Timeline of Catalan history

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This is a timeline of Catalan history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Catalonia and its predecessor states and polities. To read about the background to these events, see History of Catalonia.


8th century

760 Perpignan conquered by the Franks from Muslim control. Establishment of the County of Roussillon.
785 Girona conquered by the Franks from Muslim control. Establishment of the County of Girona.

9th century

801 Barcelona conquered by the Franks from Muslim control. Establishment of the County of Barcelona.
826 Aissó Revolt against Frankish nobility, devastating and depopulating most of Central Catalonia.
878 Wilfred the Hairy, count of Urgell and Cerdanya becomes count of Barcelona, Girona and Osona.
880 Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll founded.
897 Muslim raid over the County of Barcelona. Count Wilfred died, creating the tradition of hereditary passage of their titles, founding the House of Barcelona.

10th century

942 Hungarian raid.
9856 JulyCordoba's ruler Almanzor sacks Barcelona.
988 Borrell II, Count of Barcelona not renewed allegiance to the French king Hugh Capet; ensuring the independence of the counties from Frankish monarchy.

11th century

1018Countess Ermesinde of Carcassonne became regent of Barcelona, Girona and Osona after the death of her husband, the count Ramon Borrell.
1027First Assembly of Peace and Truce of God of Catalonia, in Toulouges (Roussillon), promoted and presided by Abbot Oliba.
1035 Mir Geribert led the nobility of the Penedès against the authority of the count, representing the height of the feudal revolution in Catalonia.
Ramon Berenguer I, grandson of Ermesinde, became Count of Barcelona, he began a process of negotiation with the nobility in order to recover the authority over them, respecting the resulting new feudal order.

12th century

1111 Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, inherited the County of Besalú.
1117The first reference to Catalonia and the Catalans appeared in the Liber maiolichinus de gestis Pisanorum illustribus , a Pisan chronicle of the conquest of Majorca by a joint force of Italians, Catalans, and Occitans.
1118 Archdiocese of Tarragona reestablished, the Catalan Church gained independence from the Archdiocese of Narbonne, in France. [1]
1137Marriage between Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, and Petronilla, Queen of Aragon, resulting in the Crown of Aragon.
1148Ramon Berenguer IV takes Tortosa from Muslim rule.
1149Ramon Berenguer IV takes Lleida from Muslim rule.
1173First documentary reference of the Usages of Barcelona, the first compilation of feudal legislation and the basis of Catalan law.
1192First Assembly of Peace and Truce of God with representatives of the non-privileged estate, making it a precedent of the Catalan Courts.

13th century

121312 September Battle of Muret, defeat of Catalan, Aragonese and Occitan forces led by Peter II of Aragon, which died in the battle, against the French-Crusade army led by Simon de Montfort.
1214 Royal Court convened in Lleida by cardinal Peter of Benevento in order to fix the confusing situation after the death of King Peter II and secure the succession of his heir James I.
12295 September Conquest of Majorca: James I the Conqueror led a fleet of some two hundred vessels and twenty thousand men from Salou, Cambrils and Tarragona to Majorca.
1249 Council of One Hundred of Barcelona established.
125811 May Treaty of Corbeil between James I and Louis IX of France. The French king renounced claims of feudal overlordship over Catalonia while James renounced his claims in Occitania, except Foix.
James I granted the Carta Consular, the legal basis of the Consulate of the Sea, to the city of Barcelona.
127627 July James the Conqueror died. He was succeeded as king of Aragon, Valencia and count of Barcelona by his son, Peter the Great, and as king of Majorca by another son, James II of Majorca.
1283First regulated Catalan Courts, presided by Peter III. First Catalan constitutions.
12854 September Aragonese Crusade: A Sicilian-Catalan fleet decisively defeated the French and Genoans at the naval Battle of Les Formigues, northeastern coast of Catalonia.
30 September Aragonese Crusade: Battle of the Col de Panissars (Catalan Pyrenees), decisive victory of the king Peter III of Aragon over French forces.
1300 University of Lleida, the first university of Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon, founded. [2]

14th century

1311The Catalan Company conquered the duchies of Athens and Neopatras, in Greece.
1318Establishment of the Royal Archives in Barcelona. [3]
132925 March Santa Maria del Mar church construction begins.
1333Lo mal any primer ("The first bad year"), great famine due to poor harvest.
1343The counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya, previously owned by the Kingdom of Majorca, were reincorporated in to the Principality of Catalonia. First documented use of the term "Principality of Catalonia".
1348 Black Death in Barcelona.
1349 University of Perpignan founded.
1350Catalan Courts of Perpignan.
1358First Fogatge (hearth tax) carried out in Catalonia.
135919 DecemberThe Catalan Courts of 1359 established the Deputation of the General (Generalitat of Catalonia).
136522 JulyPrivilege of Sant Feliu de Guíxols: Peter IV of Aragon granted to inhabitants of the Kigdom of Majorca the condition of Catalans and the right to be represented in the Catalan Courts, politically vinculating Majorca with the Principality of Catalonia.
1375 Catalan Atlas.

15th century

1401 Taula de canvi, first public bank of Europe, founded in Barcelona. [4]
141031 May Martin I, last king of the House of Barcelona, died without heirs. Beginning of two-year interregnum.
1412 Compromise of Caspe, representatives of Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia elected Ferdinand of the Castilian House of Trastámara as the new King of Aragon.
1413Defeat of count James II of Urgell, claimant of the throne of Aragon, at the siege of Balaguer.
14282 February Earthquake with an epicentre in Northern Catalonia.
1450 University of Barcelona founded.
14608 DecemberThe Generalitat creates the Council of the Principality.
146121 June Capitulation of Vilafranca between John II and the Generalitat.
1462Outbreak of the Catalan Civil War.
Outbreak of the First War of the Remences.
147224 October Capitulation of Pedralbes, end of the Civil War with negotiated victory of the royal side.
1481The Constitució de l'Observança passed by the Catalan Courts, establishing the submission of royal power to the laws of the Principality Catalonia.
148621 April Sentencia Arbitral de Guadalupe: the remença peasants were liberated from most of feudal abuses.
149231 March Alhambra Decree issued by the Catholic Monarchs, expelling non-converted Jews from their realms.
1493April Christopher Columbus was received in the monastery of Sant Jeroni de la Murtra of Badalona by the Catholic Monarchs after his first voyage to America.
Ferdinand II established a separate Royal Audience of Catalonia, the supreme court and seat of the government of the Principality.

16th century

1519 Charles V presided the Catalan Courts and was recognized as Count of Barcelona.
152929 June Treaty of Barcelona between Charles V and Pope Clement VII.
1587The Generalitat commissions to the painter Filippo Ariosto the Gallery of portraits of the Counts of Barcelona, one of the oldest and largest royal galleries of Europe.

17th century

1626The Catalan Courts, presided by Philip IV, rejected the proposal of Union of Arms made by the royal favourite and minister Count-Duke of Olivares.
16406 January Salses recovered to the French by the Spanish armies with large assistance of Catalan militia.
7 June Corpus de Sang in Barcelona, one of the initial events of the Reapers' War. Dalmau de Queralt, viceroy of Catalonia, assassinated during the event. [5]
7 September Pact of Ceret between Catalonia and France.
164116 January Pau Claris, President of the Generalitat proclaimed, according with the States-General of Catalonia, the Catalan Republic under French proteccion. [6]
23 JanuaryIn order to gain more military aid from France, the States-General proclaimed Louis XIII as Count of Barcelona.
26 January Battle of Montjuïc, decisive Franco-Catalan victory over the Spanish armies.
1652 Fall of Barcelona to the Spanish Royal army. The Principality was reincorporated into the Monarchy of Spain.
1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees between Spain and France, the counties of Roussillon and the northern half of Cerdanya were ceded to France.
1687 Revolt of the Barretines.
169710 AugustFrench armies occupied Barcelona during the Nine Years' War.

18th century

1701Catalan Courts presided by Philip V of Bourbon, recognizing Philip as Count of Barcelona and establishing the Court of Contraventions.
170520 June Pact of Genoa between England and Catalonia.
9 October Grand Alliance armies took Barcelona.
5 DecemberLast Catalan Courts, presided by Charles III of Habsburg, they recognized Charles as Count of Barcelona and represented an important progress in the guarantee of individual, civil and political rights.
17139 JulyThe Junta de Braços of Catalonia decided to remain on the fight against Philip V. Army of Catalonia raised.
171413 August Battle of Talamanca, last pro-Habsburg major victory in Catalonia.
11 September Fall of Barcelona to Bourbon armies, after thirteen months of siege.
1716 Nueva Planta Decrees, the Principality of Catalonia loss its institutions and laws and it was politically incorporated as a province into the Crown of Castille, as the new Kingdom of Spain.
1717Philip V decrees the abolition of all universities of Catalonia and the foundation of the University of Cervera.
1721 Mossos d'Esquadra founded.
1758 Royal Barcelona Board of Trade founded.
1773Revolt of the Quintas against forced recruitment.
1778 Charles III of Spain decrees the end of Cádiz's trade monopoly with American colonies.
178928 February Rebombori del Pa.

19th century

180814 June Second Battle of the Bruch, Spanish victory.
180912 December Girona was taken by the French after seven months of siege.
181212 JanuaryBy decree of Napoleon, Catalonia was incorporated to France and divided into four French departaments.
1814French troops evacuated Catalonia.
1832The Bonaplata Factory commenced operation in Barcelona, the first one of the country to make use of the steam engine.
1833Outbreak of the First Carlist War. Parts of inland Catalonia were in Carlist hands, while Liberals retained the coastal areas.
NovemberMinister Javier de Burgos decrees the terriorial division of Spain into provinces. Catalonia was divided into four provinces (Barcelona, Girona, Lleida and Tarragona).
1835First Barcelona bullanga (popular revolt or riot).
18406 JulyCarlist general Ramon Cabrera crossed the border to France, ending the First Carlist War.
18423 December Bombardment of Barcelona ordered by General Espartero due to popular uprising. [7]
1843 Jamància, last bullanga, which vindicated a progressive political program.
1846 Second Carlist War or Guerra dels Matiners.
184828 OctoberFirst railway service in the Iberian Peninsula, linking Barcelona with Mataró.
18552 July Catalan general strike, being the first carried out in Spanish history.
1859May Floral Games were re-established, in the context of the Renaixença.
186918 MayRepresentatives of the federal-republican committees of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands signed the Tortosa Pact to work together in order to establish the Spanish Federal Republic.
1870AprilRevolt of the Quintas. Bombing of the town of Gràcia.
187221 AprilOutbreak of the Third Carlist War.
18739 MayThe Provincial Council of Barcelona, controlled by radical federal-republicans, attempts to proclaim a Catalan State within the Spanish Federal Republic.
188219 March Gaudí's Sagrada Família church construction begins.
1888 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition.
1892 Manresa Bases, first proposal for self-government of Catalonia promoted by Catalan nationalism.
18937 November Liceu bombing attack by the anarchist Santiago Salvador.
1899July Tancament de caixes, tax strike in Barcelona against tax hikes in order to pay for the expenses of the Spanish–American War.

20th century

1901 Regionalist League founded.
190525 November ¡Cu-Cut! incident. Officers of the Spanish Army, angry at the magazine for having published an offending joke, stormed the Cu-Cut! offices. [8]
19073 August Solidaridad Obrera labor federation founded.
190925 JulyBeginning of the Tragic Week.
191030 October CNT, Anarcho-syndicalist trade union, founded in Barcelona. [9]
19116 JanuaryFirst edition of the Volta a Catalunya cycle race begins.
19146 April Commonwealth of Catalonia established. Enric Prat de la Riba (Regionalist League) appointed its first president.
Library of Catalonia opens to the public. [9]
1919February La Canadiense strike. Among its consequences was to force the Spanish government to issue the first law limiting the working day to eight hours.
192520 March Miguel Primo de Rivera, Spanish dictator, disbanded the Commonwealth of Catalonia.
19264 November Events of Prats de Molló: Francesc Macià, leader of the independentist party Estat Català, tried to liberate Catalonia from France with a small army and proclaim the Catalan Republic, but he was betrayed and arrested.
1929 1929 Barcelona International Exposition.
193114 AprilFrancesc Macià proclaimed the Catalan Republic within the "Iberian Federation". [10]
17 AprilAfter negotiation, the Catalan Republic becomes the Generalitat, the Catalan institution of self-government within the Spanish Republic.
193218 January Anarchist insurrection of Alt Llobregat mining area.
9 September Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia approved by the Spanish Parliament. Catalonia became an autonomous region within the Spanish Republic. [11]
20 November First election to the Parliament of Catalonia, the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) won a large majority of seats. [12]
14 DecemberThe Parliament appointed Francesc Macià (ERC) as president of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
19341 JanuaryThe Parliament appointed Lluís Companys (ERC) as president of the Generalitat of Catalonia right after the death of Macià on December 25, 1933.
21 March Crop Contracts Law passed by Catalan Parliament.
6 OctoberLluís Companys proclaimed the Catalan State of the Spanish Federal Republic. The Spanish army quickly suppressed the proclamation, arresting Companys and the Catalan government. Self-government suspended.
11 November Art Museum of Catalonia inaugurated. [13]
193619 FebruaryAfter the Popular Front victory in the February 1936 Spanish general election, the Catalan government was pardoned and reinstated.
19 July Military uprising in Barcelona, as part of the coup against the Republic. Forces of the Generalitat and trade unions stopped the coup in Barcelona and Catalonia. Beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Anarchists take control de facto of Catalonia.
21 July Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia established.
24 OctoberThe Generalitat passed the Decree on Collectivization and Workers' Control. [14]
6 December People's Army of Catalonia raised.
19373 May May Days, clashes between the anarchists and POUM versus the forces of the Republic and the Generalitat, supported by the PSUC. The Republic recovered full control of Catalonia.
19385 April General Francisco Franco decrees the suppression of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia and the Generalitat.
25 JulyBeginning of the Battle of the Ebro.
19395 FebruaryLluís Companys crossed the Franco-Spanish border, the Generalitat went into exile.
194015 OctoberPresident Lluís Companys was executed in Montjuïc Castle of Barcelona by firing squad in Francoist Spain.
195227 May35th International Eucharistic Congress held in Barcelona.
19717 November Assembly of Catalonia founded.
197711 September 1977 Catalan autonomy protest.
23 OctoberThe exiled president of Catalonia, Josep Tarradellas, returned to Barcelona and the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored.
19798 September Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979.
198020 March First election to the reestablished Parliament of Catalonia. Convergència i Unió (CiU) became the winning party.
24 AprilThe Parliament appointed Jordi Pujol (CiU) as president of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
19836 AprilLaw of Linguistic Normalization of Catalan passed by the Parliament.
8 September Televisió de Catalunya founded. [15]
199225 July 1992 Summer Olympic Games held in Barcelona. [16]
199815 JulyLaw recognizing same-sex partnerships passed by the Parliament. Catalonia became the first Spanish territory to recognize them. [17]

21st century

2002First book of the Civil Code of Catalonia passed by the Parliament.
200316 November Election to the Parliament of Catalonia. The Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV-EUiA) were able to form a coalition government.
16 DecemberThe Parliament appointed Pasqual Maragall (PSC) as President of the Generalitat of Catalonia
2005 PADICAT is established.
20069 August Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006.
201028 JuneAt the request of the conservative People's Party, the Constitutional Court of Spain declared non valid many of the articles of the Statute of Autonomy.
10 July 2010 Catalan autonomy protest.
28 July Ban on bullfighting in Catalonia passed by the Catalan Parliament.
201311 September Catalan Way.
20149 November 2014 Catalan self-determination referendum.
20159 November Declaration of the Initiation of the Process of Independence of Catalonia.
201717 August Islamic terrorist attacks in Barcelona and Cambrils.
1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum.
27 October Independence declared.
27 OctoberSpanish Senate invoked Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution and PM Mariano Rajoy declared the dissolution of the Catalan Parliament and dismissed Catalonia's Government.
20181 May Quim Torra was elected President of Catalonia after the Spanish courts blocked the election of Carles Puigdemont, who had the support of the Catalan Parliament after the December election.

See also

City and town timelines

Related Research Articles

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