|Specialty|| Physical medicine and rehabilitation |
Tenosynovitis is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath (called the synovium) that surrounds a tendon, typically leading to joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Tenosynovitis can be either infectious or noninfectious. Common clinical manifestations of noninfectious tenosynovitis include de Quervain tendinopathy and stenosing tenosynovitis (more commonly known as trigger finger)
Infectious tenosynovitis occurs between 2.5% and 9.4% of all hand infections. Kanavel's cardinal signs is used to diagnose infectious tenosynovitis. They are: tenderness to touch along the flexor aspect of the finger, fusiform enlargement of the affected finger, the finger being held in slight flexion at rest, and severe pain with passive extension.Fever may also be present but is uncommon.
Infectious tenosynovitis is the infection of closed synovial sheaths in the flexor tendons of the fingers. It is usually caused by trauma, but bacteria can spread from other sites of the body. Although tenosynovitis usually affects the flexor tendon of the fingers, the disease can also affect the extensor tendons occasionally.The clinical presentation is therefore as acute infection following trauma. The infection can be mono- or polymicrobial and can vary depending on the nature of the trauma. The most common pathogenic agent is Staphylococcus aureus introduced from the skin. Other bacteria linked to infectious tenosynovitis include Pasteurella multocida (associated with animal bites), Eikenella spp. (associated with IV drug use), and Mycobacterium marinum (associated with wounds exposed to fresh or salt water). Additionally, sexually active patients are at risk for hematogenous spread due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see infectious arthritis).
Common noninfectious tenosynovitis are: stenosing tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tenosynovitis, de Quervain's and fourth compartment tenosynovitis.
Diagnosis of tenosynovitis is typically made clinically after a thorough patient history and physical exam. Aspirated fluid can also be cultured to identify the infectious organism. X-rays are typically unremarkable but can help rule out a broken bone or a foreign body
The mainstay of treatment for infectious tenosynovitis includes symptom relief, antibiotic therapy, and surgery. Early recognition of the disease with early initiation of antibiotics are important for better range of movement of the affected finger. Minimally invasive procedures into the flexor tendon sheath such as catheter irrigation give better outcomes (74% chance of good outcome) when compared to open surgery (26% chance of good outcome). However, wound irrigation with antibiotics has no clear benefits.Most infectious tenosynovitis cases should be managed with tendon sheath irrigation and drainage, with or without debridement of surrounding necrotic tissue, along with treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. In severe cases, amputation may even be necessary to prevent the further spread of infection. Following surgical intervention, antibiotic therapy is continued and adjusted based on the results of the fluid culture.
The earlier the condition is identified, the better the chance of getting full range of motion of the finger. However, finger stiffness, Boutonniere deformity, deep space infection, tendon necrosis, adhesions, persistent infection, and need for amputation of the finger can occur. Tendon adhesion and finger stiffness are caused by the violation of the flexor tendon sheath.
A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system caused by repetitive use, vibrations, compression or long periods in a fixed position. Other common names include repetitive stress disorders, cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), and overuse syndrome.
A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates. Normally humans have five digits, the bones of which are termed phalanges, on each hand, although some people have more or fewer than five due to congenital disorders such as polydactyly or oligodactyly, or accidental or medical amputations. The first digit is the thumb, followed by index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger or pinkie. According to different definitions, the thumb can be called a finger, or not.
De Quervain syndrome is inflammation of two tendons that control movement of the thumb and their tendon sheath. This results in pain at the outside of the wrist. Pain is typically increased with gripping or rotating the wrist. The thumb may also be difficult to move smoothly. Onset of symptoms is gradual.
Trigger finger, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, is a disorder characterized by catching or locking of the involved finger. Pain may occur in the palm of the hand or knuckles. The name is due to the popping sound made by the affected finger when moved. Most commonly the ring finger or thumb is affected.
Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness, fever, and weakness. The long bones of the arms and legs are most commonly involved in children, while the feet, spine, and hips are most commonly involved in adults.
A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait. Limping may be caused by pain, weakness, neuromuscular imbalance, or a skeletal deformity. The most common underlying cause of a painful limp is physical trauma; however, in the absence of trauma, other serious causes, such as septic arthritis or slipped capital femoral epiphysis, may be present. The diagnostic approach involves ruling out potentially serious causes via the use of X-rays, blood tests, and sometimes joint aspiration. Initial treatment involves pain management. A limp is the presenting problem in about 4% of children who visit hospital emergency departments.
In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis longus muscle (EPL) is a skeletal muscle located dorsally on the forearm. It is much larger than the extensor pollicis brevis, the origin of which it partly covers and acts to stretch the thumb together with this muscle.
Finkelstein's test is a test used to diagnose de Quervain's tenosynovitis in people who have wrist pain.
The interphalangeal joints of the hand are the hinge joints between the phalanges of the fingers that provide flexion towards the palm of the hand.
In human anatomy, the extensor indicis [proprius] is a narrow, elongated skeletal muscle in the deep layer of the dorsal forearm, placed medial to, and parallel with, the extensor pollicis longus. Its tendon goes to the index finger, which it extends.
Prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa at the front of the knee. It is marked by swelling at the knee, which can be tender to the touch and which generally does not restrict the knee's range of motion. It can be extremely painful and disabling as long as the underlying condition persists.
Transient synovitis of hip is a self-limiting condition in which there is an inflammation of the inner lining of the capsule of the hip joint. The term irritable hip refers to the syndrome of acute hip pain, joint stiffness, limp or non-weightbearing, indicative of an underlying condition such as transient synovitis or orthopedic infections. In everyday clinical practice however, irritable hip is commonly used as a synonym for transient synovitis. It should not be confused with sciatica, a condition describing hip and lower back pain much more common to adults than transient synovitis but with similar signs and symptoms.
The posterior compartment of the forearm contains twelve muscles which are chiefly responsible for extension of the wrist and digits, and supination of the forearm. It is separated from the anterior compartment by the interosseous membrane between the radius and ulna.
An open fracture, also called a compound fracture, is a type of bone fracture in orthopedics that is frequently caused by high energy trauma. It is a bone fracture associated with a break in the skin continuity which can cause complications such as infection, malunion, and nonunion. Gustilo open fracture classification is the most commonly used method to classify open fractures, to guide treatment and to predict clinical outcomes. Advanced trauma life support is the first line of action in dealing with open fractures and to rule out other life-threatening condition in cases of trauma. Cephalosporins are generally the first line of antibiotics. The antibiotics are continued for 24 hours to minimize the risk of infections. Therapeutic irrigation, wound debridement, early wound closure and bone fixation are the main management of open fractures. All these actions aimed to reduce the risk of infections.
Kanavel's sign is a clinical sign found in patients with infection of a flexor tendon sheath in the hand, a serious condition which can cause rapid loss of function of the affected finger.
The hand is a very complex organ with multiple joints, different types of ligament, tendons and nerves. Hand disease injuries are common in society and can result from excessive use, degenerative disorders or trauma.
Extensor tendon compartments of the wrist are anatomical tunnels on the back of the wrist that contain tendons of muscles that extend the wrist and the digits.
Radial dysplasia, also known as radial club hand or radial longitudinal deficiency, is a congenital difference occurring in a longitudinal direction resulting in radial deviation of the wrist and shortening of the forearm. It can occur in different ways, from a minor anomaly to complete absence of the radius, radial side of the carpal bones and thumb. Hypoplasia of the distal humerus may be present as well and can lead to stiffness of the elbow. Radial deviation of the wrist is caused by lack of support to the carpus, radial deviation may be reinforced if forearm muscles are functioning poorly or have abnormal insertions. Although radial longitudinal deficiency is often bilateral, the extent of involvement is most often asymmetric.
Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a group of rare, typically non-malignant tumors of the joints. TGCT tumors often develop from the lining of joints.