Last updated

Rembrandt - The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp.jpg
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp , (1632) by Rembrandt, depicts an autopsy.
ICD-9-CM 89.8
MeSH D001344

An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes. (The term "necropsy" is generally reserved for non-human animals). Autopsies are usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. In most cases, a medical examiner or coroner can determine cause of death and only a small portion of deaths require an autopsy.



Autopsies are performed for either legal or medical purposes. Autopsies can be performed when any of the following information is desired:

For example, a forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes. Autopsies can be further classified into cases where external examination suffices, and those where the body is dissected and internal examination is conducted. Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in some cases. Once an internal autopsy is complete, the body is reconstituted by sewing it back together.



The term "autopsy" derives from the Ancient Greek αὐτοψία autopsia, "to see for oneself", derived from αὐτός (autos, "oneself") and ὄψις (opsis, "sight, view"). [1] The word “autopsy” has been used since around the 17th century, it refers to the examination of inside the dead human body to discover diseases and cause of death. [2]


The term "post-mortem" derives from the Latin for post, meaning "after" and mortem meaning "death". It was first recorded from 1850. [3]


The principal aims of an autopsy are to determine the cause of death, mode of death, manner of death, the state of health of the person before he or she died, and whether any medical diagnosis and treatment before death was appropriate. In most Western countries the number of autopsies performed in hospitals has been decreasing every year since 1955. Critics, including pathologist and former JAMA editor George D. Lundberg, have charged that the reduction in autopsies is negatively affecting the care delivered in hospitals, because when mistakes result in death, they are often not investigated and lessons therefore remain unlearned. When a person has given permission in advance of their death, autopsies may also be carried out for the purposes of teaching or medical research. An autopsy is frequently performed in cases of sudden death, where a doctor is not able to write a death certificate, or when death is believed to result from an unnatural cause. These examinations are performed under a legal authority (Medical Examiner or Coroner or Procurator Fiscal) and do not require the consent of relatives of the deceased. The most extreme example is the examination of murder victims, especially when medical examiners are looking for signs of death or the murder method, such as bullet wounds and exit points, signs of strangulation, or traces of poison. Some religions including Judaism and Islam usually discourage the performing of autopsies on their adherents. [4] Organizations such as ZAKA in Israel and Misaskim in the United States generally guide families how to ensure that an unnecessary autopsy is not made. Autopsies are used in clinical medicine to identify medical error, or a previously unnoticed condition that may endanger the living, such as infectious diseases or exposure to hazardous materials. [5] A study that focused on myocardial infarction (heart attack) as a cause of death found significant errors of omission and commission, [6] i.e. a sizable number of cases ascribed to myocardial infarctions (MIs) were not MIs and a significant number of non-MIs were actually MIs.

A systematic review of studies of the autopsy calculated that in about 25% of autopsies a major diagnostic error will be revealed. [7] However, this rate has decreased over time and the study projects that in a contemporary US institution, 8.4% to 24.4% of autopsies will detect major diagnostic errors.

A large meta-analysis suggested that approximately one-third of death certificates are incorrect and that half of the autopsies performed produced findings that were not suspected before the person died. [8] Also, it is thought that over one fifth of unexpected findings can only be diagnosed histologically, i.e., by biopsy or autopsy, and that approximately one quarter of unexpected findings, or 5% of all findings, are major and can similarly only be diagnosed from tissue.

One study found that (out of 694 diagnoses) "Autopsies revealed 171 missed diagnoses, including 21 cancers, 12 strokes, 11 myocardial infarctions, 10 pulmonary emboli, and 9 endocarditis, among others". [9]

Focusing on intubated patients, one study found "abdominal pathologic conditions — abscesses, bowel perforations, or infarction — were as frequent as pulmonary emboli as a cause of class I errors. While patients with abdominal pathologic conditions generally complained of abdominal pain, results of examination of the abdomen were considered unremarkable in most patients, and the symptom was not pursued". [10]


There are four main types of autopsy: [11]

Forensic autopsy

Autopsy room of the Charite Berlin 2010-07-23-rechtsmedizin-berlin-8.jpg
Autopsy room of the Charité Berlin

A forensic autopsy is used to determine the cause, mode and manner of death.

Forensic science involves the application of the sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system.

Medical examiners attempt to determine the time of death, the exact cause of death, and what, if anything, preceded the death, such as a struggle. A forensic autopsy may include obtaining biological specimens from the deceased for toxicological testing, including stomach contents. Toxicology tests may reveal the presence of one or more chemical "poisons" (all chemicals, in sufficient quantities, can be classified as a poison) and their quantity. Because post-mortem deterioration of the body, together with the gravitational pooling of bodily fluids, will necessarily alter the bodily environment, toxicology tests may overestimate, rather than underestimate, the quantity of the suspected chemical. [13]

Following an in-depth examination of all the evidence, a medical examiner or coroner will assign a manner of death from the choices proscribed by the fact-finder's jurisdiction and will detail the evidence on the mechanism of the death.

Clinical autopsy

Pathologist performing a human dissection of the abdominal and thoracic organs in an autopsy room. Human dissection of the abdominal and toraxic organs.jpg
Pathologist performing a human dissection of the abdominal and thoracic organs in an autopsy room.

Clinical autopsies serve two major purposes. They are performed to gain more insight into pathological processes and determine what factors contributed to a patient's death. For example, material for infectious disease testing can be collected during an autopsy. [14] Autopsies are also performed to ensure the standard of care at hospitals. Autopsies can yield insight into how patient deaths can be prevented in the future.

Within the United Kingdom, clinical autopsies can be carried out only with the consent of the family of the deceased person, as opposed to a medico-legal autopsy instructed by a Coroner (England & Wales) or Procurator Fiscal (Scotland), to which the family cannot object.[ citation needed ]

Over time, autopsies have not only been able to determine the cause of death, but also lead to discoveries of various diseases such as fetal alcohol syndrome, Legionnaire's disease, and even viral hepatitis. [15]


In 2004 in England and Wales, there were 514,000 deaths, of which 225,500 were referred to the coroner. Of those, 115,800 (22.5% of all deaths) resulted in post-mortem examinations and there were 28,300 inquests, 570 with a jury. [16]

The rate of consented (hospital) autopsy in the UK and worldwide has declined rapidly over the past 50 years. In the UK in 2013 only 0.7% of inpatient adult deaths were followed by consented autopsy. [17]

In the United States, autopsy rates fell from 17% in 1980 [18] to 14% in 1985 [18] and 11.5% in 1989, [19] although the figures vary notably from county to county. [20]


Cadaver dissection table similar to those used in medical or forensic autopsies. Cadaver dissection table - long shot.jpg
Cadaver dissection table similar to those used in medical or forensic autopsies.

The body is received at a medical examiner's office, municipal mortuary, or hospital in a body bag or evidence sheet. A new body bag is used for each body to ensure that only evidence from that body is contained within the bag. Evidence sheets are an alternative way to transport the body. An evidence sheet is a sterile sheet that covers the body when it is moved. If it is believed there may be any significant evidence on the hands, for example, gunshot residue or skin under the fingernails, a separate paper sack is put around each hand and taped shut around the wrist.

There are two parts to the physical examination of the body: the external and internal examination. Toxicology, biochemical tests or genetic testing/molecular autopsy often supplement these and frequently assist the pathologist in assigning the cause or causes of death.

External examination

At many institutions the person responsible for handling, cleaning, and moving the body is called a diener, the German word for servant. In the UK this role is performed by an Anatomical Pathology Technician (APT), who will also assist the pathologist in eviscerating the body and reconstruction after the autopsy. After the body is received, it is first photographed. The examiner then notes the kind of clothes and their position on the body before they are removed. Next, any evidence such as residue, flakes of paint or other material is collected from the external surfaces of the body. Ultraviolet light may also be used to search body surfaces for any evidence not easily visible to the naked eye. Samples of hair, nails and the like are taken, and the body may also be radiographically imaged. Once the external evidence is collected, the body is removed from the bag, undressed, and any wounds present are examined. The body is then cleaned, weighed, and measured in preparation for the internal examination.

A general description of the body as regards ethnic group, sex, age, hair colour and length, eye colour and other distinguishing features (birthmarks, old scar tissue, moles, tattoos, etc.) is then made. A voice recorder or a standard examination form is normally used to record this information.

In some countries [ citation needed ], e.g., Scotland, France, Germany, and Canada, an autopsy may comprise an external examination only. This concept is sometimes termed a "view and grant". The principle behind this is that the medical records, history of the deceased and circumstances of death have all indicated as to the cause and manner of death without the need for an internal examination. [21]

Internal examination

If not already in place, a plastic or rubber brick called a "head block" is placed under the shoulders of the deceased, hyperflexing the neck making the spine arch backward while stretching and pushing the chest upward to make it easier to incise. This gives the APT, or pathologist, maximum exposure to the trunk. After this is done, the internal examination begins. The internal examination consists of inspecting the internal organs of the body by dissection for evidence of trauma or other indications of the cause of death. For the internal examination there are a number of different approaches available:

There is no need for any incision to be made, which will be visible after completion of the examination when the deceased is dressed in a shroud. In all of the above cases the incision then extends all the way down to the pubic bone (making a deviation to either side of the navel) and avoiding, where possible; transecting any scars that may be present.

Bleeding from the cuts is minimal, or non-existent, because the pull of gravity is producing the only blood pressure at this point, related directly to the complete lack of cardiac functionality. However, in certain cases there is anecdotal evidence that bleeding can be quite profuse, especially in cases of drowning.

At this point, shears are used to open the chest cavity. The prosector uses the tool to cut through the ribs on the costal cartilage, to allow the sternum to be removed; this is done so that the heart and lungs can be seen in situ and that the heart, in particular the pericardial sac is not damaged or disturbed from opening. A PM 40 knife is used to remove the sternum from the soft tissue that attaches it to the mediastinum. Now the lungs and the heart are exposed. The sternum is set aside and will be eventually replaced at the end of the autopsy.

At this stage the organs are exposed. Usually, the organs are removed in a systematic fashion. Making a decision as to what order the organs are to be removed will depend highly on the case in question. Organs can be removed in several ways: The first is the en masse technique of Letulle whereby all the organs are removed as one large mass. The second is the en bloc method of Ghon. The most popular in the UK is a modified version of this method, which is divided into four groups of organs. Although these are the two predominant evisceration techniques, in the UK variations on these are widespread.

One method is described here: The pericardial sac is opened to view the heart. Blood for chemical analysis may be removed from the inferior vena cava or the pulmonary veins. Before removing the heart, the pulmonary artery is opened in order to search for a blood clot. The heart can then be removed by cutting the inferior vena cava, the pulmonary veins, the aorta and pulmonary artery, and the superior vena cava. This method leaves the aortic arch intact, which will make things easier for the embalmer. The left lung is then easily accessible and can be removed by cutting the bronchus, artery, and vein at the hilum. The right lung can then be similarly removed. The abdominal organs can be removed one by one after first examining their relationships and vessels.

Most pathologists, however, prefer the organs to be removed all in one "block". Using dissection of the fascia, blunt dissection; using the fingers or hands and traction; the organs are dissected out in one piece for further inspection and sampling. During autopsies of infants, this method is used almost all of the time. The various organs are examined, weighed and tissue samples in the form of slices are taken. Even major blood vessels are cut open and inspected at this stage. Next the stomach and intestinal contents are examined and weighed. This could be useful to find the cause and time of death, due to the natural passage of food through the bowel during digestion. The more area empty, the longer the deceased had gone without a meal before death.

A brain autopsy demonstrating signs of meningitis. The forceps (center) are retracting the dura mater (white). Underneath the dura mater are the leptomeninges, which appear to be edematous and have multiple small hemorrhagic foci. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, gross pathology 33 lores.jpg
A brain autopsy demonstrating signs of meningitis. The forceps (center) are retracting the dura mater (white). Underneath the dura mater are the leptomeninges, which appear to be edematous and have multiple small hemorrhagic foci.

The body block that was used earlier to elevate the chest cavity is now used to elevate the head. To examine the brain, an incision is made from behind one ear, over the crown of the head, to a point behind the other ear. When the autopsy is completed, the incision can be neatly sewn up and is not noticed when the head is resting on a pillow in an open casket funeral. The scalp is pulled away from the skull in two flaps with the front flap going over the face and the rear flap over the back of the neck. The skull is then cut with a circular (or semicircular) bladed reciprocating saw to create a "cap" that can be pulled off, exposing the brain. The brain is then observed in situ. Then the brain's connection to the cranial nerves and spinal cord are severed, and the brain is lifted out of the skull for further examination. If the brain needs to be preserved before being inspected, it is contained in a large container of formalin (15 percent solution of formaldehyde gas in buffered water) for at least two, but preferably four weeks. This not only preserves the brain, but also makes it firmer, allowing easier handling without corrupting the tissue.

Reconstitution of the body

An important component of the autopsy is the reconstitution of the body such that it can be viewed, if desired, by relatives of the deceased following the procedure. After the examination, the body has an open and empty thoracic cavity with chest flaps open on both sides, the top of the skull is missing, and the skull flaps are pulled over the face and neck. It is unusual to examine the face, arms, hands or legs internally.

In the UK, following the Human Tissue Act 2004 all organs and tissue must be returned to the body unless permission is given by the family to retain any tissue for further investigation. Normally the internal body cavity is lined with cotton, wool, or a similar material, and the organs are then placed into a plastic bag to prevent leakage and are returned to the body cavity. The chest flaps are then closed and sewn back together and the skull cap is sewed back in place. Then the body may be wrapped in a shroud, and it is common for relatives to not be able to tell the procedure has been done when the body is viewed in a funeral parlor after embalming.


Dissection, 19th century US. 3492769920 f48c41bdc8 bDissection19.jpg
Dissection, 19th century US.

Around 3000 BCE, ancient Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to practice the removal and examination of the internal organs of humans in the religious practice of mummification. [1] [22]

Autopsies that opened the body to determine the cause of death were attested at least in the early third millennium BCE, although they were opposed in many ancient societies where it was believed that the outward disfigurement of dead persons prevented them from entering the afterlife [23] (as with the Egyptians, who removed the organs through tiny slits in the body). [1] Notable Greek autopsists were Galen (BCE 129- c. 200/ 216), [24] Erasistratus and Herophilus of Chalcedon, who lived in 3rd century BCE Alexandria, but in general, autopsies were rare in ancient Greece. [23] In 44 BCE, Julius Caesar was the subject of an official autopsy after his murder by rival senators, the physician's report noting that the second stab wound Caesar received was the fatal one. [23] Julius Caesar had been stabbed a total of 23 times. [25] By around 150 BCE, ancient Roman legal practice had established clear parameters for autopsies. [1]

Autopsy (1890) by Enrique Simonet. Enrique Simonet - La autopsia 1890.jpg
Autopsy (1890) by Enrique Simonet.

The dissection of human remains for medical or scientific reasons continued to be practiced irregularly after the Romans, for instance by the Arab physicians Avenzoar and Ibn al-Nafis. In Europe they were done with enough regularity to become skilled, as early as 1200, and successful efforts to preserve the body, by filling the veins with wax and metals. [24] Until the 20th century, [24] it was thought that the modern autopsy process derived from the anatomists of the Renaissance. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771), celebrated as the father of anatomical pathology, [26] wrote the first exhaustive work on pathology, De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (The Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy, 1769). [1]

In 1543, Andreas Vesalius conducted a public dissection of the body of a former criminal. He asserted and articulated the bones, this became the world's oldest surviving anatomical preparation. It is still displayed at the Anatomical museum at the University of Basel. [27]

In the mid-1800s, Carl von Rokitansky and colleagues at the Second Vienna Medical School began to undertake dissections as a means to improve diagnostic medicine. [25]

The 19th-century medical researcher Rudolf Virchow, in response to a lack of standardization of autopsy procedures, established and published specific autopsy protocols (one such protocol still bears his name). He also developed the concept of pathological processes.

During the turn of the 20th century, the Scotland Yard created the Office of the Forensic Pathologist, a medical examiner trained in medicine, charged with investigating the cause of all unnatural deaths, including accidents, homicides, suicides, etc.

Other animals (necropsy)

A field post-mortem exam of a ewe. Enzootic pneumonia ewe.jpg
A field post-mortem exam of a ewe.

Post-mortem examination, or necropsy, is far more common in veterinary medicine than in human medicine. For many species that exhibit few external symptoms (sheep), or that are not suited to detailed clinical examination (poultry, cage birds, zoo animals), it is a common method used by veterinary physicians to come to a diagnosis. A necropsy is mostly used like an autopsy to determine cause of death. The entire body is examined at the gross visual level, and samples are collected for additional analyses. [28]

See also

Related Research Articles

Pathology Study of the causes and effects of disease or injury; the way a given disease or injury presents itself.

Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of biology research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is often used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology", an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease, mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples. Idiomatically, "a pathology" may also refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases, and the affix pathy is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment and psychological conditions. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist.

Anatomical pathology

Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues. Over the last century, surgical pathology has evolved tremendously: from historical examination of whole bodies (autopsy) to a more modernized practice, centered on the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer to guide treatment decision-making in oncology. Its modern founder was the Italian scientist Giovan Battista Morgagni from Forlì.

Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Also see forensic medicine.

Coroner Government official who confirms and certifies the death of an individual

A coroner is a government official who is empowered to conduct or order an inquest into the manner or cause of death, and to investigate or confirm the identity of an unknown person who has been found dead within the coroner's jurisdiction.


Dissection is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine. Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab.

Medical examiner

A medical examiner is an official trained in pathology that investigates deaths that occur under unusual or suspicious circumstances, to perform post-mortem examinations, and in some jurisdictions to initiate inquests.

Diener Type of morgue worker

A diener is a morgue worker responsible for handling, moving, and cleaning the corpse. Dieners are also referred to as morgue attendants, autopsy technicians, and other titles that can vary from region to region. The word is derived from the German word Leichendiener, which literally means corpse servant.

Forensic toxicology

Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilized, but rather the obtainment and interpretation of results. A toxicological analysis can be done to various kinds of samples. A forensic toxicologist must consider the context of an investigation, in particular any physical symptoms recorded, and any evidence collected at a crime scene that may narrow the search, such as pill bottles, powders, trace residue, and any available chemicals. Provided with this information and samples with which to work, the forensic toxicologist must determine which toxic substances are present, in what concentrations, and the probable effect of those chemicals on the person.

The autopsy of President John F. Kennedy was performed at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. The autopsy began at about 8 p.m. EST November 22, 1963 and ended at about 12:30 a.m. EST November 23, 1963. The choice of autopsy hospital in the Washington, D.C. area was made by his widow, Jacqueline Kennedy. She chose the Bethesda Naval Hospital because President Kennedy had been a naval officer.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forensic science:

Virtopsy is a virtual alternative to a traditional autopsy, conducted with scanning and imaging technology. The name is a portmanteau of 'virtual' and 'autopsy' and is a trademark registered to Prof. Richard Dirnhofer (de), the former head of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the University of Bern, Switzerland.

George Bagster Phillips

George Bagster Phillips was, from 1865, the Police Surgeon for the Metropolitan Police's 'H' Division, which covered London's Whitechapel district. He came to prominence during the murders of Jack the Ripper when he conducted or attended autopsies on the bodies of four of the victims, namely Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes and Mary Jane Kelly. He was called by the police to the murder scenes of three of them: Chapman, Stride and Kelly.

Insect development during storage requires special consideration when further criminal investigation is necessary to solve a crime. Decomposition is a natural process of the body, dissipating slowly over time. This process is aided by insects, making the rate of decomposition faster. For forensic entomologists, it is important to carefully collect, preserve and analyze insects found near or on a victim. By doing that, they can provide an estimated time of death as well as the manner of death and the movement of the corpse from one site to another. The role of a forensic entomologist adjunction to the pathologist is to “collect and identify the arthropods associated with such cases and to analyze entomological data for interpreting insect evidence.”

The history of pathology can be traced to the earliest application of the scientific method to the field of medicine, a development which occurred in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age and in Western Europe during the Italian Renaissance.

Earl Rose (coroner)

Earl Forrest Rose was an American forensic pathologist, professor of medicine, and lecturer of law. Rose was the medical examiner for Dallas County, Texas, at the time of the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy and he performed autopsies on J. D. Tippit, Lee Harvey Oswald, and Jack Ruby. After being shoved by Kennedy's aides, he stepped aside and allowed Kennedy's body to be removed from Parkland Memorial Hospital without performing an autopsy.

In many legal jurisdictions, the manner of death is a determination, typically made by the coroner, medical examiner, police, or similar officials, and recorded as a vital statistic. Within the United States and the United Kingdom, a distinction is made between the cause of death, which is a specific disease or injury, versus manner of death, which is primarily a legal determination. Different categories are used in different jurisdictions, but manner of death determinations include everything from very broad categories like "natural" and "homicide" to specific manners like "traffic accident" or "gunshot wound". In some cases an autopsy is performed, either due to general legal requirements, because the medical cause of death is uncertain, upon the request of family members or guardians, or because the circumstances of death were suspicious.

Molecular autopsy

Molecular autopsy or postmortem molecular testing is a set of molecular techniques used in forensic medicine to attempt to determine the cause of death in unexplained cases, in particular sudden unexplained deaths. About 30% of sudden cardiac deaths in young people are not explained after full conventional autopsy, and are classified as sudden unexplained deaths. The use of a panel of genetic markers for long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and cardiac channel miopathies elucidated around 40 to 45% of the cases.

A digital autopsy is a non-invasive autopsy in which digital imaging technology, such as with Computerized Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, is used to develop three-dimensional images for a virtual exploration of a human body.

A coroner in Washington state is a quasi-judicial, public official principally charged with the certification of human death. It is completely identical in authority to the parallel office of medical examiner, which also exists in the state. Washington uses a "mixed system" of death investigation with some counties employing coroners, and some employing medical examiners.

Paleoradiology Study of archaeological remains through the use of radiographic techniques

Paleoradiology is the study of archaeological remains through the use of radiographic techniques, such as X-ray, CT and micro-CT scans. It is predominately used by archaeologists and anthropologists to examine mummified remains due to its non-invasive nature. Paleoradiologists can discover post-mortem damage to the body, or any artefacts buried with them, while still keeping the remains intact. Radiological images can also contribute evidence about the person's life, such as their age and cause of death. The first recorded use of paleoradiology was in 1896, just a year after the Rōntgen radiograph was first produced. Although this method of viewing ancient remains is advantageous due to its non-invasive manner, many radiologists lack expertise in archeology and very few radiologists can identify ancient diseases which may be present.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Rothenberg, Kelly (2008). "The Autopsy Through History". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (ed.). Forensic Science . Salem Press. p.  100. ISBN   978-1-58765-423-7.
  2. Clark MJ (2005). "Historical Keyword "autopsy"". The Lancet. 366 (9499): 1767. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67715-X. PMID   16298206.
  3. {{cite web|url= Online Etymology Dictionary |title=post-mortem (adj.) |access-date=2020-04-28
  4. Elizabeth C Burton, Kim A Collins. Religions and the Autopsy, EMedicine. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  5. Michael Tsokos, "Die Klaviatur des Todes", Knaur, Munich, 2013, pp. 179–189
  6. Ravakhah K (2006). "Death certificates are not reliable: revivification of the autopsy". Southern Medical Journal. 99 (7): 728–33. doi:10.1097/01.smj.0000224337.77074.57. PMID   16866055.
  7. Shojania KG, Burton EC, McDonald KM, Goldman L (2003). "Changes in rates of autopsy-detected diagnostic errors over time: a systematic review". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 289 (21): 2849–56. doi:10.1001/jama.289.21.2849. PMID   12783916.
  8. Roulson J, Benbow EW, Hasleton PS (2005). "Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnosis and the value of post mortem histology; a meta-analysis and review". Histopathology. 47 (6): 551–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2005.02243.x. PMID   16324191.
  9. Combes A, Mokhtari M, Couvelard A, Trouillet JL, Baudot J, Hénin D, Gibert C, Chastre J (2004). "Clinical and autopsy diagnoses in the intensive care unit: a prospective study". Archives of Internal Medicine. 164 (4): 389–92. doi: 10.1001/archinte.164.4.389 . PMID   14980989.
  10. Papadakis MA, Mangione CM, Lee KK, Kristof M (1991). "Treatable abdominal pathologic conditions and unsuspected malignant neoplasms at autopsy in veterans who received mechanical ventilation" (Submitted manuscript). JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 265 (7): 885–7. doi:10.1001/jama.265.7.885. PMID   1992186.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Strasser, Russell S. (2008). "Autopsies". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (ed.). Forensic Science . Salem Press. p.  95. ISBN   978-1-58765-423-7.
  12. Roberts IS, Benamore RE, Benbow EW, Lee SH, Harris JN, Jackson A, Mallett S, Patankar T, Peebles C, Roobottom C, Traill ZC (2012). "Post-mortem imaging as an alternative to autopsy in the diagnosis of adult deaths: A validation study". The Lancet. 379 (9811): 136–142. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61483-9. PMC   3262166 . PMID   22112684.
  13. Mahoney Criminal Defense Group
  14. Barton L, Duval E, Stroberg E, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S (April 2020). "COVID-19 autopsies, Oklahoma, USA". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqaa062 . PMID   32275742.
  15. Society, New England Anti-Vivisection. "In Research | Alternatives to Animals in Science". Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  16. UK Department for Constitutional Affairs (2006), Coroners Service Reform Briefing Note Archived 2008-11-06 at the Wayback Machine , p. 6
  17. Turnbull A.J.; Osborn M.; Nicholas N. (June 2015). "Hospital Autopsy: endangered or extinct?". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 68 (8): 601–4. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202700. PMC   4518760 . PMID   26076965.
  18. 1 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1988) , Current Trends Autopsy Frequency — United States, 1980–1985, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , 37(12);191–4
  19. Pollock DA, O'Neil JM, Parrish RG, Combs DL, Annest JL (1993). "Temporal and geographic trends in the autopsy frequency of blunt and penetrating trauma deaths in the United States". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 269 (12): 1525–31. doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03500120063027. PMID   8445815.
  20. "Products - Data Briefs - Number 67 - August 2011". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  21. St Andrew's House (18 July 2007). "Inspectorate of Prosecution in Scotland - Death Cases: A Thematic Report on Liaison in Death Cases with Particular Reference to Organ Retention". Scottish Government.
  22. "Medicine". Archived from the original on 9 March 2011.
  23. 1 2 3 Schafer, Elizabeth D. (2008). "Ancient science and forensics". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (ed.). Forensic Science . Salem Press. p.  43. ISBN   978-1-58765-423-7.
  24. 1 2 3 Pappas, Stephanie (5 March 2013). "Grotesque Mummy Head Reveals Advanced Medieval Science". Live Science. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  25. 1 2 Bryant, Clifton. Handbook of Death and Dying. California: Sage Publications, Inc, 2003. Print. ISBN   0-7619-2514-7
  26. Battista Morgagni, Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  27. "The Fabric of the human body". Stanford University. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  28. "Necropsy". University Animal Care, The University of Arizona. Retrieved 6 February 2017.