small and do not require as much water. During this time, the plants do not need to develop their roots to reach the water. As the plants grow and use more water water becomes more scarce. During this time, the water table begins to fall. Plants then need to develop roots to reach the water. During periods of dryness the water table can fall faster than the rate at which plants grow roots to reach it, which condition can gravely stress the plants.
By installing tile drainage, the water table is effectively lowered and plants can properly develop their roots. The lack of water saturation of soil permits oxygen to remain in the pores of the soil for use by roots. Drain tile prevents the roots from being under the water table during wet periods, which can stress the plants. By removing excess water crops use the water that their roots have access to more effectively. An increase in crop yield can be summarized as forcing plants to develop more roots so that they can absorb more nutrients and water.
The same principle operates in the pots of house plants: their drainage holes in the bottoms evacuate excess water from the medium so that air can fill the pores of the medium and be available to the roots which, if deprived of air by the saturation of the medium with water for a sufficient duration, will rot and die. Installing tile drainage in a field in a grid pattern achieves the same effect for a field of several hundred acres.
In a tile drainage system, a sort of "plumbing" is installed below the surface of agricultural fields, effectively consisting of a network of below-ground pipes that allow subsurface water to move out from between soil particles and into the tile line. Water flowing through tile lines is often ultimately deposited into surface water points—lakes, streams, and rivers—located at a lower elevation than the source. Water enters the tile line either via the gaps between tile sections, in the case of older tile designs, or through small perforations in modern plastic tile.The installation of the tiles or tile line can involve a trencher (Ditch Witch), a mole plough, a backhoe, or other heavy equipment.
Soil type greatly affects the efficacy of tile systems, and dictates the extent to which the area must be tiled to ensure sufficient drainage. Sandier soils will need little, if any, additional drainage, whereas soils with high clay contents will hold their water tighter, requiring tile lines to be placed closer together.
Tree roots of hedgerow and windbreak trees are naturally attracted to the favorable watering conditions that adjacent fields' tiles or tile lines provide. Hydrotropism plays a role as root hairs at the dynamically probing tips of tree roots respond differentially to moister crevices versus drier ones, exchanging hormonal messages with the rest of the tree that encourage them to concentrate on advancing into such favorable niches. In the perforations of tile drainage lines, just as in cracked or rusting water lines and sewer lines under town streets, these roots find the ideal combination of an entrance to enter and a plentiful water supply behind it. The result is that in any of these pipe systems, blockages sometimes occur and it is necessary to clear them through snaking, rotary-cutter snaking, select digging and pulling, and similar methods. In some regions farmers must do continual maintenance of tile drainage lines to keep them open and operating correctly, with at least some clearing every year in one or another part of the system. : 304–305
The ancient Roman authors Cato the Elder and Pliny the Elder described tile drainage systems in 200 BC and the first century AD, respectively. According to the Johnston Farm, 72 miles (116 km) of clay tile on 320 acres (1.3 km2). The effort increased his yield of wheat from 12 bushels per acre to 60. Johnston, the "father of tile drainage in America", continued to advocate for tile drainage throughout his life, attributing his agricultural success to the formula "D, C, and D", i. e., dung, credit, and drainage.tile drainage was first introduced to the United States in 1838, when John Johnston used the practice from his native Scotland on his new farm in Seneca County, New York. Johnston laid
The expansion of drainage systems was an important technical aspect of Westward Expansion in the United States in the 19th century. Although land in the United States was divided according to the Public Land Survey System that the Land Ordinance of 1785 instituted, development, especially of agricultural land, was often limited by the rate at which it was made capable for cultivation. For example, although Iowa was admitted as a state of the United States in 1846, maps that depicted ownership of land indicated below-average densities of population in the northwestern region of Iowa as late as the 1870s, this being a corner of the state still known for its high water table and numerous lakes and wetlands.
Western states had similar limitations to agricultural intensification. Many states offered governmental incentives to improve land for agriculture. For example, legislation in Indiana prompted a Federal statute in 1850 that provided for the sale of swamps at discount to farmers contingent on their drainage of the land and improvement of it for agricultural productivity. To facilitate such improvement, most states instituted governmental agencies to regulate the installation of tile drainage. Even presently, local elections in more rural states often include election of members of drainage supervisory boards; e. g., in Michigan the County Drain Commissioner remains popularly elected.
In the decades after the American Civil War drainage systems were rapidly expanded. For example, historical literature from Ohiorecords that in 1882 the number of acres drained was approximately equal to the area of land that was drained in all previous years. In the 1930s the Civilian Conservation Corps augmented the tile drainage systems throughout the Midwest, much of which is still used.
Until after World War II, the technology of tile installation remained similar to the methods first used in 1838. Although cement sections later replaced the original clay tiles, and machines were used to dig the trenches for the tile lines, the process remained quite labor-intensive and limited to specialized contractors.
The introduction of plastic tile served to reduce both the cost of tile installation, as well as the amount of labor involved. Rather than set individual sections of cement tile end-to-end in the trench, tile installers had only to unroll a continuous section of lightweight, flexible tile line. Towards the end of the twentieth century, when large, four-wheel-drive tractors became more common on American farms, do-it-yourself tile implements appeared on the market. By making tile installation cheaper and allowing it to be done on the landowner's schedule, farmers are capable of draining localized wet spots that may not create enough of a problem to merit more costly operations. In this way, farmers may enjoy increases in crop yield while saving on the capital costs of tile installation. Perhaps the most useful implement in drainage history was James B. Hill's Buckeye Traction Ditcher, which laid drainage tiles at a record pace. Hill's ditching machine drained the Great Black Swamp in Ohio, vast stretches of Louisiana, and Florida's swampland.
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Ecologically, the expansion of drainage systems has had tremendous negative effects. Hundreds of thousands of wetland species experienced significant population declines as their habitat was increasingly fragmented and converted to other uses. Although market hunting within the Central Flyway was a contributing factor in the decline of many waterfowl species' numbers in the early decades of the twentieth century, loss of breeding habitat to agricultural expansion is certainly the most significant. Early maps of midwestern states depict many lakes and marshes that are either nonexistent or significantly reduced in area today. Channelization, a related process of concentrating and facilitating the flow of water from agricultural areas, also contributed to this degradation.[ citation needed ]
Tile drainage and the corresponding changes to the landscape - draining wetlands, wet soils, and channelizing streams – have contributed to more erosive rivers. [ citation needed ] The effect of higher volumes of water is more energy in water - the dynamic equilibrium state that rivers existed in for centuries (slowly changing shape and continuously transporting limited sediment) was, and currently is, out of balance. The result of this loss of equilibrium is extreme amounts of bank erosion which results in over-burdensome sediment loads and critical impacts to natural environments and riverine habitats.[ citation needed ]This response of rivers due to drainage is the result of shortening the residence time of water on the landscape. For example, precipitation used to be held in wetlands and in/on the surface of soils, continuously evaporating or being used via transpiration of plants. Water would slowly drain through the landscape and eventually drain to rivers. The process of tile drainage, used to dry soils quickly and efficiently, results in an efficient transmission of water to the river – so efficient, in fact, that higher volumes of water are delivered to rivers.
Drainage tile sometimes decreases soil erosion and runoff of some nutrients, including phosphorus.Phosphorus is an important nutrient to control because it is the limiting nutrient in most aquatic ecosystems. Thus phosphorus is the main culprit in eutrophication of surface water; however, the other limiting nutrient, nitrogen, causes substantial damage to waters. For example, nitrogen has been implicated in the gulf hypoxia. Drainage tile sometimes increases water quality because the water flows into the ground then the tile, instead of running off the field into a ditch, carrying soil and nutrients with it. The soil has a chance to filter the water before it enters the streams and rivers. However, by bypassing surface improvements like conservation tillage or riparian buffers, tile drainage can also create problems with water quality and outflow from tile drainage tends to be extremely high in nitrogen. Furthermore, some tile drainage sometime contains very high levels of other chemicals. Since surface forms of conservation agriculture are less effective in tile-drained systems, other practices such as controlled drainage or constructed wetlands may be more effective. In very flat areas, where the natural topography does not provide the gradient necessary for water flow, "agricultural wells" can be dug to provide tile lines sufficient outlet. In these cases, it is the groundwater that stands to be polluted by unfiltered tile output.
Intensive livestock operations (ILO)/concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have led to challenges of livestock effluent disposal. Livestock effluent contains valuable nutrients, but the misapplication of these materials can lead to serious ecological problems, such as nutrient loading. Injecting effluent directly into the ground is one method employed by manure applicators to improve nutrient uptake. Drainage tiles may increase injected manure seepage into surface waterways from manure injection because liquid manure seeps through soils and then drains out of the field and into waterways via drainage tiles.[ citation needed ]
Today, a number of state and federal initiatives serve to reverse habitat loss. Many programs encourage and even reimburse farmers for interrupting the drainage of localized wetholes on their property, often by breaking tile intakes or removing the tile completely. Landowners are often partially or fully compensated for forfeiting the ability to grow crops on this land. Such programs and the cooperation of landowners across the country have had significant positive effects on the populations of a wide variety of waterfowl.[ citation needed ]
Irrigation is the practice of applying controlled amounts of water to land to help grow crops, landscape plants, and lawns. Irrigation has been a key aspect of agriculture for over 5,000 years and has been developed by many cultures around the world. Irrigation helps to grow crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during times of below-average rainfall. In addition to these uses, irrigation is also employed to protect crops from frost, suppress weed growth in grain fields, and prevent soil consolidation. It is also used to cool livestock, reduce dust, dispose of sewage, and support mining operations. Drainage, which involves the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given location, is often studied in conjunction with irrigation.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent severe waterlogging, but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies.
Greywater refers to domestic wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e., all streams except for the wastewater from toilets. Sources of greywater include sinks, showers, baths, washing machines or dishwashers. As greywater contains fewer pathogens than blackwater, it is generally safer to handle and easier to treat and reuse onsite for toilet flushing, landscape or crop irrigation, and other non-potable uses. Greywater may still have some pathogen content from laundering soiled clothing or cleaning the anal area in the shower or bath.
A ditch is a small to moderate trench created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation. Ditches are commonly seen around farmland, especially in areas that have required drainage, such as The Fens in eastern England and much of the Netherlands.
A French drain is a trench filled with gravel or rock, or both, with or without a perforated pipe that redirects surface water and groundwater away from an area. The perforated pipe is called a weeping tile. When the pipe is draining, it "weeps", or exudes liquids. It was named during a time period when drainpipes were made from terracotta tiles.
Drip irrigation or trickle irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface. The goal is to place water directly into the root zone and minimize evaporation. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. Depending on how well designed, installed, maintained, and operated it is, a drip irrigation system can be more efficient than other types of irrigation systems, such as surface irrigation or sprinkler irrigation.
Nutrient management is the science and practice directed to link soil, crop, weather, and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation, and soil and water conservation practices to achieve optimal nutrient use efficiency, crop yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while reducing off-site transport of nutrients (fertilizer) that may impact the environment. It involves matching a specific field soil, climate, and crop management conditions to rate, source, timing, and place of nutrient application.
Water reclamation is the process of converting municipal wastewater (sewage) or industrial wastewater into water that can be reused for a variety of purposes. Types of reuse include: urban reuse, agricultural reuse (irrigation), environmental reuse, industrial reuse, planned potable reuse, de facto wastewater reuse. For example, reuse may include irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater. Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences, businesses, and industry, and could even be treated to reach drinking water standards. The injection of reclaimed water into the water supply distribution system is known as direct potable reuse, however, drinking reclaimed water is not a typical practice. Treated municipal wastewater reuse for irrigation is a long-established practice, especially in arid countries. Reusing wastewater as part of sustainable water management allows water to remain as an alternative water source for human activities. This can reduce scarcity and alleviate pressures on groundwater and other natural water bodies.
Agricultural wastewater treatment is a farm management agenda for controlling pollution from confined animal operations and from surface runoff that may be contaminated by chemicals in fertilizer, pesticides, animal slurry, crop residues or irrigation water. Agricultural wastewater treatment is required for continuous confined animal operations like milk and egg production. It may be performed in plants using mechanized treatment units similar to those used for industrial wastewater. Where land is available for ponds, settling basins and facultative lagoons may have lower operational costs for seasonal use conditions from breeding or harvest cycles. Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes.
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination of water or air that does not originate from a single discrete source. This type of pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. It is in contrast to point source pollution which results from a single source. Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage, or hydrological modification where tracing pollution back to a single source is difficult. Nonpoint source water pollution affects a water body from sources such as polluted runoff from agricultural areas draining into a river, or wind-borne debris blowing out to sea. Nonpoint source air pollution affects air quality, from sources such as smokestacks or car tailpipes. Although these pollutants have originated from a point source, the long-range transport ability and multiple sources of the pollutant make it a nonpoint source of pollution; if the discharges were to occur to a body of water or into the atmosphere at a single location, the pollution would be single-point.
Sewage farms use sewage for irrigation and fertilizing agricultural land. The practice is common in warm, arid climates where irrigation is valuable while sources of fresh water are scarce. Suspended solids may be converted to humus by microbes and bacteria in order to supply nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients for crop growth. Many industrialized nations use conventional sewage treatment plants nowadays instead of sewage farms. These reduce vector and odor problems; but sewage farming remains a low-cost option for some developing countries. Sewage farming should not be confused with sewage disposal through infiltration basins or subsurface drains.
As a body of water that crosses numerous international political borders, the Nile river is subject to multiple political interactions. Traditionally it is seen as the world's longest river flowing 6,700 kilometers through ten countries in northeastern Africa – Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt with varying climates.
In geotechnical engineering, watertable control is the practice of controlling the height of the water table by drainage. Its main applications are in agricultural land and in cities to manage the extensive underground infrastructure that includes the foundations of large buildings, underground transit systems, and extensive utilities.
Soil salinity control refers to controlling the process and progress of soil salinity to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclamation of already salty (saline) soils. Soil reclamation is also called soil improvement, rehabilitation, remediation, recuperation, or amelioration.
SahysMod is a computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrogeologic and aquifer conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several crop rotation schedules, whereby the spatial variations are accounted for through a network of polygons.
Drainage research is the study of agricultural drainage systems and their effects to arrive at optimal system design.
SaltMod is computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge (hydrology) in irrigated agricultural lands, using different (geo)hydrologic conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several cropping rotation schedules. The water management options include irrigation, drainage, and the use of subsurface drainage water from pipe drains, ditches or wells for irrigation.
Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.
An agricultural drainage system is a system by which water is drained on or in the soil to enhance agricultural production of crops. It may involve any combination of stormwater control, erosion control, and watertable control.
Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a technology designed specifically for subsurface irrigation in all soil textures from desert sands to heavy clays. The use of SSTI will significantly reduce the usage of water, fertilizer and herbicide. It will lower on-going operational costs and, if maintained properly, will last for decades. By delivering water and nutrients directly to the root zone, plants are healthier and have a far greater yield.