Achilles bursitis

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Achilles bursitis
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Achilles bursitis is bursitis (inflammation of synovial sac) of bursa situated above the insertion of tendon to calcaneus. [1] It results from overuse and wearing of tight shoes. [2] [3]

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Achilles tendon tendon at the back of the lower leg

The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon at the back of the lower leg, and is the thickest in the human body. It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone. These muscles, acting via the tendon, cause plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle joint, and flexion at the knee.

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Bursitis Human disease

Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae of synovial fluid in the body. They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid. There are more than 150 bursae in the human body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem. Muscle can also be stiffened.

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Prepatellar bursitis Inflammation of the prepatellar bursa at the front of the knee

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Subacromial bursitis

Subacromial bursitis is a condition caused by inflammation of the bursa that separates the superior surface of the supraspinatus tendon from the overlying coraco-acromial ligament, acromion, and coracoid and from the deep surface of the deltoid muscle. The subacromial bursa helps the motion of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff in activities such as overhead work.

Pes anserinus refers to the conjoined tendons of three muscles that insert onto the anteromedial surface of the proximal tibia. The muscles are the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus sometimes referred to as the guy ropes. The name "goose foot" arises from the three-pronged manner in which the conjoined tendon inserts onto the tibia.

Infrapatellar bursitis

Infrapatellar bursitis is inflammation of the superficial or deep infrapatellar bursa. Symptoms may include knee pain, swelling, and redness just below the kneecap. It may be complicated by patellar tendonitis.

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Pes anserine bursitis

Pes anserine bursitis is an inflammatory condition of the medial (inner) knee at the anserine bursa, a sub muscular bursa, just below the pes anserinus.

Knee pain

Knee pain is pain in or around the knee.

Calcific bursitis

Calcific bursitis refers to calcium deposits within the bursae. This most occurs in the shoulder area. The most common bursa for calcific bursitis to occur is the subacromial bursa. A bursa is a small, fluid-filled sac that reduces friction, and facilitates movements between its adjacent tissues. Inflammation of the bursae is called bursitis.

Retrocalcaneal bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa located between the calcaneus and the anterior surface of the Achilles tendon. It commonly occurs in association with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, gout, and trauma.

Ischial bursitis is inflammation of the synovial bursa located between gluteus maximus muscle and ischial tuberosity.

Iliopsoas bursitis is inflammation of a bursa lying between iliopsoas muscle and hip joint, lateral to femoral vessels. Pain is experienced over the same area and made worse by extension of hip joint.

References

  1. Fauci, Anthony (2010). Harrison's Rheumatology, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing; Digital Edition. p. 271. ISBN   9780071741460.
  2. Frontera, Walter R.; Silver, Julie K.; Rizzo, Thomas D. (2014). Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 440. ISBN   9780323222723 . Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  3. Micheli, Lyle J. (2010). Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine. SAGE. p. 9. ISBN   9781412961158 . Retrieved 7 November 2017.
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