Washtub bass

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A small washtub bass being played Washtub-bass-Kianti-Ecolove.png
A small washtub bass being played

The washtub bass, or gutbucket, is a stringed instrument used in American folk music that uses a metal washtub as a resonator. Although it is possible for a washtub bass to have four or more strings and tuning pegs, traditional washtub basses have a single string whose pitch is adjusted by pushing or pulling on a staff or stick to change the tension.

Contents

The washtub bass was used in jug bands that were popular in some African American communities in the early 1900s. In the 1950s, British skiffle bands used a variant called a tea chest bass, and during the 1960s, US folk musicians used the washtub bass in jug band-influenced music.

Variations on the basic design are found around the world, particularly in the choice of resonator. As a result, there are many different names for the instrument including the "gas-tank bass", "barrel bass", "box bass" (Trinidad), "bush bass" (Australia), "babatoni" (South Africa), "tanbou marengwen" (Haiti) "tingotalango" (Cuba), "tulòn" (Italy), "laundrophone" and others.

The hallmarks of the traditional design are simplicity, very low cost and do it yourself construction, leading to its historical association with lower economic classes. These factors also make it quite common for modern-day builders to promote modifications to the basic design, such as adding a finger board, pedal, electronic pickup, drumhead, or making the staff immovable.

History

Electric "inbindi" bass which is amplified by a public address system ElectricInbindiBass.jpg
Electric "inbindi" bass which is amplified by a public address system

Ethnomusicologists trace the origins of the instrument to the 'ground bow' or 'ground harp' – a version that uses a piece of bark or an animal skin stretched over a pit as a resonator. The ang-bindi made by the Baka people of the Congo is but one example of this instrument found among tribal societies in Africa and Southeast Asia, and it lends its name to the generic term inbindi for all related instruments. Evolution of design, including the use of more portable resonators, has led to many variations, such as the dan bau (Vietnam) and gopichand (India), and more recently, the "electric one-string", which amplifies the sound using a pickup.

The washtub bass is sometimes used in a jug band, often accompanied by a washboard as a percussion instrument. Jug bands, first known as "spasm bands", were popular especially among African-Americans around 1900 in New Orleans and reached a height of popularity between 1925 and 1935 in Memphis and Louisville.

At about the same time, European-Americans of Appalachia were using the instrument in "old-timey" folk music. A musical style known as "gut-bucket blues" came out of the jug band scene, and was cited by Sam Phillips of Sun Records as the type of music he was seeking when he first recorded Elvis Presley.

According to Willie "The Lion" Smith's autobiography, the term "gutbucket" comes from "Negro families" who all owned their own pail, or bucket, and would get it filled with the makings for chitterlings. The term "gutbucket" came from playing a lowdown style of music. [1]

In English skiffle bands, Australian and New Zealand bush bands and South African kwela bands, the same sort of bass has a tea chest as a resonator. The Quarrymen, John Lennon and Paul McCartney's band before the Beatles, featured a tea-chest bass, as did many young bands around 1956.

A folk music revival in the U.S. in the early 1960s re-ignited interest in the washtub bass and jug band music. Bands included Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, which later became The Grateful Dead, and the Jim Kweskin Jug Band, which featured Fritz Richmond on bass.

Tea chest bass

Tea chest bass Rhoener Saeuwaentzt Guenther.jpg
Tea chest bass

A tea chest bass is a variation of the washtub bass that uses a tea chest as the resonator for an upright stringed bass. The instrument is made from a pole, traditionally a broomstick, placed into or alongside the chest. One or more strings are stretched along the pole and plucked.

In Europe, particularly Britain and Germany, the instrument is associated with skiffle bands. In Australia it was traditionally used to provide deep sounds for "bush bands", though most such groups today use electric bass or double bass. It was commonly called a "bush bass".

Other variations

Gum Tree Bush band has a tea chest player. Gumtreebushband.jpg
Gum Tree Bush band has a tea chest player.

Other variations on the basic design are found around the world, particularly in the choice of resonator, for example:

Notable players

Don Bexley and Redd Foxx in episode of Sanford and Son. Redd Foxx Don Bexley Sanford and Son 1976.JPG
Don Bexley and Redd Foxx in episode of Sanford and Son.

Related Research Articles

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Jug band Band employing a jug player

A jug band is a band employing a jug player and a mix of conventional and homemade instruments. These homemade instruments are ordinary objects adapted to or modified for making sound, like the washtub bass, washboard, spoons, bones, stovepipe, jew's harp, and comb and tissue paper. The term jug band is loosely used in referring to ensembles that also incorporate homemade instruments but that are more accurately called skiffle bands, spasm bands, or juke bands because they do not include a jug player.

Washboard (musical instrument)

The washboard and frottoir are used as a percussion instrument, employing the ribbed metal surface of the cleaning device as a rhythm instrument. As traditionally used in jazz, zydeco, skiffle, jug band, and old-time music, the washboard remained in its wooden frame and is played primarily by tapping, but also scraping the washboard with thimbles. Often the washboard has additional traps, such as a wood block, a cowbell, and even small cymbals. Conversely, the frottoir dispenses with the frame and consists simply of the metal ribbing hung around the neck. It is played primarily with spoon handles or bottle openers in a combination of strumming, scratching, tapping and rolling. The frottoir or vest frottoir is played as a stroked percussion instrument, often in a band with a drummer, while the washboard generally is a replacement for drums. In Zydeco bands, the frottoir is usually played with bottle openers, to make a louder sound. It tends to play counter-rhythms to the drummer. In a jug band, the washboard can also be stroked with a single whisk broom and functions as the drums for the band, playing only on the back-beat for most songs, a substitute for a snare drum. In a four-beat measure, the washboard will stroke on the 2-beat and the 4-beat. Its best sound is achieved using a single steel-wire snare-brush or whisk broom. However, in a jazz setting, the washboard can also be played with thimbles on all fingers, tapping out much more complex rhythms, as in The Washboard Rhythm Kings, a full-sized band, and Newman Taylor Baker.

The Quarrymen British skiffle/rock and roll group, by John Lennon 1956

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Lonnie Donegan

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Memphis Jug Band

The Memphis Jug Band was an American musical group active from the mid-1920s to the late 1950s. The band featured harmonica, kazoo, fiddle and mandolin or banjolin, backed by guitar, piano, washboard, washtub bass and jug. They played slow blues, pop songs, humorous songs and upbeat dance numbers with jazz and string band flavors. The band made the first commercial recordings in Memphis, Tennessee, and recorded more sides than any other prewar jug band.

Folk instrument

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Cigar box guitar

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Pogo cello

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<i>Mother McCrees Uptown Jug Champions</i> (album) 1999 live album by Mother McCrees Uptown Jug Champions

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The Uhadi musical bow is a traditional Xhosa musical instrument. It is a large unembraced musical bow which is attached to a resonator and played by percussion. The length of the string bow ranges from 115 to 130 centimeters. Similar musical bows in Southern Africa include the ‘’thomo’’ in Sotho music and the ‘’ugubhu’’ in Zulu music.

References

  1. Smith, Willie the Lion (1964). Music on My Mind: The Memoirs of an American Pianist, Foreword by Duke Ellington. New York City: Doubleday & Company Inc. p. 11.
  2. "Fritz Richmond, 66, a Master of the Jug and Washtub Bass, Is Dead", AP/New York Times, November 24, 2005
  3. No label, recorded live in Austria at Jazz-Pub Wiesen and at Montage-Recording, August 1978
  4. Le Chant Du Monde – LDX 274 972, France, 1994
  5. Bass Player Magazine, May 2006
  6. "Before they were Beatles, they were Quarrymen", Gillian G. Gaar, Goldmine Magazine, November 28, 2012
  7. "Lonnie Donegan and the Birth of British Rock and Roll", Patrick Humphries, Biteback Publishing, 2012
  8. Byarlay, Ryan (10 May 2009). "Redd Foxx (1922-1991)". Blackpast.org. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  9. Ed Ward. "40th anniversary re-issue liner notes. Willy and the Poor Boys" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  10. "Neil Diamond, Mama Cass Elliot, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Sergio Mendes & Brasil '66, Smokey Robinson & The Miracles". IMDb.com. 1 December 1969. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  11. Shoostryng Records, re-issued 1995 by Gadfly Records as Breezes