Necrophilia

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Necrophilia
Pietro Pajetta - Der Hass - 1896.jpeg
The Hatred, painted by Pietro Pajetta, 1896.
Specialty Psychiatry

Necrophilia, also known as necrophilism, necrolagnia, necrocoitus, necrochlesis, and thanatophilia, [1] is a sexual attraction or sexual act which involves corpses. It is classified as a paraphilia by ICD10 published by the WHO and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association. [2]

Sexual attraction attraction on the basis of sexual desire

Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest. Sexual attractiveness or sex appeal is an individual's ability to attract the sexual or erotic interests of other people, and is a factor in sexual selection or mate choice. The attraction can be to the physical or other qualities or traits of a person, or to such qualities in the context where they appear. The attraction may be to a person's aesthetics or movements or to their voice or smell, besides other factors. The attraction may be enhanced by a person's adornments, clothing, perfume or style. It can be influenced by individual genetic, psychological, or cultural factors, or to other, more amorphous qualities. Sexual attraction is also a response to another person that depends on a combination of the person possessing the traits and on the criteria of the person who is attracted.

A cadaver is a dead human body that is used by medical students, physicians and other scientists to study anatomy, identify disease sites, determine causes of death, and provide tissue to repair a defect in a living human being. Students in medical school study and dissect cadavers as a part of their education. Others who study cadavers include archaeologists and artists.

Paraphilia is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals. Such attraction may be labeled sexual fetishism.

Contents

Rosman and Resnick (1989) reviewed information from 34 cases of necrophilia describing the individuals' motivations for their behaviors: these individuals reported the desire to possess a non-resisting and non-rejecting partner (68%), reunions with a romantic partner (21%), sexual attraction to corpses (15%), comfort or overcoming feelings of isolation (15%), or seeking self-esteem by expressing power over a homicide victim (12%). [3]

Origins of term

The term 'necrophilia' is thought to have been coined by Belgian physician Joseph Guislain in his Leçons Orales sur les Phrénopathies, in a lecture given around 1850, in reference to contemporary necrophile François Bertrand: [4] [ incomplete short citation ]

Joseph Guislain Belgian physician

Joseph Guislain was a Belgian physician and a pioneer in psychiatry.

François Bertrand French Necrophile

Sergeant François Bertrand, known as the Vampire of Montparnasse, was a sergeant in the French Army. He was arrested in 1841 for necrophilia and jailed for one year. In 1856, he moved to Le Havre. In his later life, he worked as clerk, mailman, and lighthouse keeper. He died on 25 February 1878.

It is within the category of the destructive madmen [aliénés destructeurs] that one needs to situate certain patients to whom I would like to give the name of necrophiliacs [nécrophiles]. The alienists have adopted, as a new form, the case of Sergeant Bertrand, the disinterrer of cadavers on whom all the newspapers have recently reported. However, don't think that we are dealing here with a form of phrenopathy which appears for the first time. The ancients, in speaking about lycanthropy, have cited examples to which one can more or less relate the case which has just attracted the public attention so strongly.

The term was popularized about a decade later by psychiatrist Bénédict Morel, who also discussed Bertrand. [2]

Bénédict Morel French psychiatrist

Bénédict Augustin Morel was a French psychiatrist born in Vienna, Austria. He was an influential figure in the field of degeneration theory during the mid-19th century.

History

In the ancient world, sailors returning corpses to their home country were often accused of necrophilia. [5] Singular accounts of necrophilia in history are sporadic, though written records suggest the practice was present within Ancient Egypt. Herodotus writes in The Histories that, to discourage intercourse with a corpse, ancient Egyptians left deceased beautiful women to decay for "three or four days" before giving them to the embalmers. [6] [7] [8] Herodotus also alluded to suggestions that Greek tyrant Periander had defiled the corpse of his wife, employing a metaphor: "Periander baked his bread in a cold oven." [9] Acts of necrophilia are depicted on ceramics from the Moche culture, which reigned in northern Peru from the first to eighth century CE. [10] A common theme in these artifacts is the masturbation of a male skeleton by a living woman. [11] Hittite law from the 16th century BC through to the 13th century BC explicitly permitted sex with the dead. [12] In what is now Northeast China, the ethnic Xianbei emperor Murong Xi (385–407) of the Later Yan state had intercourse with the corpse of his beloved empress Fu Xunying, after the latter was already cold and put into the coffin. [13]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Herodotus Ancient Greek historian

Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire. He is known for having written the book The Histories, a detailed record of his "inquiry" on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars. He is widely considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and then critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative. On account of this, he is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred on him by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero.

<i>Histories</i> (Herodotus) book by Herodotus

The Histories of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Written in 440 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Greece at that time. Although not a fully impartial record, it remains one of the West's most important sources regarding these affairs. Moreover, it established the genre and study of history in the Western world.

In Renaissance Italy, following the reputed moral collapse brought about by the Black Death and before the Roman Inquisition of the Counter-Reformation, the literature was replete with sexual references; these include necrophilia, in the case of the epic poem Orlando Innamorato by Matteo Maria Boiardo, first published in 1483. [14] In a notorious modern example, American serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was a necrophiliac. Dahmer wanted to create a sex slave that would mindlessly consent to whatever he wanted. When his attempts failed, and his male victim died, he would keep the corpse until it decomposed beyond recognition, continuously masturbating and performing sexual intercourse on the body. [15] In order to be aroused, he had to murder his male victims before performing sexual intercourse with them. Dahmer stated that he only killed his victims because they wanted to leave after having sex, and would be angry with him for drugging them. [16] British serial killer Dennis Nilsen is also considered to have been a necrophiliac. [17]

Classification

In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), recurrent, intense sexual interest in corpses can be diagnosed under Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder (necrophilia) when it causes marked distress or impairment in important areas of functioning. [18] A ten-tier classification of necrophilia exists: [19]

  1. Role players: People who get aroused from pretending their live partner is dead during sexual activity.
  2. Romantic necrophiliacs: Bereaved people who remain attached to their dead lover's body.
  3. Necrophiliac fantasizers: People who fantasize about necrophilia, but never actually have sex with a corpse.
  4. Tactile necrophiliacs: People who are aroused by touching or stroking a corpse, without engaging in intercourse.
  5. Fetishistic necrophiliacs: People who remove objects (e.g., panties or a tampon) or body parts (e.g., a finger or genitalia) from a corpse for sexual purposes, without engaging in intercourse.
  6. Necromutilomaniacs: People who derive pleasure from mutilating a corpse while masturbating, without engaging in intercourse.
  7. Opportunistic necrophiliacs: People who normally have no interest in necrophilia, but take the opportunity when it arises.
  8. Regular necrophiliacs: People who preferentially have intercourse with the dead.
  9. Homicidal necrophiliacs: Necrosadists, [20] people who commit murder in order to have sex with the victim.
  10. Exclusive necrophiliacs: People who have an exclusive interest in sex with the dead, and cannot perform at all for a living partner.

Additionally, criminologist Lee Mellor's typology of homicidal necrophiles consists of eight categories (A–H), and is based on the combination of two behavioral axes: destructive (offender mutilates the corpse for sexual reasons) – preservative (offender does not), and cold (offender used the corpse sexually two hours after death) – warm (offender used the corpse sexually earlier than two hours after death). [21] This renders four categories (A-D) to which Mellor adds an additional four (E-H):

Dabblers have transitory opportunistic sexual relations with corpses, but this is not their preference. Category F homicidal necrophiles commit postmortem sex acts only while in a catathymic state. Exclusive mutilophiles derive pleasure purely from mutilating the corpse, while sexual cannibals and vampires are sexually aroused by eating human body parts. Category A, C, and F offenders may also cannibalize or drink the blood of their victims. [21]

Research

Humans

Necrophilia is often assumed to be rare, but no data for its prevalence in the general population exists. [22] Some necrophiles only fantasize about the act, without carrying it out. [3] In 1958, Klaf and Brown commented that, although rarely described, necrophiliac fantasies may occur more often than is generally supposed. [8]

Rosman and Resnick (1989) reviewed 122 cases of necrophilia. The sample was divided into genuine necrophiles, who had a persistent attraction to corpses, and pseudo-necrophiles, who acted out of opportunity, sadism, or transient interest. Of the total, 92% were male and 8% were female. 57% of the genuine necrophiles had occupational access to corpses, with morgue attendant, hospital orderly, and cemetery employee being the most common jobs. The researchers theorized that either of the following situations could be antecedents to necrophilia: [3]

  1. The necrophile develops poor self-esteem, perhaps due in part to a significant loss;
    (a) They are very fearful of rejection by others and they desire a sexual partner who is incapable of rejecting them; and/or
    (b) They are fearful of the dead, and transform their fear—by means of reaction formation—into a desire.
  2. They develop an exciting fantasy of sex with a corpse, sometimes after exposure to a corpse.

The authors reported that, of their sample of genuine necrophiliacs: [3]

IQ data was limited, but not abnormally low. About half of the sample had a personality disorder, and 11% of true necrophiliacs were psychotic. Rosman and Resnick concluded that their data challenged the conventional view of necrophiliacs as generally psychotic, mentally deficient, or unable to obtain a consenting partner. [3]

Other animals

A male black and white tegu mounts a female that has been dead for two days and attempts to mate. Salvator merianae - necrophilia.jpg
A male black and white tegu mounts a female that has been dead for two days and attempts to mate.

Necrophilia has been observed in mammals, birds, reptiles and frogs. [24] In 1960, Robert Dickerman described necrophilia in ground squirrels, which he termed "Davian behavior" in reference to a limerick about a necrophiliac miner named Dave. The label is still used for necrophilia in animals. [25] Certain species of arachnids and insects practice sexual cannibalism, in which the female cannibalizes her male mate prior to, during, or after copulation.

Kees Moeliker made one observation while he was sitting in his office at the Natural History Museum Rotterdam, when he heard the distinctive thud of a bird hitting the glass facade of the building. Upon inspection, he discovered a drake (male) mallard lying dead outside the building. Next to the downed bird there was a second drake mallard standing close by. As Moeliker observed the couple, the living drake pecked at the corpse of the dead one for a few minutes then mounted the corpse and began copulating with it. The act of necrophilia lasted for about 75 minutes, in which time, according to Moeliker, the living drake took two short breaks before resuming with copulating behavior. Moeliker surmised that at the time of the collision with the window the two mallards were engaged in a common pattern in duck behavior called "attempted rape flight". "When one died the other one just went for it and didn't get any negative feedback well, didn't get any feedback," according to Moeliker. [26] [27] Necrophilia had previously only been reported in heterosexual mallard pairs. [26]

In a short paper known as "Sexual Habits of the Adélie Penguin", deemed too shocking for contemporary publication, George Murray Levick described "little hooligan bands" of penguins mating with dead females in the Cape Adare rookery, the largest group of Adélie penguins, in 1911 and 1912. [28] [29] This is nowadays ascribed to lack of experience of young penguins; a dead female, with eyes half-closed, closely resembles a compliant female. [30] A gentoo penguin was observed attempting to have intercourse with a dead penguin in 1921. [31]

A male New Zealand sea lion was once observed attempting to copulate with a dead female New Zealand fur seal in the wild. The sea lion nudged the seal repeatedly, then mounted her and made several pelvic thrusts. Approximately ten minutes later, the sea lion became disturbed by the researcher's presence, dragged the corpse of the seal into the water and swam away while holding it. [32] A male sea otter was observed holding a female sea otter underwater until she drowned, and then repeatedly copulating with her carcass. Several months later, the same sea otter was again observed copulating with the carcass of a different female. [33] Copulation with a dead female pilot whale by a captive male pilot whale has been observed, [34] and possible sexual behavior between two male humpback whales, one dead, has also been reported. [35]

In 1983, a male rock dove was observed copulating with the corpse of a dove that had shortly before had its head crushed by a car. [36] [37] In 2001, a researcher laid out sand martin corpses to attract flocks of other sand martins. In each of six trials, 1-5 individuals from flocks of 50-500 were observed attempting to copulate with the dead sand martins. This occurred one to two months after the breeding season; since copulation outside the breeding season is uncommon among birds, the researcher speculated that the lack of resistance by the corpses stimulated the behavior. [38] Charles Brown observed at least ten cliff swallows attempt to copulate with a road-killed cliff swallow in the space of 15 minutes. He commented, "This isn't the first time I've seen cliff swallows do this; the bright orange rump sticking up seems to be all the stimulus these birds need." [39] Necrophilia has also been reported in the European swallow, grey-backed sparrow-lark, Stark's lark, [29] and the snow goose. [40] A Norwegian television report showed a male hybrid between a black grouse and western capercaillie kill a male black grouse before attempting to copulate with it. [38] In 2015, due to work done by the University of Washington, it was found that crows would commit necrophilia on dead crow corpses in about 4% of encounters with corpses. [41]

A male Ameiva ameiva mounts a dead female and attempts to pair cloacae. Ameiva ameiva - necrophilia.jpg
A male Ameiva ameiva mounts a dead female and attempts to pair cloacae.

Necrophilia has been documented in various lizard species, including Ameiva ameiva , [25] [42] the leopard lizard, [43] and Holbrookia maculata . [44] There are two reports of necrophilic behavior in the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In one, the partner of a male lizard got caught in fencing wire and died. The male continued to display courtship behavior towards his partner two days after her death. This lizard's necrophilia was believed to stem from its strong monogamous bond. [45] In one study of black and white tegu lizards, two different males were observed attempting to court and copulate with a single female corpse on two consecutive days. On the first day, the corpse was freshly dead, but by the second day it was bloating and emitting a strong putrefying odor. The researcher attributed the behavior to sex pheromones still acting on the carcass. [23]

Male garter snakes often copulate with dead females. [46] [47] One case has been reported in the Bothrops jararaca snake with a dead South American rattlesnake. [48] [49] The prairie rattlesnake ( Crotalus viridis ) and Helicops carinicaudus snake have both been seen attempting to mate with decapitated females, presumably attracted by still-active sex pheromones. [49] [50] Male crayfish sometimes copulate with dead crayfish of either sex, and in one observation even with a dead crayfish of a different species. [51] [52]

In frogs, it has been observed in the foothill yellow-legged frog, [53] the yellow fire-bellied toad, [54] the common frog, [55] the Oregon spotted frog, [56] Dendropsophus columbianus , [57] and Rhinella jimi . [24] The film Cane Toads: An Unnatural History shows a male toad copulating with a female toad that had been run over by a car. It goes on to do this for eight hours. [58] Necrophilic amplexus in frogs may occur because males will mount any pliable object the size of an adult female. If the mounted object is a live frog not appropriate for mating, it will vibrate its body or vocalize a call to be released. Dead frogs cannot do this, so they may be held for hours. [55] The Amazonian frog Rhinella proboscidea sometimes practices what has been termed "functional necrophilia": a male grasps the corpse of a dead female and squeezes it until oocytes are ejected, and then fertilizes them. [59]

Legality

Australia

Necrophilia is not explicitly mentioned in Australian law, however, under the Crimes Act 1900 - Sect 81C it states misconduct with regard to corpses is any person who:

(a) indecently interferes with any dead human body, or

(b) improperly interferes with, or offers any indignity to, any dead human body or human remains (whether buried or not),

shall be liable to imprisonment for two years. [60]

Brazil

Article 212 of the Brazilian Penal Code (federal Decree-Law No 2.848) states as follows: [61] [62]

Art. 212 - To abuse a cadaver or its ashes:
Penalty: detention, from 1 to 3 years, plus fine.

Although sex with a corpse is not explicitly mentioned, a person who has sex with a corpse may be convicted of a crime under the above Article. The legal asset protected by such Article is not the corpse's objective honor, but the feeling of good memories, respect and veneration that living people keep about the deceased person: these persons are considered passive subjects of the corpse's violation.

India

Section 297 of the Indian Penal Code entitled "Trespassing on burial places, etc.", states as follows: [63]

Whoever, with the intention of wounding the feelings of any person, or of insulting the religion of any person, or with the knowledge that the feelings of any person are likely to be wounded, or that the religion of any person is likely to be insulted thereby, commits any trespass in any place of worship or on any place of sculpture, or any place set apart from the performance of funeral rites or as a depository for the remains of the dead, or offers any indignity to any human corpse, or causes disturbance to any persons assembled for the performance of funeral ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

Although sex with a corpse is not explicitly mentioned, a person who has sex with a corpse may be convicted under the above section. Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code could also be invoked.

New Zealand

Under Section 150 of the New Zealand Crimes Act 1961, it is an offence for there to be "misconduct in respect to human remains". Subsection (b) elaborates that this applies if someone "improperly or indecently interferes with or offers indignity to any dead human body or human remains, whether buried or not". This statute is therefore applicable to sex with corpses and carries a potential two-year prison sentence, although there is no case law as yet that would apply the aforementioned statute. [64]

South Africa

Section 14 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007 prohibits the commission of a sexual act with a corpse. [65] Until codified by the act it was a common law offence.

Sweden

Section 16, § 10 of the Swedish Penal Code criminalizes necrophilia, but it is not explicitly mentioned. Necrophilia falls under the regulations against abusing a corpse or grave (brott mot griftefrid), which carries a maximum sentence of two years in prison. One person has been convicted of necrophilia. He was sentenced to psychiatric care for that and other crimes, including arson. [66]

United Kingdom

Sexual penetration of a corpse was made illegal under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, carrying a maximum sentence of two years' imprisonment. Prior to 2003, necrophilia was not illegal; however, exposing a naked corpse in public was classed as a public nuisance (R v. Clark [1883] 15 Cox 171). [67] [ incomplete short citation ]

United States

There is no federal legislation specifically barring sex with a corpse. Multiple states have their own laws: [68] [69]

StateSeverityStatute
Alabama Felony (Class C) § 13A-11-13
Alaska Misdemeanor (Class A) § 11-61-130
Arizona Felony (Class 4) § 32-1364
Arkansas Felony (Class D) § 5-60-101
California Felony Health and Safety Code § 7052
Colorado Misdemeanor (Class 2) § 18-13-101
Connecticut Misdemeanor (Class A) or Felony (Class D) if victim under 16 § 53a-73a
Delaware Misdemeanor (Class A) § 11-5-1332
Florida Felony (second degree) § 872.06
Georgia Felony § 16-6-7
Hawaii Misdemeanor § 711-1108
Idaho Misdemeanor § 18-7027
Illinois Felony (Class 2) § 720 ILCS 5/12-20.6
Indiana Felony (Level 6) § 35-45-11-2
Iowa Felony (Class D) § 709.18
Kentucky Felony (Class D) § 525.120
Minnesota Misdemeanor § 609.294
Mississippi Felony § 97-29-25
Nevada Felony (Class A) NRS § 201.450
New York Misdemeanor (Class A) § 130.20
North Dakota Misdemeanor (Class A) § 12.1-20-12 and § 12.1-20-02
Ohio Felony (fifth degree) § 2927.01
Oregon Felony ORS § 166.085
Pennsylvania Misdemeanor (second degree) 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 5510
Rhode Island Felony § 11-20-1.2
Tennessee Felony (Class E) § 39-17-312
Texas Misdemeanor (Class A) § 9.42.08 [70]
Utah Felony (third degree) § 76-9-704
Washington Felony (Class C) RCW § 9A.44.105
Wisconsin Felony (Class G) § 940.225 (7) [71]

See also

Footnotes

  1. Aggrawal 2016, p. 1.
  2. 1 2 Goodwin, Robin; Cramer, Duncan, eds. (2002). Inappropriate Relationships: The Unconventional, the Disapproved, and the Forbidden. London, England: Psychology Press. pp. 174–176. ISBN   978-0805837421.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Rosman, J. P.; Resnick, P. J. (1 June 1989). "Sexual attraction to corpses: A psychiatric review of necrophilia" (PDF/HTML). Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 17 (2): 153–163. PMID   2667656.
  4. Aggrawal p.4
  5. Aggrawal 2016, p. 2.
  6. Herodotus (c. 440 BC) (July 2001). The Histories (Book 2). The wives of men of rank when they die are not given at once to be embalmed, nor such women as are very beautiful or of greater regard than others, but on the third or fourth day after their death (and not before) they are delivered to the embalmers. They do so about this matter in order that the embalmers may not abuse their women, for they say that one of them was taken once doing so to the corpse of a woman lately dead, and his fellow-craftsman gave information.
  7. Brill, Abraham A. (1941). "Necrophilia". Journal of Criminal Psychopathology. 2 (4): 433–443.
  8. 1 2 Klaf, Franklin S.; Brown, William (1958). "Necrophilia: Brief Review and Case Report". Psychiatric Quarterly. 32 (4): 645–652. doi:10.1007/bf01563024. Inhibited forms of necrophilia and necrophiliac fantasies may occur more commonly then is generally realized.
  9. Aggrawal 2010, pp. 6–7, The primary source is Histories, Book V, 92.
  10. Finbow, Steve (2014). Grave Desire: A Cultural History of Necrophilia. John Hunt Publishing. ISBN   9781782793410.
  11. Weismantel, M. (2004). "Moche sex pots: Reproduction and temporality in ancient South America" (PDF). American Anthropologist. 106 (3): 495–496. doi:10.1525/aa.2004.106.3.495.
  12. Boer, Roland (2014). "From Horse Kissing to Beastly Emissions: Paraphilias in the Ancient Near East". In Masterson, Mark (ed.). Sex in Antiquity: Exploring Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World. Routledge. p. 69.
  13. Luan Pao-chün (1994). "The Corpse-Raping Emperor". Tales about Chinese Emperors: Their Wild and Wise Ways. Hai Feng Publishing Company. pp. 148–?.
  14. Davidson, Nicholas; Dean, Trevor; Lowe, K. J. P. (1994). Crime, Society and the Law in Renaissance Italy. pp. 74–98. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511523410.006. ISBN   9780511523410.
  15. "My Friend Dahmer #Full - Read My Friend Dahmer Issue #Full Page 214". www.comicextra.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  16. "Psychiatric Testimony of Jeffrey Dahmer". Court Transcripts. Criminal Profiling. 8 June 2001. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  17. Masters, Brian (1985). Killing For Company. Arrow. ISBN   978-0099552611.
  18. American Psychiatric Association, ed. (2013). "Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder, 302.89 (F65.89)". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 705.
  19. Aggrawal, Anil (2009). "A new classification of necrophilia". Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 16 (6): 316–20. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2008.12.023. PMID   19573840.(subscription required)
  20. Purcell & Arrigo 2006, p. 21.
  21. 1 2 3 Mellor, Lee (2016). Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC. pp. 103–105.
  22. Milner, J. S., Dopke, C. A., & Crouch, J. L. (2008). "Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified: Psychopathology and Theory". In Laws, D. Richard (ed.). Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment, 2nd edition. The Guilford Press. p. 399.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. 1 2 Sazima, I. (2015). "Corpse bride irresistible: a dead female tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) courted by males for two days at an urban park in South-eastern Brazil". Herpetology Notes. 8: 15–18.
  24. 1 2 de Mattos Brito, L. B., Joventino, I. R., Ribeiro, S. C., & Cascon, P. (2012). "Necrophiliac behavior in the "cururu" toad, Rhinella jimi Steuvax, 2002, (Anura, Bufonidae) from Northeastern Brazil" (PDF). North-Western Journal of Zoology. 8 (2): 365.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. 1 2 3 Costa, H. C., da Silva, E. T., Campos, P. S., da Cunha Oliveira, M. P., Nunes, A. V., & da Silva Santos, P. (2010). "The corpse bride: a case of Davian behaviour in the green ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) in southeastern Brazil" (PDF). Herpetology Notes. 3: 79–83.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. 1 2 C.W. Moeliker (2001). "The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the Anas platyrhynchos (Aves:Anatidae)" (PDF). Deinsea - Annual of the Natural History Museum Rotterdam. 8: 243–247. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
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Sources

Further reading

In literature

Classification
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Related Research Articles

Fellatio Act of oral stimulation of the penis by a sexual partner

Fellatio is an oral sex act involving the use of the mouth or throat, usually performed by a person on the penis of another person. If performed on oneself, the act is called autofellatio. Oral stimulation of the scrotum may also be termed fellatio, or colloquially as teabagging.

Sexual intercourse Copulation for reproduction or sexual pleasure, or other penetrative sex acts for sexual pleasure.

Sexual intercourse is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. This is also known as vaginal intercourse or vaginal sex. Other forms of penetrative sexual intercourse include anal sex, oral sex, fingering, and penetration by use of a dildo. These activities involve physical intimacy between two or more individuals and are usually used among humans solely for physical or emotional pleasure and can contribute to human bonding.

Sexual dimorphism condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants. Differences may include secondary sex characteristics, size, weight, color, markings, and may also include behavioral and cognitive differences. These differences may be subtle or exaggerated, and may be subjected to sexual selection. The opposite of dimorphism is monomorphism.

Seduction process of enticing a person, to engage in sexual behaviour

Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to engage in a relationship, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like; to corrupt, to persuade or induce to engage in sexual behaviour. Strategies of seduction include conversation and sexual scripts, paralingual features, non-verbal communication, and short-term behavioural strategies. The word seduction stems from Latin and means literally "leading astray." As a result, the term may have a positive or negative connotation. Famous seducers from history or legend include Lilith, Giacomo Casanova, and the fictional character Don Juan. The emergence of the Internet and technology has supported the availability and the existence of a seduction community, which is based on discourse about seduction. This is predominately by "pickup artists" (PUA). Seduction is also used within marketing to increase compliance and willingness.

Homosexual behavior in animals homosexuality and bisexuality of animals

Homosexual behavior in animals is sexual behavior among non-human species that is interpreted as homosexual or bisexual. This may include same-sex sexual activity, courtship, affection, pair bonding, and parenting among same-sex animal pairs. Various forms of this are found in every major geographic region and every major animal group. The sexual behavior of non-human animals takes many different forms, even within the same species, though homosexual behavior is best known from social species.

Sperm competition Any process that contributes to the success of sperm fertilization in multiply-mated females.

Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg during sexual reproduction. Competition can occur when females have multiple potential mating partners. Greater choice and variety of mates increases a female's chance to produce more viable offspring. However, multiple mates for a female means each individual male has decreased chances of producing offspring. Sperm competition is an evolutionary pressure on males, and has led to the development of adaptations to increase males' chance of reproductive success. Sperm competition results in a sexual conflict of interest between males and females. Males have evolved several defensive tactics including: mate-guarding, mating plugs, and releasing toxic seminal substances to reduce female re-mating tendencies to cope with sperm competition. Offensive tactics of sperm competition involve direct interference by one male on the reproductive success of another male, for instance by physically removing another male's sperm prior to mating with a female. For an example, see Gryllus bimaculatus.

Lordosis behavior

Lordosis behavior, also known as mammalian lordosis or presenting, is the naturally occurring body posture for sexual receptivity to copulation present in most mammals including rodents, elephants, and cats. The primary characteristics of the behavior are a lowering of the forelimbs but with the rear limbs extended and hips raised, ventral arching of the spine and a raising, or sideward displacement, of the tail. During lordosis, the spine curves dorsoventrally so that its apex points towards the abdomen.

Animal sexual behaviour Sexual behaviour of non-human animals

Animal sexual behaviour takes many different forms, including within the same species. Common mating or reproductively motivated systems include monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, polygamy and promiscuity. Other sexual behaviour may be reproductively motivated or non-reproductively motivated.

Necrophilia has been a topic in popular culture.

Sexual conflict term in evolutionary biology

Sexual conflict or sexual antagonism occurs when the two sexes have conflicting optimal fitness strategies concerning reproduction, particularly over the mode and frequency of mating, potentially leading to an evolutionary arms race between males and females. In one example, males may benefit from multiple matings, while multiple matings may harm or endanger females, due to the anatomical differences of that species.

Sexual cannibalism practice when a female cannibalizes her mate prior to, during, or after copulation

Sexual cannibalism is when a female cannibalizes her mate prior to, during, or after copulation. It is a phenomenon characterized primarily by members of most arachnid orders, as well as several insect orders. The adaptive foraging hypothesis, aggressive spillover hypothesis and mistaken identity hypothesis are among the proposed hypotheses to explain how sexual cannibalism evolved. This behavior is believed to have evolved as a manifestation of sexual conflict, occurring when the reproductive interests of males and females differ. In many species that exhibit sexual cannibalism, the female consumes the male upon detection. Females of cannibalistic species are generally hostile and unwilling to mate; thus many males of these species have developed adaptive behaviors to counteract female aggression.

Victor Antoine Ardisson (1872-1944), nicknamed the "Vampire of Muy", was a French graverobber and necrophile.

Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations, are produced by female primates, including human females, and female non-primates. Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during sexual intercourse and are hence related to sexual activity. Vocalizations that occur before intercourse, for the purpose of attracting mates, are known as mating calls.

Sexual selection in scaled reptiles

Sexual selection in scaled reptiles studies how sexual selection manifests in snakes and lizards, which constitute the order Squamata of reptiles. Each of the over three thousand snakes use different tactics in acquiring mates. Ritual combat between males for the females they want to mate with includes topping, a behavior exhibited by most viperids in which one male will twist around the vertically elevated fore body of its opponent and forcing it downward. It is common for neck biting to occur while the snakes are entwined.

Sexual selection in amphibians

Sexual selection in amphibians involves sexual selection processes in amphibians, including frogs, salamanders and newts. Prolonged breeders, the majority of frog species, have breeding seasons at regular intervals where male-male competition occurs with males arriving at the waters edge first in large number and producing a wide range of vocalizations, with variations in depth of calls the speed of calls and other complex behaviours to attract mates. The fittest males will have the deepest croaks and the best territories, with females known to make their mate choices at least partly based on the males depth of croaking. This has led to sexual dimorphism, with females being larger than males in 90% of species, males in 10% and males fighting for groups of females.

Non-reproductive sexual behavior consists of sexual activities animals participate in that do not lead to the reproduction of the species. Although procreation continues to be the primary explanation for sexual behavior in animals, recent observations on animal behavior have given alternative reasons for the engagement in sexual activities by animals. Animals have been observed to engage in sex for social interaction, demonstration of dominance, aggression relief, exchange for significant materials, and sexual stimulation. Observed non-procreative sexual activities include non-copulatory mounting, oral sex, genital stimulation, anal stimulation, interspecies mating, and acts of affection. There have also been observations of animals engaging in homosexual behaviors, as well as sex with dead animals and sex involving juveniles.

Necrophilia is a pathological fascination with dead bodies, which often takes the form of a desire to engage with them in sexual activities, such as intercourse. Although prohibited by the laws of many countries, there have been many reported cases of necrophilia throughout history.

Polyandry in nature

In behavioral ecology, polyandry is a class of mating system where one female mates with several males in a breeding season. Polyandry is often compared to the polygyny system based on the cost and benefits incurred by members of each sex. Polygyny is where one male mates with several females in a breeding season . A common example of polyandrous mating can be found in the field cricket of the invertebrate order Orthoptera. Polyandrous behavior is also prominent in many other insect species, including the red flour beetle and the species of spider Stegodyphus lineatus. Polyandry also occurs in some primates such as marmosets, mammal groups, the marsupial genus' Antechinus and bandicoots, around 1% of all bird species, such as jacanas and dunnocks, insects such as honeybees, and fish such as pipefish.

Karen Greenlee is a criminal who was convicted of stealing a hearse and having sex with the corpse it contained. She is considered as the "best-known modern practitioner of necrophilia" and her case was the subject of much research due to her gender as well as because of the highly detailed interview she gave about her extensive practice of necrophilia in the anthology book Apocalypse Culture.