The history of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) research spans less than 200 years. TSC is a rare, multi-system genetic disease that can cause benign tumours to grow on the brain or other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, developmental delay, behavioural problems and skin abnormalities, as well as lung and kidney disease. TSC is caused by mutations on either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, which encode for the proteins hamartin and tuberin respectively. These proteins act as tumour growth suppressors and regulate cell proliferation and differentiation.Originally regarded as a rare pathological curiosity, it is now an important focus of research into tumour formation and suppression.
The history of TSC research is commonly divided into four periods.In the late 19th century, notable physicians working in European teaching hospitals first described the cortical and dermatological manifestations; these early researchers have been awarded with eponyms such as "Bourneville's disease" and "Pringle's adenoma sebaceum". At the start of the 20th century, these symptoms were recognised as belonging to a single medical condition. Further organ involvement was discovered, along with a realisation that the condition was highly variable in its severity. The late 20th century saw great improvements in cranial imaging techniques and the discovery of the two genes. Finally, the start of the 21st century saw the beginning of a molecular understanding of the illness, along with possible non-surgical therapeutic treatments.
A consensus conference was held and revised guidelines for the diagnosis and management of tuberous sclerosis were published.
|last=has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (contains an abridged translation of Bourneville's 1880 paper)
Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin and sold under the brand name Rapamune among others, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection, treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and treat perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). It has immunosuppressant functions in humans and is especially useful in preventing the rejection of kidney transplants. It is a mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) inhibitor that inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2).
Everolimus, sold under the brand name Afinitor among others, is a medication used as an immunosuppressant to prevent rejection of organ transplants and as a targeted therapy in the treatment of renal cell cancer and other tumours.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem autosomal dominant genetic disease that causes non-cancerous tumours to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, lungs and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, behavioral problems, skin abnormalities, lung disease, and kidney disease.
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a congenital abnormality of brain development where the neurons in an area of the brain failed to migrate in the proper formation in utero. Focal means that it is limited to a focal zone in any lobe. Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of intractable epilepsy in children and is a frequent cause of epilepsy in adults. There are three types of FCD with subtypes, including type 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d, each with distinct histopathological features. All forms of focal cortical dysplasia lead to disorganization of the normal structure of the cerebral cortex :
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that does not invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. Compared to malignant (cancerous) tumors, benign tumors generally have a slower growth rate. Benign tumors have relatively well differentiated cells. They are often surrounded by an outer surface or stay contained within the epithelium. Common examples of benign tumors include moles and uterine fibroids.
Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome (BHD), also Hornstein–Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome, Hornstein–Knickenberg syndrome, and fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons is a human, adult onset, autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by the FLCN gene. It can cause susceptibility to kidney cancer, renal and pulmonary cysts, and noncancerous tumors of the hair follicles, called fibrofolliculomas. The symptoms seen in each family are unique, and can include any combination of the three symptoms. Fibrofolliculomas are the most common manifestation, found on the face and upper trunk in over 80% of people with BHD over the age of 40. Pulmonary cysts are equally common (84%), but only 24% of people with BHD eventually experience a collapsed lung. Kidney tumors, both cancerous and benign, occur in 14–34% of people with BHD; the associated kidney cancers are often rare hybrid tumors.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, progressive and systemic disease that typically results in cystic lung destruction. It predominantly affects women, especially during childbearing years. The term sporadic LAM is used for patients with LAM not associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), while TSC-LAM refers to LAM that is associated with TSC.
Phakomatoses, also known neurocutaneous syndromes, are a group of multisystemic diseases that most prominently affect structures primarily derived from the ectoderm such as the central nervous system, skin and eyes. The majority of phakomatoses are single-gene disorders that may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked pattern. Presentations may vary dramatically between patients with the same particular syndrome due to mosaicism, variable expressivity, and penetrance.
Angiomyolipomas are the most common benign tumour of the kidney. Although regarded as benign, angiomyolipomas may grow such that kidney function is impaired or the blood vessels may dilate and burst, leading to bleeding.
Désiré-Magloire Bourneville was a French neurologist born in Garencières.
John James Pringle was a Scottish dermatologist.
Manuel Rodríguez Gómez was an American neurologist most noted for his work on tuberous sclerosis, a rare genetic disorder.
Tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), also known as hamartin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSC1 gene.
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2), also known as Tuberin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSC2 gene.
RHEB also known as Ras homolog enriched in brain (RHEB) is a GTP-binding protein that is ubiquitously expressed in humans and other mammals. The protein is largely involved in the mTOR pathway and the regulation of the cell cycle.
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour, also known as PEComa or PEC tumour, is a family of mesenchymal tumours consisting of perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs). These are rare tumours that can occur in any part of the human body.
Koenen's tumor (KT), also commonly termed periungual angiofibroma, is a subtype of the angiofibromas. Angiofibromas are benign papule, nodule, and/or tumor lesions that are separated into various subtypes based primarily on the characteristic locations of their lesions. KTs are angiofibromas that develop in and under the toenails and/or fingernails. KTs were once considered as the same as another subtype of the angiofibromas viz., acral angiofibromas. While the literature may still sometimes regard KTs as acral angiofibromas, acral angiofibromas are characteristically located in areas close to but not in the toenails and fingernails as well as in the soles of the feet and palms of the hands. KTs are here regarded as distinct from acral angiofibromas.
Tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2, also known as TSC1 (hamartin) and TSC2 (tuberin), form a protein-complex. The encoding two genes are TSC1 and TSC2. The complex is known as a tumor suppressor. Mutations in these genes can cause tuberous sclerosis complex. Depending on the grade of the disease, intellectual disability, epilepsy and tumors of the skin, retina, heart, kidney and the central nervous system can be symptoms.
Kidney tumours are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant.
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a low-grade astrocytic brain tumor (astrocytoma) that arises within the ventricles of the brain. It is most commonly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Although it is a low-grade tumor, its location can potentially obstruct the ventricles and lead to hydrocephalus.