|Native name||Днепр (Russian)|
|• location||Valdai Hills, Russia|
|• elevation||220 m (720 ft)|
|0 m (0 ft)|
|Length||2,201 km (1,368 mi)|
|Basin size||504,000 km2 (195,000 sq mi)|
|• average||1,670 m3/s (59,000 cu ft/s)|
|• left||Sozh, Desna, Trubizh, Supiy, Sula, Psel, Vorskla, Samara, Konka, Bilozerka|
|• right||Drut, Berezina, Prypiat, Teteriv, Irpin, Stuhna, Ros, Tiasmyn, Bazavluk, Inhulets|
|Official name||Dnieper River Floodplain|
|Designated||29 May 2014|
|Settlements next to the Dnieper|
blank spaces indicate as place above (")
The Dnieper /() / is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and Belarus and the fourth-longest river in Europe, after Volga, Danube and Ural. The total length is approximately 2,200 km (1,400 mi) with a drainage basin of 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi). Historically, the river was an important barrier, dividing Ukraine into right and left banks. Nowadays, the river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations. The Dnieper is an important navigable waterway for the economy of Ukraine and is connected via the Dnieper–Bug Canal to other waterways in Europe.
In antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks as the Borysthenes and was part of the Amber Road.
The name Dnieper may be derived either from Sarmatian Dānu apara "the river on the far side" or from Scythian Dānu apr (Dānapr) "deep river". By way of contrast, the name Dniester either derives from "the close river" or from a combination of Scythian Dānu (river) and Ister, the Thracian name for the Dniester.
In the languages of the three countries it flows through it has essentially the same name, albeit with different pronunciations:
The river is mentioned both by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century BC as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης). [ better source needed ]
The total length of the river is variously given as 2,145 kilometres (1,333 mi) or 2,201 km (1,368 mi), of which 485 km (301 mi) are within Russia, 700 km (430 mi) are within Belarus, and 1,095 km (680 mi) are within Ukraine. Its basin covers 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi), of which 289,000 km2 (112,000 sq mi) are within Ukraine, 118,360 km2 (45,700 sq mi) are within Belarus.
The source of the Dnieper is the sedge bogs (Akseninsky Mokh) of the Valdai Hills in central Russia, at an elevation of 220 m (720 ft). For 115 km (71 mi) of its length, it serves as the border between Belarus and Ukraine. Its estuary, or liman, used to be defended by the strong fortress of Ochakiv.[ citation needed ]
The southernmost point in Belarus is on the Dnieper to the south of Kamaryn in Brahin Raion.
The Dnieper has many tributaries (up to 32,000) with 89 being rivers of 100+ km.The main ones are, from its source to its mouth:
Many small direct tributaries also exist, such as, in the Kyiv area, the Syrets (right bank) in the north of the city, the historically significant Lybid (right bank) passing west of the centre, and the Borshahivka (right bank) to the south.
The water resources of the Dnieper basin compose around 80% out of all Ukraine.
Dnieper Rapids were part of trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, first mentioned in the Kyiv Chronicle[ clarification needed ]. The route was probably established in the late eighth and early ninth centuries and gained significant importance from the tenth until the first third of the eleventh century. On the Dnieper the Varangians had to portage their ships round seven rapids, where they had to be on guard for Pecheneg nomads.
Along this middle flow of the Dnieper, there were nine major rapids (although some sources cite a fewer number of them), obstructing almost the whole width of the river, about 30–40 smaller rapids, obstructing only part of the river, and about 60 islands and islets.
After the Dnieper hydroelectric station was built in 1932, they were inundated by Dnieper Reservoir.
There are a number of canals connected to the Dnieper:
The river is part of the quagga mussel's native range.The mussel has been accidentally introduced around the world, where it has become an invasive species.
The city of Kherson is nearest to the Dnieper estuary. It has no large port facilities.
Nowadays the Dnieper River suffers from anthropogenic influence and obtain numerous emissions of pollutants.The Dnieper is close to the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant radioactive dumps (near Kamianske), and susceptible to leakages of radioactive waste. The river is also close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Chernobyl Exclusion Zone) that is located next to the mouth of the Prypiat River.
Almost 2,000 km (1,200 mi) of the river is navigational (to the city of Dorogobuzh). The Dnieper is important for the transport and economy of Ukraine [ citation needed ]: its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to 270 by 18 metres (886 ft × 59 ft) to access as far as the port of Kyiv and thus create an important transport corridor.[ citation needed ] The river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers Danube and Dnieper have been a growing market in recent decades.[ citation needed ]
Upstream from Kyiv, the Dnieper receives the water of the Pripyat River. This navigable river connects to the Dnieper-Bug canal, the link with the Bug River. Historically, a connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a weir without any ship lock near the town of Brest, Belarus, has interrupted this international waterway. Poor political relations between Western Europe and Belarus mean there is little likelihood of reopening this waterway in the near future.River navigation is interrupted each year by freezing in winter, and severe winter storms.
From the mouth of the Prypiat River to the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station, there are six sets of dams and hydroelectric stations, which produce 10% of Ukraine's electricity.
The first constructed was the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (or DniproHES) near Zaporizhzhia, built between 1927 and 1932 with an output of 558 MW.[ citation needed ] It was destroyed during World War II, but was rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW.[ citation needed ]
|Location||Dam||Reservoir area||Hydroelection station||Date of construction|
|Kyiv||Kyiv Reservoir||922 km2 or 356 sq mi||Kyiv Hydroelectric Station||1960–1964|
|Kaniv||Kaniv Reservoir||675 km2 or 261 sq mi||Kaniv Hydroelectric Station||1963–1975|
|Kremenchuk||Kremenchuk Reservoir||2,250 km2 or 870 sq mi||Kremenchuk Hydroelectric Station||1954–1960|
|Kamianske||Kamianske Reservoir||567 km2 or 219 sq mi||Middle Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant||1956–1964|
|Zaporizhzhia||Dnieper Reservoir||420 km2 or 160 sq mi||Dnieper Hydroelectric Station||1927–1932; 1948|
|Kakhovka||Kakhovka Reservoir||2,155 km2 or 832 sq mi||Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station||1950–1956|
[ citation needed ]
Major cities, over 100,000 in population, are in bold script. Cities and towns located on the Dnieper are listed in order from the river's source (in Russia) to its mouth (in Ukraine):
Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.
The River Dnieper has been a subject of chapter X of a story by Nikolai Gogol A Terrible Vengeance (1831, published in 1832 as a part of the Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka short stories collection). It is considered as a classical example of description of the nature in Russian literature. The river was also described in the works of Taras Shevchenko.
In the adventure novel The Long Ships (also translated Red Orm), set during the Viking Age, a Scanian chieftain travels to the Dnieper Rapids to retrieve a treasure hidden there by his brother, encountering many difficulties. The novel was very popular in Sweden and is one of few to depict a Viking voyage to eastern Europe.
The River Dnieper has been a subject for artists, great and minor, over the centuries. Major artists with works based on the Dnieper are Arkhip Kuindzhi and Ivan Aivazovsky.
The River Dnieper makes an appearance in the 1964 Hungarian drama film The Sons of the Stone-Hearted Man (based on the novel of the same name by Mór Jókai), where it appears when two characters are leaving Saint Petersburg but get attacked by wolves.
In 1983, the concert program "Song of the Dnieper" from the "Victory Salute" series was released, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the liberation of the city of Kiev from the German fascist invaders. The program includes songs by Soviet composers, Ukrainian folk songs and dances performed by the Song and Dance Ensemble of the Kiev Military District led by A. Pustovalov, P. Virsky Ukrainian National Folk Dance Ensemble, Kyiv Bandurist Capella, the Military Band of the Headquarters of the Kiev Military District led by A. Kuzmenko, singers Anatoliy Mokrenko, Lyudmila Zykina, Anatoliy Solovianenko, Dmytro Hnatyuk, Mykola Hnatyuk. Filming on the battlefield, streets and squares of Kiev. Scriptwriter - Victor Meerovsky. Directed by Victor Cherkasov. Operator - Alexander Platonov.
In 1941, Mark Fradkin wrote "Song of the Dnieper" to the words of Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky.
The importance of Chernobyl' for Soviet industry is best illustrated by comparing it to the key energy project of Stalin's industrialization, the famous Dnieper hydroelectric station, completed in 1932. The largest European hydroelectric station of its time, it had a capacity of 560 MW.
Transport in Ukraine includes ground transportation, water, air transportation, and pipelines. The transportation sector accounts for roughly 11% of the country's gross domestic product and 7% of total employment.
The Dniester is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine and then through Moldova, finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again.
The Pripyat or Prypiat is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately 761 km (473 mi) long. It flows east through Ukraine, Belarus, and Ukraine again, draining into the Dnieper.
Kyiv Oblast is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Kyiv, which is also the capital of Ukraine. Despite being in the center of the Kyiv Oblast, and hosting the governing bodies of the oblast, Kyiv is a self-governing city with special status and not under oblast jurisdiction.
Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, is an oblast (province) of central and eastern Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. It was created on February 27, 1932. Dnipropetrovsk Oblast has a population of about 3,142,035 , approximately 80% of whom live centering on administrative center of Dnipro, Kryvyi Rih, Kamianske, Nikopol and Pavlohrad. The Dnipro River (Dnieper) runs through the oblast.
The Volkhov is a river in Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It connects Lake Ilmen and Lake Ladoga and forms part of the basin of the Neva. The length of the river is 224 kilometres (139 mi), and the area of its drainage basin is 80,200 square kilometres (31,000 sq mi). The city of Veliky Novgorod, the towns of Kirishi, Volkhov and Novaya Ladoga, and the historically important village of Staraya Ladoga are located along the Volkhov.
Dnipro (Ukrainian: Дніпро [dniˈprɔ]; previously called Dnipropetrovsk from 1926 until May 2016, is Ukraine's fourth-largest city, with about one million inhabitants. It is located in the eastern part of Ukraine, 391 kilometres southeast of the Ukrainian capital Kyiv on the Dnieper River, after which it is named. Dnipro is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. It hosts the administration of Dnipro urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.It has a population of 980,948.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Romans was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire. The route allowed merchants along its length to establish a direct prosperous trade with the Empire, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of present-day Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The majority of the route comprised a long-distance waterway, including the Baltic Sea, several rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea, and rivers of the Dnieper river system, with portages on the drainage divides. An alternative route was along the Dniestr river with stops on the Western shore of Black Sea. These more specific sub-routes are sometimes referred to as the Dnieper trade route and Dniestr trade route, respectively.
Zaporizhzhia, Zaporizhia, or Zaporizhzhya, also known as Zaporozhye and formerly as Alexandrovsk or Oleksandrivsk, is a city in south-eastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnipro. It is the administrative centre of the Zaporizhzhia Oblast (region). Zaporizhzhia has a population of 722,713
The Dnieper–Bug Canal, or the Dneprovsko-Bugsky Canal is the longest inland ship canal in Belarus. It connects the Mukhavets River and the Pina River.
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, located in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine. It is the fifth step of Dnieper hydroelectric stations cascade that provides electric power for Donets–Kryvyi Rih Industrial region.
Khortytsia is the largest island in the River Dnieper, and is 12.5 kilometres long and up to 2.5 kilometres wide. The island forms part of the Khortytsia National Park. This historic site is located within the city limits of Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine.
The Kyiv Cistern, locally the Kyiv Sea, is a large water reservoir located on the Dnieper River in Ukraine. Named after the city of Kyiv, which lies to the south, it covers a total area of 922 square kilometres (356 sq mi) within the Kyiv Oblast. The reservoir was formed in 1960-1966, as a result of the Kyiv Hydroelectric Power Plant dam being built at Vyshhorod. The reservoir is mainly used for hydroelectricity generation, industrial and public consumption, and irrigation.
The Dnieper River system of dams was created to prevent uncontrolled flooding and improve water transportation infrastructure. Coordination and operation of all dams on Dnieper is conducted by government company Ukrhydroenergo. The system of dams is also known as Dnieper Cascade of HES. In 1970, the Kyiv dam partially prevented flooding in comparison with the 1931 Kyiv flooding.
Boryspil Raion is an administrative raion (district) in east-central Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center is the town of Boryspil. Population: 203,273 .
The Belarusian-Ukrainian border is the state border between Belarus and Ukraine with a length of about 1,084 km (674 mi). It starts from the triple junction with Poland to the west and stretches to the triple junction with Russia to the east. The tripoint border at the triple border junction of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine is marked in the form of a monument, while at the other border junction there is a river, the Western Bug that coincides with the border of Poland.
The Dnieper Rapids are the historical rapids on the Dnieper river composed of outcrops of granites, gneisses and other types of bedrock of the Ukrainian Shield. The rapids began below the present-day city of Dnipro where the river turns to the south, and dropped 50 meters in 66 kilometers, ending before the present-day city of Zaporizhzhia.
The Black Sea drainage basin is served by approx. 25 large rivers flowing from 24 countries, mainly from Europe, Central Asia, and Turkey.
Waterway E40 is a planned navigable transport route that aims to connect the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.