Toli shad

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Toli shad
Tenualosa toli.jpg
Clupea toli Achilles 162.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes
Family: Clupeidae
Genus: Tenualosa
T. toli
Binomial name
Tenualosa toli
(Valenciennes, 1847)

The toli shad or Chinese herring (Tenualosa toli) is a fish of the family Clupeidae, a species of shad distributed in the western Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal to the Java Sea and the South China Sea. It may be found in Mauritius [2] and the Cambodian Mekong near the Vietnam border. [3] It inhabits fast-flowing, turbid estuaries and adjacent coastal waters. [4]

Known as ikan terubok in Malaysia, T. toli is highly prized among Malaysians for its meat and eggs. Overfishing has depleted the population alarmingly in Southeast Asia. [5] Research center and fish farming are carried out by local farmers in many parts of Malaysia for conservation and commercial purposes. [6] [7]

In Bangladesh, where it is known as Ilisha Chandana (চন্দনা ইলিশ), it is commercially less important than T. ilisha . [8] [9] It is known as ငါးသလောက် • (nga:sa.lauk) /ŋəθəlaʊʔ/ in Myanmar, Trey Palung in Cambodia, Bhing in Maharashtra, Palwa in Gujarat, and Ullam / Seriya in Sri Lanka. [10]

In Thailand, T. toli was called Pla talumpuk (ปลาตะลุมพุก) or Pla lumpuk (ปลาหลุมพุก), its name is origin of Laem Talumphuk (Talumphuk Cape) in Amphoe Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, due to in the past, this place is found abundant T. toli. [11]

Ascending rivers to breed, T. toli is distinguished from similar clupeids, except Hilsa kelee (kelee shad or five spot herring), by a distinct median notch in upper jaw. Biology of this protandrous hermaphrodite [12] is presumed to be similar to that of Tenualosa ilisha , but the fewer gill rakers suggest an intake of larger species of zooplankton as food. [13]

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  2. Fricke, R., Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez): an annotated checklist (Vol. 31), 1999, p. 759, Reference 33390, FishBase; Retrieved: 2008-01-13
  3. Rainboth, W.J., Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong, FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes, 1996, p. 265, Reference 12693, FishBase; Retrieved: 2008-01-13
  4. Blaber, S.J.M., J. Pang, P. Wong, O. Boon-Teck, L. Nyigo and D. Lubim, The life history of the tropical shad Tenualosa toli from Sarawak, 1996, p. 225–242, Reference 26929, FishBase; Retrieved: 2008-01-13
  5. S.L. Wong, Bringing Back the Terubok , UNDP, Retrieved: 2010-11-11
  6. "Penternak Ikan Air Tawar 'Berputih Mata'". TRDI (in Malay). 9 September 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  7. "Pengeluaran terubuk Sarawak dipertingkat". Berita Harian (in Malay). 12 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  8. Akhtarunnessa Chowdhury, "Chandana", Banglapedia , Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Retrieved: 2010-11-11
  9. "Study finds male Terubuk changes gender as it matures". The Star . 26 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  10. Tenualosa toli, Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: Field Museum of Natural History, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of Washington Burke Museum, and University of Turku (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal,, Retrieved: 2010-02-22
  11. "วิเคราะห์คอลัมนิสต์". Fahwonmai (in Thai). 2018-07-05. Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  12. Allsop, D.J. and S.A. West, Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish, 2003, p. 921–929, Reference 55367, FishBase; Retrieved: 2008-01-13
  13. Vidthayanon, C., Thailand red data: fishes, 2005, p. 108, Reference 58784, FishBase; Retrieved: 2008-01-13