Hypertrophy

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Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy.svg
Hypertrophy results from an increase in cell size, whereas hyperplasia stems from an increase in cell number

Hypertrophy ( /hˈpɜːrtrəfi/ , from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. [1] It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number. [2] Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes, they frequently occur together, such as in the case of the hormonally-induced proliferation and enlargement of the cells of the uterus during pregnancy.

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Eccentric hypertrophy is a type of hypertrophy where the walls and chamber of a hollow organ undergo growth in which the overall size and volume are enlarged. It is applied especially to the left ventricle of heart. [3] Sarcomeres are added in series, as for example in dilated cardiomyopathy (in contrast to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a type of concentric hypertrophy, where sarcomeres are added in parallel).

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Cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle

Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle. Early on there may be few or no symptoms. As the disease worsens, shortness of breath, feeling tired, and swelling of the legs may occur, due to the onset of heart failure. An irregular heart beat and fainting may occur. Those affected are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.

Cardiac muscle Muscular tissue of heart

Cardiac muscle is one of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. It is involuntary, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the wall of the heart. The cardiac muscle (myocardium) forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall and the inner layer, with blood supplied via the coronary circulation. It is composed of individual cardiac muscle cells joined together by intercalated discs, and encased by collagen fibers and other substances that form the extracellular matrix.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause. The parts of the heart most commonly affected are the interventricular septum and the ventricles. This results in the heart being less able to pump blood effectively and also may cause electrical conduction problems.

Left ventricular hypertrophy Medical condition

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.

Hyperplasia Increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation

Hyperplasia, or hypergenesis, is an enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ, and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.

T wave

In electrocardiography, the T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles. The interval from the beginning of the QRS complex to the apex of the T wave is referred to as the absolute refractory period. The last half of the T wave is referred to as the relative refractory period or vulnerable period. The T wave contains more information than the QT interval. The T wave can be described by its symmetry, skewness, slope of ascending and descending limbs, amplitude and subintervals like the Tpeak–Tend interval.

Ventricular hypertrophy (VH) is thickening of the walls of a ventricle of the heart. Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more common, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as well as concurrent hypertrophy of both ventricles can also occur.

Cardiomegaly Medical condition

Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged. As such, it is more commonly referred to simply as "having an enlarged heart".

Right ventricular hypertrophy Medical condition

Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a condition defined by an abnormal enlargement of the cardiac muscle surrounding the right ventricle. The right ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart. It is located towards the lower-end of the heart and it receives blood from the right atrium and pumps blood into the lungs.

Athletic heart syndrome Medical condition

Athletic heart syndrome (AHS) is a non-pathological condition commonly seen in sports medicine in which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal.

ACTC1 Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

ACTC1 encodes cardiac muscle alpha actin. This isoform differs from the alpha actin that is expressed in skeletal muscle, ACTA1. Alpha cardiac actin is the major protein of the thin filament in cardiac sarcomeres, which are responsible for muscle contraction and generation of force to support the pump function of the heart.

Myosin binding protein C, cardiac

The myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYBPC3 gene. This isoform is expressed exclusively in heart muscle during human and mouse development, and is distinct from those expressed in slow skeletal muscle (MYBPC1) and fast skeletal muscle (MYBPC2).

MYL2

Myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC-2) also known as the regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL2 gene. This cardiac ventricular RLC isoform is distinct from that expressed in skeletal muscle (MYLPF), smooth muscle (MYL12B) and cardiac atrial muscle (MYL7).

MYH6

Myosin heavy chain, α isoform (MHC-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYH6 gene. This isoform is distinct from the ventricular/slow myosin heavy chain isoform, MYH7, referred to as MHC-β. MHC-α isoform is expressed predominantly in human cardiac atria, exhibiting only minor expression in human cardiac ventricles. It is the major protein comprising the cardiac muscle thick filament, and functions in cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in MYH6 have been associated with late-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, atrial septal defects and sick sinus syndrome.

MYL3 Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Myosin essential light chain (ELC), ventricular/cardiac isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL3 gene. This cardiac ventricular/slow skeletal ELC isoform is distinct from that expressed in fast skeletal muscle (MYL1) and cardiac atrial muscle (MYL4). Ventricular ELC is part of the myosin molecule and is important in modulating cardiac muscle contraction.

MYL4

Atrial Light Chain-1 (ALC-1), also known as Essential Light Chain, Atrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL4 gene. ALC-1 is expressed in fetal cardiac ventricular and fetal skeletal muscle, as well as fetal and adult cardiac atrial tissue. ALC-1 expression is reactivated in human ventricular myocardium in various cardiac muscle diseases, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic cardiomyopathy and congenital heart diseases.

In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse or varying environmental changes. The adaptation may be physiologic (normal) or pathologic (abnormal). Four types of morphological adaptations include atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and metaplasia.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy Medical condition

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a disorder of the heart muscle in people with diabetes. It can lead to inability of the heart to circulate blood through the body effectively, a state known as heart failure, with accumulation of fluid in the lungs or legs. Most heart failure in people with diabetes results from coronary artery disease, and diabetic cardiomyopathy is only said to exist if there is no coronary artery disease to explain the heart muscle disorder.

A plot of a system's pressure versus volume has long been used to measure the work done by the system and its efficiency. This analysis can be applied to heat engines and pumps, including the heart. A considerable amount of information on cardiac performance can be determined from the pressure vs. volume plot. A number of methods have been determined for measuring PV-loop values experimentally.

Concentric hypertrophy is a hypertrophic growth of a hollow organ without overall enlargement, in which the walls of the organ are thickened and its capacity or volume is diminished.

References

  1. Hernandez, Richard; Kravitz, Len. "Skeletal muscle hypertrophy". www.unm.edu.
  2. Updated by Linda J. Vorvick. 8/14/15.Hyperplasia
  3. Kusumoto, F. M. (2004), Cardiovascular Pathophysiology, Hayes Barton Press, pp. 20–22, ISBN   978-1-59377-189-8
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