In 1562, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I formalized a truce made in 1547 between Holy Roman and Ottoman Empires.
The treaty confirmed that the Ottoman Empire kept its gains in central Hungary, while the western and northern Hungary remained under Hapsburg rule.The treaty confirmed that Transylvania remained under Ottoman control.
Maximilian II, a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Niš was a peace treaty signed on 3 October 1739 in Niš, by the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire, to end the Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739. The Russians gave up their claim to Crimea and Moldavia but were allowed to build a port at Azov, though without fortifications and without the right to have a fleet in the Black Sea. The war was the result of a Russian effort to gain Azov and Crimea as a first step towards dominating the Black Sea. The Habsburg Monarchy entered the war in 1737 on the Russian side, but was forced to make peace with Ottomans at the separate Treaty of Belgrade, surrendering Northern Serbia, Northern Bosnia and Oltenia, and allowing the Ottomans to resist the Russian push toward Constantinople. In return, the Sultan acknowledged the Habsburg Emperor as the official protector of all Ottoman Christian subjects, a position also claimed by Russia. The Austrian peace treaty compelled Russia to accept peace at Niš.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century. The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars, waged in Anatolia in the late 13th century before entering Europe in the mid 14th century with the Bulgarian–Ottoman wars. In the mid 15th century, the Serbian–Ottoman wars and the Albanian-Turkish wars were waged by Serbia and Albania respectively against the Ottomans Turks. Much of this period was characterized by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire made further inroads into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, culminating in the peak of Ottoman territorial claims in Europe.
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–1711, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, was a brief military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was caused by the Ottoman Empire's war with Persia and continuing raids by the Crimean Tatars. The war also represented Russia's continuing struggle for access to the Black Sea. In 1737, the Habsburg Monarchy joined the war on Russia's side, known in historiography as the Austro-Turkish War of 1737–1739.
Habsburg Monarchy, or Danubian Monarchy, or Habsburg Empire is a modern umbrella term coined by historians to denote the numerous lands and kingdoms of the Habsburg dynasty, especially for those of the Austrian line. Although from 1438 to 1806, a member of the House of Habsburg was also Holy Roman Emperor, the Holy Roman Empire itself is not considered to have been part of what is now called the Habsburg Monarchy.
John Sigismund Zápolya or Szapolyai was King of Hungary as John II from 1540 to 1551 and from 1556 to 1570, and the first Prince of Transylvania, from 1570 to his death. He was the only son of John I, King of Hungary, and Isabella of Poland. John I ruled parts of the Kingdom of Hungary with the support of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman; the remaining areas were ruled by Ferdinand I of Habsburg, who also ruled Austria and Bohemia. The two kings concluded a peace treaty in 1538 acknowledging Ferdinand's right to reunite Hungary after John I's death, though shortly after John Sigismund's birth, and on his deathbed, John I bequeathed his realm to his son. The late king's staunchest supporters elected the infant John Sigismund king, but he was not crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary.
The Great Turkish War or the Wars of the Holy League was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Holy Roman Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice, Russia, and Habsburg Hungary. Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance.
The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in European history. Except for the war of 1710–11 and the Crimean War, which is often treated as a separate event, the conflicts ended disastrously for the stagnating Ottoman Empire; conversely they showcased the ascendancy of Russia as a European power after the modernisation efforts of Peter the Great in the early 18th century.
The Peace of Zsitvatorok was a peace treaty which ended the Fifteen Years' War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy on 11 November 1606. The treaty was part of a system of peace treaties which put an end to the anti-Habsburg uprising of Stephen Bocskay (1604–1606).
The Treaty of Bakhchisarai or Treaty of Radzin, was signed in Bakhchisaray, which ended the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681), on 3 January 1681 by Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and the Crimean Khanate.
The Peace of Amasya was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
The Battle of Grocka, also known as Battle of Krotzka, was fought between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire on July 21–22, 1739, in Grocka, Belgrade. The Ottomans were victorious and took the city of Belgrade. The battle was part of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars.
The Treaty of ConstantinopleRusso-Ottoman Treaty or Treaty of the Partition of Persia was a treaty concluded on 24 June 1724 between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, dividing large portions of the territory of mutually neighbouring Safavid Iran between them.
The Treaty of Constantinople, also known as the Peace of Istanbul or the Treaty of Ferhad Pasha, was a treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire ending the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590. It was signed on 21 March 1590 in Constantinople. The war started when the Ottomans, then ruled by Murad III, invaded the Safavid possessions in Georgia, during a period of Safavid weakness. With the empire beleaguered on numerous fronts and its domestic control plagued by civil wars and court intrigues, the new Safavid king Abbas I, who had been placed on the throne in 1588, opted for unconditional peace, which led to the treaty. The treaty put an end to 12 years of hostilities between the two arch rivals. While both the war and the treaty were a success for the Ottomans, and severely disadvantageous for the Safavids, the new status quo proved to be short lived, as in the next bout of hostilities, several years later, all Safavid losses were recovered.
The Treaty of Ganja was concluded between the Russian Empire and Iran on 10 March 1735 near the city of Ganja. The treaty established a defensive alliance against the Ottoman Empire, which had suffered a defeat in the Ottoman-Persian war of 1730-35. The Russian government agreed to return the remaining territories in the North Caucasus and South Caucasus, including Derbend and Baku, that had been conquered by Peter I in the 1720s. The treaty also confirmed the provisions of the 1732 Treaty of Resht whereby Russia renounced its claim to Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad, and Iran recognized Vakhtang VI, a pro-Russian Georgian king-in-exile. The treaty provided for Russia a diplomatic advantage in a simmering war with the Ottomans and for the Iranian ruler Nader Shah a respite on the western frontier of his empire.
The siege of Knin was a siege of the city of Knin, the capital of the Kingdom of Croatia, by the Ottoman Empire in 1522. After two failed attempts in 1513 and 1514, Ottoman forces led by Ghazi Husrev Bey, sanjak-bey (governor) of the Sanjak of Bosnia, launched a major offensive on southern Croatia in the spring of 1522. In May, his forces, reinforced with troops from the Sanjak of Herzegovina and Constantinople, besieged the Knin Fortress.
Manuchar III Jaqeli, of the House of Jaqeli, was the last atabeg of the principality of Samtskhe, nominally ruling between 1607–1625. As a child, he accompanied his father, Manuchar II Jaqeli, when the latter settled at the Safavid Iranian court, then located at Qazvin. Later, when the Iranian royal court had already been moved to Isfahan, his mother Elene had been making efforts in order for her son to be able to succeed as the next atabeg. She discussed the matter at court with then incumbent Safavid king Abbas I, Alexander II of Kakheti, as well as the Portuguese diplomat Antonio de Gouvea. With Manuchar III living at the court, Elene herself received "virtually nothing" from Abbas I, although she had offered him sovereignty over Samtskhe. Having been confirmed in 1607 as ruler of Samtskhe by Abbas I, Manuchar III continued to fight the Ottomans in a similar fashion to his father. However, he ceased his activities in 1608, when due to the circumstances, he was forced to flee to Kartli. Following his father's death in 1614, Manuchar III now officially claimed the title of atabeg of Samtskhe and made active efforts to incite anti-Ottoman sentiments in the area. Later, in 1624, he battled against the Ottoman pasha of Erzurum; shortly after, he moved to Kartli once again. There, he supported Giorgi Saakadze against the Iranians, and was reputable at the Battle of Marabda. In 1625, he resumed relations with the Ottomans, who subsequently confirmed him as atabeg of Samtskhe; when he actually returned to Samtskhe however, he was killed (poisoned) by his own uncle Beka Jaqeli, better known as Sefer Pasha. Manuchar III was the last Christian ruler of Samtskhe; upon his death in 1625, the Ottomans completely incorporated the western part of the principality of Samtskhe as a pashalik. In 1639, by the Treaty of Zuhab, they also gained the eastern part, which had been under Safavid control. The members of the House of Jaqeli, who had been at the head of the principality for centuries, converted to Islam, and remained in power as hereditary pashas in the Ottoman service.
The Iran–Turkey border is 534 km in length and runs from the tripoint with Azerbaijan in the north to the tripoint with Iraq in the south.