|The cut surface of desmoid-type fibromatosis is firm, white, and whorled. The white tumor infiltrates the adjacent skeletal muscle (red tissue - lower left) and fat (yellow tissue - upper left). This tendency for invasion of adjacent normal tissues and structures is the reason that desmoid-type fibromatosis has a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal.|
The term fibromatosis refers to a group of soft tissue tumorswhich have certain characteristics in common, including absence of cytologic and clinical malignant features, a histology consistent with proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts, an infiltrative growth pattern, and aggressive clinical behavior with frequent local recurrence. It is classed by the World Health Organization as an intermediate soft tissue tumor related to the sarcoma family.
Subtypes of fibromatosis include -[ citation needed ]
Treatment is mainly surgical; radiotherapy or chemotherapy is usually an indication of relapse[ clarification needed ]. Head and neck desmoid fibromatosis is a serious condition due to local aggression, specific anatomical patterns and the high rate of relapse. For children surgery is particularly difficult, given the potential for growth disorders.
Treatment includes prompt radical excision with a wide margin and/or radiation. Despite their local infiltrative and aggressive behavior, mortality is minimal to nonexistent for peripheral tumours. In intra-abdominal fibromatosis associated with Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), surgery is avoided if possible due to high rates of recurrence within the abdomen carrying significant morbidity and mortality. Conversely, for intra-abdominal fibromatosis without evidence of FAP extensive surgery may still be required for local symptoms, but the risk of recurrence is low.
Other names include "musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis," referring to the tendency of these tumors to be adjacent to and infiltrating deep skeletal muscle, aggressive fibromatosis and "desmoid tumor." A clear difference should be made between intra-abdominal and extra-abdominal localizations. Fibromatosis is a different entity from neurofibromatosis.[ citation needed ]
In anatomy, a polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk, it is said to be pedunculated; if it is attached without a stalk, it is said to be sessile. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, ear, sinus(es), urinary bladder, and uterus. They may also occur elsewhere in the body where there are mucous membranes, including the cervix, vocal folds, and small intestine. Some polyps are tumors (neoplasms) and others are non-neoplastic, for example hyperplastic or dysplastic. The neoplastic ones are usually benign, although some can be pre-malignant, or concurrent with a malignancy.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs arise in the smooth muscle pacemaker interstitial cell of Cajal, or similar cells. They are defined as tumors whose behavior is driven by mutations in the KIT gene (85%), PDGFRA gene (10%), or BRAF kinase (rare). 95% of GISTs stain positively for KIT (CD117). Most (66%) occur in the stomach and gastric GISTs have a lower malignant potential than tumors found elsewhere in the GI tract.
Gardner's syndrome is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Gardner syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with tumors outside the colon. The extracolonic tumors may include osteomas of the skull, thyroid cancer, epidermoid cysts, fibromas, as well as the occurrence of desmoid tumors in approximately 15% of affected individuals.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine. While these polyps start out benign, malignant transformation into colon cancer occurs when they are left untreated. Three variants are known to exist, FAP and attenuated FAP are caused by APC gene defects on chromosome 5 while autosomal recessive FAP is caused by defects in the MUTYH gene on chromosome 1. Of the three, FAP itself is the most severe and most common; although for all three, the resulting colonic polyps and cancers are initially confined to the colon wall. Detection and removal before metastasis outside the colon can greatly reduce and in many cases eliminate the spread of cancer.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare locally aggressive malignant cutaneous soft-tissue sarcoma. DFSP develops in the connective tissue cells in the middle layer of the skin (dermis). Estimates of the overall occurrence of DFSP in the United States are 0.8 to 4.5 cases per million persons per year. In the United States, DFSP accounts for between 1 and 6 percent of all soft tissue sarcomas and 18 percent of all cutaneous soft tissue sarcomas. In the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) tumor registry from 1992 through 2004, DFSP was second only to Kaposi sarcoma.
Ileostomy is a stoma constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine out onto the surface of the skin, or the surgical procedure which creates this opening. Intestinal waste passes out of the ileostomy and is collected in an external ostomy system which is placed next to the opening. Ileostomies are usually sited above the groin on the right hand side of the abdomen.
Duodenal cancer is a cancer in the first section of the small intestine known as the duodenum. Cancer of the duodenum is relatively rare compared to stomach cancer and colorectal cancer. Its histology is usually adenocarcinoma.
Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor (DSRCT) is an aggressive and rare cancer that primarily occurs as masses in the abdomen. Other areas affected may include the lymph nodes, the lining of the abdomen, diaphragm, spleen, liver, chest wall, skull, spinal cord, large intestine, small intestine, bladder, brain, lungs, testicles, ovaries, and the pelvis. Reported sites of metastatic spread include the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, brain, skull, and bones. It is characterized by the EWS-WT1 fusion protein.
Plantar fascial fibromatosis, also known as Ledderhose's disease, Morbus Ledderhose, and plantar fibromatosis, is a relatively uncommon non-malignant thickening of the feet's deep connective tissue, or fascia. In the beginning, where nodules start growing in the fascia of the foot the disease is minor. Over time walking becomes painful. The disease is named after Dr. Georg Ledderhose, a German surgeon who described the condition for the first time in 1894. A similar disease is Dupuytren's disease, which affects the hand and causes bent hand or fingers.
Hepatoblastoma is an uncommon malignant liver cancer occurring in infants and children and composed of tissue resembling fetal liver cells, mature liver cells, or bile duct cells. They usually present with an abdominal mass. The disease is most commonly diagnosed during a child's first three years of life. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are commonly elevated, but when AFP is not elevated at diagnosis the prognosis is poor.
A hemangiopericytoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma that originates in the pericytes in the walls of capillaries. When inside the nervous system, although not strictly a meningioma tumor, it is a meningeal tumor with a special aggressive behavior. It was first characterized in 1942.
A blastoma is a type of cancer, more common in children, that is caused by malignancies in precursor cells, often called blasts. Examples are nephroblastoma, medulloblastoma, and retinoblastoma. The suffix -blastoma is used to imply a tumor of primitive, incompletely differentiated cells, e.g., chondroblastoma is composed of cells resembling the precursor of chondrocytes.
Ganglioglioma is a rare, slow-growing primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor which most frequently occurs in the temporal lobes of children and young adults.
Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare condition marked by the presence of desmoid tumors. Desmoid tumors arise from cells called fibroblasts, which are found throughout the body and provide structural support, protection to the vital organs, and play a critical role in wound healing. These tumors tend to occur in women in their thirties, but can occur in anyone at any age. They can be either relatively slow-growing or malignant. However, aggressive fibromatosis is locally aggressive and can cause life-threatening problems or even death when they compress vital organs such as intestines, kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, or nerves. Most cases are sporadic, but some are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Approximately 10% of individuals with Gardner's syndrome, a type of FAP with extracolonic features, have desmoid tumors.
Granular cell tumor is a tumor that can develop on any skin or mucosal surface, but occurs on the tongue 40% of the time.
Exisulind is an antineoplastic agent. It acts by inhibiting the enzyme cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase type 5. It is the sulfone derivative of sulindac, an NSAID. Unlike sulindac, it has known effects on prostaglandin synthesis. It was developed as the potential treatment of several conditions including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), precancerous sporadic colonic polyps, cervical dysplasia and the prevention of tumor recurrence in prostate and breast cancer. Exisulind inhibits the enzyme cGMP-PDE, overexpressed in precancerous and cancerous colorectal cells, and induces apoptosis in such cells with minimal effects on normal cells. This apoptotic effect is independent of COX-1 or COX-2 inhibition, p53, Bcl-2, or cell cycle arrest. Preclinical evidence suggests that exisulind also inhibits angiogenesis.
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver. Cancer which has spread from elsewhere to the liver, known as liver metastasis, is more common than that which starts in the liver. Symptoms of liver cancer may include a lump or pain in the right side below the rib cage, swelling of the abdomen, yellowish skin, easy bruising, weight loss and weakness.
A colorectal polyp is a polyp occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum. Untreated colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer.
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma, while rare, is the most common kidney neoplasm diagnosed in the first three months of life and accounts for 3-5% of all childhood renal neoplasms. This neoplasm is generally non-aggressive and amenable to surgical removal. However, a readily identifiable subset of these kidney tumors has a more malignant potential and is capable of causing life-threatening metastases. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma was first named as such in 1967 but was recognized decades before this as fetal renal hamartoma or leiomyomatous renal hamartoma.
Nuchal-type fibroma is a rare benign proliferation involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissues, that is a collection of dense, hypocellular bundles of collagen with entrapped adipocytes and increased numbers of small nerves. It is no longer called a nuchal fibroma, but instead a "nuchal-type fibroma" since it develops in other anatomic sites. There is no known etiology.