Treaty of Constantinople (1700)

Last updated

The Treaty of Constantinople or Istanbul was signed on 13 July 1700 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700. Russian tsar Peter the Great secured possession of the Azov region and freed his forces to participate in the Great Northern War. The treaty was superseded by the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711, after the Ottoman Empire became involved in this war.



Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa2.jpg
Sultan Mustafa II

As a member of the anti-Ottoman alliance ("Holy League"), the Tsardom of Russia had fought against the Ottoman Empire in the eastern theater of the Great Turkish War (Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)). When the other members of the league — the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth - had reached their war aims, they concluded a peace with the Ottoman sultan Mustafa II at Karlowitz (1699), which completely ignored Russian interests. [1] The respective negotiations had begun in 1698, when Russia was still campaigning in the lower Dnjepr area and the Strait of Kerch, connecting the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea. [2] Russian tsar Peter the Great joined the negotiations in person and concluded a two-years truce with the Ottoman Empire in Karlowitz (Sremski Karlovci) on 25 December 1698 (O.S.) [3] / 26 January 1699. [2] At this stage, a final Russo-Ottoman settlement was prevented by the discrepancy between Peter's demands, which included protection of the Christians in the Ottoman Balkan provinces, and the military position of Russia, [3] as well as the lack of support by the other Holy League members. [1]

In the fall, the tsar sent Yemelyan Ignatievich Ukraintsev to the sultan's court, the Porte at Constantinople (Istanbul), to negotiate a peace. [4] Ukraintsev arrived on a Russian war ship, the 46-gun frigate Krepost in the early fall of 1699. [4] The primary Russian objectives were Ottoman recognition of the Russian war gains around Azov and a free access to the Black Sea for Russia's commercial vessels. [4] When the negotiations progressed slowly [4] and Peter the Great came under time pressure to attack the Swedish Empire in the Great Northern War (see below), [5] he urged Ukraintsev to come to a peace soon, and the Russian condition of Black Sea access was dropped. [4]


Tsar Peter the Great Peter de Grote.jpg
Tsar Peter the Great

The treaty was concluded on 3 July (O.S.) / 13 July 1700 [3] in Constantinople. [4] The Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire agreed on a truce set to expire in thirty years. [4] The sultan recognized Russia's possession of the Azov area, [2] including Asov and the newly built fortresses of Taganrog, [3] Pavlovsk [ citation needed ], and Mius. [6] Russia dropped her claims to the Kerch Strait, [2] but was relieved from paying the annual tribute to the Crimean Khanate [7] paid since the occupation of Muscovy by the Golden Horde. [3] The fortresses along the Dnieper river, razed by Russian forces, were returned to the Ottoman Empire. [3] The lower Dniepr area, south of the Zaporozhian Sich, and the area between Perekop and Miuskiy Gorodok was declared a demilitarized zone. [2] The sultan asserted that his subordinates, the Crimean Tatars, would not attack Russia; in turn, the tsar promised that his subordinates, the Don Cossacks and Zaporozhian Cossacks, would not attack the Ottoman Empire. [2]

Both parties promised not to build any fortifications along the border. The Ottoman Empire also promised to free Russian prisoners of war. The sultan further allowed free passage for Russian pilgrims to the Holy Land and a Russian diplomatic representation in Constantinople. [8]

Impact of the Great Northern War

The treaty's conclusion and its supersession in 1710 was closely tied to the Great Northern War, which had started shortly before its conclusion. Peter the Great had negotiated a three-front assault on the Swedish Empire with his allies August the Strong of Saxony and Poland–Lithuania and Frederik IV of Denmark-Norway: Peter was to attack Swedish Ingria, August was to attack Swedish Livonia, and Frederik was to attack Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp. [9] Peter's attack however was conditional, it was agreed that it would only start after the Russo-Ottoman peace was concluded. [9] As a consequence, the Russian attack was delayed to a point where Denmark was already defeated when Peter the Great marched his army out of Moscow, [10] enabling Sweden to face the Russian attack on Ingria and successfully repulse it. [11]

The Ottoman Empire became involved in the war nine years later, when Charles XII of Sweden was defeated by Peter the Great in the Battle of Poltava and subsequently encamped the remnants of his army in Ottoman Bender. [12] This led to another confrontation between the sultan and the tsar, culminating in an Ottoman declaration of war and the unsuccessful Russian Pruth Campaign. [12] As a consequence, the treaty of Constantinople was superseded by the Treaty of the Pruth (1711), by which Azov was returned to the sultan and subsequently razed, [12] and the Treaty of Adrianople (1713), which restored peace between the Russian and Ottoman empires scheduled to last twenty-five years. [13] Though the sultan declared war on Peter three times in the time between Pruth and Adrianople, no actual fighting occurred, [13] thus the Pruth treaty effectively ended the Ottoman intervention in the Great Northern War. [12]


  1. 1 2 Anderson (2000), p. 212
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Davies (2007), p. 187
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Torke (1997), p. 110
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Phillips (1995), p. 102
  5. Frost (2000), p. 228; Torke (1997), p. 110
  6. Davies (2007), p. 199.
  7. Davies (2007), p. 187; Torke (1997), p. 110
  8. Oliva (1969), p. 57
  9. 1 2 Frost (2000), p. 228
  10. Frost (2000), p. 229
  11. Frost (2000), p. 230
  12. 1 2 3 4 Frost (2000), p. 294
  13. 1 2 Frost (2000), p. 295

Related Research Articles

Peter the Great Tsar and 1st Emperor, founder of the Russian Empire

Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alekseevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V.

Great Northern War Conflict between mainly the Swedish and Russian empires in 1700–1721

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. George I of Great Britain and the Electorate of Hanover joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715.

Treaty of Karlowitz 1699 peace treaty

The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region.

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, formerly often written Kuchuk-Kainarji, was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74 with many concessions to Russia.

Fyodor Apraksin 17th/18th-century Russian admiral

Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin was one of the first Russian admirals, governed Estonia and Karelia from 1712 to 1723, was made general admiral (1708), presided over the Russian Admiralty from 1718 and commanded the Baltic Fleet from 1723.

Azov campaigns (1695–96)

The Azov campaigns of 1695–96, were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov, which had been blocking Russia's access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea. Since the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 had failed because of the difficulty of moving a large army across the steppe, Peter decided to try a river approach.

Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681)

The 1676-1681 Russo Turkish War, or Chyhyryn Campaign, was the first great war between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Tsardom. During this war, Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha became the grand vizier. As a result of the 5-year war, the Russian Tsardom, which could not be strengthened was defeated, and with the Treaty of Bakhchisarai on January 31, 1681, Chyhyryn Fortress and the rest of the Ukraine were left to the Ottomans.

Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to confront the Ottoman Empire. The larger European conflict was known as the Great Turkish War.

Pruth River Campaign

The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava in the summer of 1709 and the escape of the wounded King Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman fortress of Bender. Sultan Ahmed III declined incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction, prompting Tsar Peter I of Russia to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Tsar Peter signed the Treaty of Lutsk, by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined Russo-Moldavian army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invading the Balkan peninsula.

The Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was caused by the Ottoman Empire's war with Persia and continuing raids by the Crimean Tatars. The war also represented Russia's continuing struggle for access to the Black Sea. In 1737, the Habsburg Monarchy joined the war on Russia's side, known in historiography as the Austro-Turkish War of 1737–1739.

In diplomatic history, the Eastern Question was the issue of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries and the subsequent strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great powers in light of this. Characterized as the "sick man of Europe", the relative weakening of the empire's military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century threatened to undermine the fragile balance of power system largely shaped by the Concert of Europe. The Eastern Question encompassed myriad interrelated elements: Ottoman military defeats, Ottoman institutional insolvency, the ongoing Ottoman political and economic modernization programme, the rise of ethno-religious nationalism in its provinces, and Great Power rivalries.

Fyodor Alexeyevich Golovin

Count Feodor Alekseyevich Golovin was the last Russian boyar and the first Chancellor of the Russian Empire, field marshal, general admiral (1700). Until his death he was the most influential of Peter the Great's associates.

The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in European history. Except for the war of 1710–11 and the Crimean War, which is often treated as a separate event, the conflicts ended disastrously for the stagnating Ottoman Empire; conversely they showcased the ascendancy of Russia as a European power after the modernisation efforts of Peter the Great in the early 18th century.

Treaty of the Pruth

The Treaty of the Pruth was signed on the banks of the river Pruth between the Ottoman Empire and the Tsardom of Russia on 23 July 1711 ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711. The treaty was a political victory for Ottoman Empire.

Danubian Sich

The Danubian Sich was an organization of the part of former Zaporozhian Cossacks who settled in the territory of the Ottoman Empire after their previous host was disbanded and the Zaporizhian Sich was destroyed.

Peace of Travendal

The Peace of Travendal was a peace treaty concluded at the outset of the Great Northern War on 18 August 1700 between the Swedish Empire, Denmark–Norway and Holstein-Gottorp in Traventhal. Denmark had to return Holstein-Gottorp to its duke, a Swedish ally, and to leave the anti-Swedish alliance. The Danes only reentered the war after Sweden's major defeat in the Battle of Poltava, 1709, having used the time to reform their army. The treaty was guaranteed by France, the Holy Roman Empire, the United Provinces (Netherlands) and Great Britain.

The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War. The faction of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth loyal to Augustus the Strong joined the anti-Swedish alliance between the Saxon electorate and the Tsardom of Russia.

Devlet II Giray was Khan of the Crimean Khanate from 1699 to 1702 and from 1709 to 1713. His eldest son was Selim II Giray.

The Treaty of Adrianople, also called the Treaty of Edirne, was signed on 24 June 1713 between the Ottoman Empire and the Tsardom of Russia and confirmed the Treaty of the Pruth of 1711, which had ended the Pruth River Campaign (1710–1711).

Azov Fortress

The Azov Fortress is a fortified complex in Azov, Rostov oblast, Russia, overlooking the Don River and the Port of Azov to the north. It includes a rampart, watchtowers and gates. The Azov fortress was founded by Turks on behalf of the Ottoman Empire in 1475. It guarded the northern approaches to the Empire and access to the Azov Sea. After a series of conflicts, a peace treaty was signed in Constantinople on July 13, 1700 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The sultan recognized Russia's possession of the Azov area.