Knuckle pads (also known as "Heloderma", meaning similar to the skin of the Gila monster lizard for which it is named) are circumscribed, keratotic, fibrous growths over the dorsa of the interphalangeal joints.They are described as well-defined, round, plaque-like, fibrous thickening that may develop at any age, and grow to be 10 to 15mm in diameter in the course of a few weeks or months, then go away over time.
Knuckle pads are sometimes associated with Dupuytren's contracture 595 and histologically, the lesions are fibromas. :595 Knuckle pads are generally non-responsive to treatment, including corticosteroids, and tend to recur after surgery; however, there has been some effectiveness with intralesional fluorouracil.and camptodactyly, :
A plantar wart, or verruca, is a wart occurring on the bottom of the foot or toes. Its color is typically similar to that of the skin. Small black dots often occur on the surface. One or more may occur in an area. They may result in pain with pressure such that walking is difficult.
Dupuytren's contracture is a condition in which one or more fingers become permanently bent in a flexed position. It is named after Guillaume Dupuytren, who first described the underlying mechanism of action followed by the first successful operation in 1831 and publication of the results in The Lancet in 1834. It usually begins as small, hard nodules just under the skin of the palm, then worsens over time until the fingers can no longer be straightened. While typically not painful, some aching or itching may be present. The ring finger followed by the little and middle fingers are most commonly affected. The condition can interfere with activities such as preparing food and writing.
An infantile hemangioma (IH), sometimes called a strawberry mark due to appearance, is a type of benign vascular tumor that affects babies. They appear as a red or blue raised lesion on the skin. Typically, they begin during the first four weeks of life, grow until about five months of life, and then shrink in size and disappear over the next few years. Often skin changes remain after they shrink. Complications may include pain, bleeding, ulcer formation, heart failure, or disfigurement.
Pemphigus is a rare group of blistering autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. The name is derived from the Greek root "pemphix", meaning "pustule".
Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder that causes prominence in the lower portion in the face. The name is derived from the temporary chubby-cheeked resemblance to putti, often confused with cherubs, in Renaissance paintings.
Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a common low-grade rapidly-growing skin tumour that is believed to originate from the hair follicle and can resemble squamous cell carcinoma.
Prurigo nodularis (PN), also known as nodular prurigo, is a skin disease characterised by pruritic (itchy) nodules which usually appear on the arms or legs. Patients often present with multiple excoriated lesions caused by scratching. PN is also known as Hyde prurigo nodularis, Picker's nodules, atypical nodular form of neurodermatitis circumscripta, lichen corneus obtusus.
Pityriasis alba is a skin condition, a type of dermatitis, commonly seen in children and young adults as dry, fine-scaled, pale patches on the face. It is self-limiting and usually only requires use of moisturizer creams.
Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita is a rare congenital vascular disorder that usually manifests in affecting the blood vessels of the skin. The condition was first recognised and described in 1922 by Cato van Lohuizen, a Dutch pediatrician whose name was later adopted in the other common name used to describe the condition – Van Lohuizen Syndrome. CMTC is also used synonymously with congenital generalized phlebectasia, nevus vascularis reticularis, congenital phlebectasia, livedo telangiectatica, congenital livedo reticularis and Van Lohuizen syndrome.
A venous lake is a generally solitary, soft, compressible, dark blue to violaceous, 0.2- to 1-cm papule commonly found on sun-exposed surfaces of the vermilion border of the lip, face and ears. Lesions generally occur among the elderly.
Cutis verticis gyrata is a medical condition usually associated with thickening of the scalp. People show visible folds, ridges or creases on the surface of the top of the scalp. The number of folds can vary from two to roughly ten and are typically soft and spongy. These folds cannot be corrected with pressure. The condition typically affects the central and rear regions of the scalp, but sometimes can involve the entire scalp.
Gianotti–Crosti syndrome, also known as infantile papular acrodermatitis, papular acrodermatitis of childhood, and papulovesicular acrolocated syndrome, is a reaction of the skin to a viral infection. Hepatitis B virus and Epstein–Barr virus are the most frequently reported pathogens. Other viruses implicated are hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, coxsackievirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, rotavirus, rubella virus, HIV, and parainfluenza virus.
Urbach–Wiethe disease is a very rare recessive genetic disorder, with approximately 400 reported cases since its discovery. It was first officially reported in 1929 by Erich Urbach and Camillo Wiethe, although cases may be recognized dating back as early as 1908.
Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare disorder characterized by congenital absence of skin. Frieden classified ACC in 1986 into 9 groups on the basis of location of the lesions and associated congenital anomalies. The scalp is the most commonly involved area with lesser involvement of trunk and extremities. Frieden classified ACC with fetus papyraceus as type 5. This type presents as truncal ACC with symmetrical absence of skin in stellate or butterfly pattern with or without involvement of proximal limbs. It is the most common congenital cicatricial alopecia, and is a congenital focal absence of epidermis with or without evidence of other layers of the skin.
Cutaneous amoebiasis, refers to a form of amoebiasis that presents primarily in the skin. It can be caused by Acanthamoeba or Entamoeba histolytica. When associated with Acanthamoeba, it is also known as "cutaneous acanthamoebiasis". Balamuthia mandrillaris can also cause cutaneous amoebiasis, but can prove fatal if the amoeba enters the bloodstream
An arsenical keratosis is a growth of keratin on the skin caused by arsenic, which occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is widely distributed in the environment, Arsenical compounds are used in industrial, agricultural, and medicinal substances. Arsenic is also found to be an environmental contaminant in drinking water and an occupational hazard for miners and glass workers. Arsenic may also causes other conditions including: Bowen's disease, cardiovascular diseases, developmental abnormalities, neurologic and neurobehavioral disorders, diabetes, hearing loss, hematologic disorders, and various types of cancer. Arsenical keratoses may persist indefinitely, and some may develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Metastatic arsenic squamous cell carcinoma and arsenic-induced malignancies in internal organs such as the bladder, kidney, skin, liver, and colon, may result in death.
Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis is a cutaneous condition characterized by calcification of the skin resulting from the deposition of calcium and phosphorus occurring on the scrotum. However, the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood are normal. Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis typically affects young males, with an onset between adolescence and early adulthood. The scrotal calcinosis appears, without any symptoms, as yellowish nodules that range in size from 1 mm to several centimeters.
Garrod's pads are a cutaneous condition characterized by calluses on the dorsal aspect of the interphalangeal joints, i.e. the back side of the finger joints. They are often seen in violin, viola, and cello players, along with fiddler's neck and other dermatologic conditions peculiar to string musicians. Although Garrod's pads are conventionally described as appearing on the proximal interphalangeal joint, distal interphalangeal joint involvement has also been described.
Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma is a type of lymphoma. It was recognized as a distinct disease entity in the 2008 WHO classification. PCFCL had been previously conceived as a variant of follicular lymphoma (FL).