Necrotizing fasciitis

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Necrotizing fasciitis
SynonymsFlesh-eating bacteria, flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, [1] necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI), [2] fasciitis necroticans
Necrotizing fasciitis left leg.JPEG
Person with necrotizing fasciitis. The left leg shows extensive redness and tissue death.
Pronunciation
Specialty Infectious disease
Symptoms Severe pain, fever, purple colored skin in the affected area [3]
Usual onsetSudden, spreads rapidly [3]
CausesMultiple types of bacteria, [4] occasional fungus [5]
Risk factors Poor immune function such as from diabetes or cancer, obesity, alcoholism, intravenous drug use, peripheral artery disease [2] [3]
Diagnostic method Based on symptoms, medical imaging [4]
Differential diagnosis Cellulitis, pyomyositis, gas gangrene [6]
Prevention Wound care, handwashing [3]
Treatment Surgery to remove the infected tissue, intravenous antibiotics [2] [3]
Prognosis~30% mortality [2]
Frequency0.7 per 100,000 per year [4]

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of parts of the body's soft tissue. [3] It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly. [3] Symptoms include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting. [3] The most commonly affected areas are the limbs and perineum. [2]

Infection invasion of a host by disease-causing organisms

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.

Necrosis premature cell death

Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

Soft tissue the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue; tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, and synovial membranes (connective tissue), and muscles, nerves and blood vessels

In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone. Soft tissue includes tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, and synovial membranes, and muscles, nerves and blood vessels.

Contents

Typically, the infection enters the body through a break in the skin such as a cut or burn. [3] Risk factors include poor immune function such as from diabetes or cancer, obesity, alcoholism, intravenous drug use, and peripheral artery disease. [2] [3] It is not typically spread between people. [3] The disease is classified into four types, depending on the infecting organism. [4] Between 55 and 80% of cases involve more than one type of bacteria. [4] Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is involved in up to a third of cases. [4] Medical imaging is helpful to confirm the diagnosis. [4]

Burn Injury to flesh or skin, often caused by excessive heat

A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids, solids, or fire. While rates are similar for males and females the underlying causes often differ. Among women in some areas, risk is related to use of open cooking fires or unsafe cook stoves. Among men, risk is related to the work environments. Alcoholism and smoking are other risk factors. Burns can also occur as a result of self harm or violence between people.

Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect the patient's immune system. Examples of these extrinsic factors include HIV infection, extremes of age, and environmental factors, such as nutrition. In the clinical setting, the immunosuppression by some drugs, such as steroids, can be either an adverse effect or the intended purpose of the treatment. Examples of such use is in organ transplant surgery as an anti-rejection measure and in patients suffering from an overactive immune system, as in autoimmune diseases. Some people are born with intrinsic defects in their immune system, or primary immunodeficiency. A person who has an immunodeficiency of any kind is said to be immunocompromised. An immunocompromised person may be particularly vulnerable to opportunistic infections, in addition to normal infections that could affect everyone. Immunodeficiency also decreases cancer immunosurveillance, in which the immune system scans the body's cells and kills neoplastic ones.

Cancer disease of uncontrolled, unregulated and abnormal cell growth

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Necrotizing fasciitis may be prevented with proper wound care and handwashing. [3] It is usually treated with surgery to remove the infected tissue, and intravenous antibiotics. [2] [3] Often, a combination of antibiotics is used, such as penicillin G, clindamycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin. [2] Delays in surgery are associated with a much higher risk of death. [4] Even with high-quality treatment, the risk of death is between 25 and 35%. [2]

Debridement medical procedure

Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. Removal may be surgical, mechanical, chemical, autolytic (self-digestion), and by maggot therapy.

Antibiotic drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

Clindamycin chemical compound

Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections, bone or joint infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, strep throat, pneumonia, and endocarditis among others. It can be useful against some cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It may also be used for acne and in addition to quinine for malaria. It is available by mouth, intravenously, and as a cream to be applied to the skin or in the vagina.

Necrotizing fasciitis occurs in about 0.4 people per 100,000 per year in the US, and about 1 per 100,000 in Western Europe. [4] Both sexes are affected equally. [2] It becomes more common among older people and is rare in children. [4] It has been described at least since the time of Hippocrates. [2] The term "necrotizing fasciitis" first came into use in 1952. [4] [7]

Hippocrates ancient Greek physician

Hippocrates of Kos, also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms may include fever, swelling, and complaint of excessive pain. The initial skin changes are similar to cellulitis or abscess, thus making the diagnosis at early stages difficult. Hardening of the skin and soft tissue and swelling beyond the area of skin changes are commonly present in those with early necrotizing changes. [2] The redness and swelling usually blend into surrounding normal tissues. The overlying skin may appear shiny and tense. [8] Other signs which are more suggestive of necrotizing changes (but present in later stages in 7 to 44% of the cases) are: formation of bullae, bleeding into the skin which is present before skin necrosis [2] (skin turning from red to purple and black due to thrombosis of blood vessels), [8] presence of gas in tissues, and reduced or absent sensation over the skin [2] (due to the necrosis of the underlying nerves). [8] Rapid progression to shock despite antibiotic therapy is another indication of necrotizing fasciitis. Necrotizing changes affecting the groin are known as Fournier gangrene. [2]

Cellulitis Human disease

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin. It specifically affects the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Signs and symptoms include an area of redness which increases in size over a few days. The borders of the area of redness are generally not sharp and the skin may be swollen. While the redness often turns white when pressure is applied, this is not always the case. The area of infection is usually painful. Lymphatic vessels may occasionally be involved, and the person may have a fever and feel tired.

Abscess localized collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body

An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body. Signs and symptoms of abscesses include redness, pain, warmth, and swelling. The swelling may feel fluid-filled when pressed. The area of redness often extends beyond the swelling. Carbuncles and boils are types of abscess that often involve hair follicles, with carbuncles being larger.

Ecchymosis

An ecchymosis is a subcutaneous spot of bleeding with diameter larger than 1 centimetre (0.39 in). It is similar to a hematoma, commonly called a bruise, though the terms are not interchangeable in careful usage. Specifically, bruises are caused by trauma whereas ecchymoses, which are the same as the spots of purpura except larger, are not necessarily caused by trauma, often being caused by pathophysiologic cell function, and some diseases such as Marburg virus disease.

However, those who are immunocompromised (have cancer, use corticosteroid, on radiotherapy, chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS, or prior organ or bone marrow transplantation) may not show normal symptoms. Immunocompromised persons also have twice the risk of death from necrotizing infections, so higher suspicion should be maintained in this group. [2]

Corticosteroid steroid hormone

Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.

Chemotherapy treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs

Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent, or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms. Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology.

HIV/AIDS Spectrum of conditions caused by HIV infection

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss.

Cause

Risk factors

More than 70% of cases are recorded in people with at least one of these clinical situations: immunosuppression, diabetes, alcoholism/drug abuse/smoking, malignancies, and chronic systemic diseases. For reasons that are unclear, it occasionally occurs in people with an apparently normal general condition. [9]

Necrotizing fasciitis can occur at any part of the body, but it is more commonly seen at the extremities, perineum, and genitals. Only a few of such cases arise from the chest and abdomen. Trauma is the usual cause of the infection, such as from intravenous drug injection, insulin injection, animal and insect bites, catheter insertion over the skin, or a fistula connecting skin to the internal body organs. Skin infections such as abscess and ulcers can also complicate necrotizing fasciitis. Spreading of infection through blood has been suggested for those with streptococcal pharyngitis. For infection of the perineum and genitals (Fournier gangrene), trauma, surgery, urinary tract infection, stones, and Bartholin gland abscess are the usual causes. [2]

The risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis from a wound can be reduced by good wound care and handwashing. [3]

Bacteria

Types of soft-tissue necrotizing infection can be divided into four classes according to the types of bacteria infecting the soft tissue. This classification system was first described by Giuliano and his colleagues in 1977. [4] [2]

Type I infection - This is the most common type of infection, and accounts for 70 to 80% of cases. It is caused by a mixture of bacterial types, usually in abdominal or groin areas. [4] This type of infection is usually caused by various species of Gram-positive cocci,( Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenes , and enterococci), Gram-negative rods, ( Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ), and anaerobes, ( Bacteroides and Clostridium species). [4] Populations of those affected are typically older with medical comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and immunodeficiency. [4] Usually, trauma is not the cause of such infections. Previous history of abscess infection or gut perforation with bacterial translocation may be elicited. Clostridial infection accounts for 10% of type I infection. Clostridium species involved are Clostridium perfringens , Clostridium septicum , and Clostridium sordellii , which typically cause gas gangrene (also known as myonecrosis). Clostridium perfringens produces two deadly toxins: alpha-toxin and theta-toxin. Alpha-toxin causes excessive platelet aggregation which blocks blood vessels and deprives the vital organs of oxygen supply. This creates an acidic, oxygen-deficient environment for the proliferation of bacteria. When alpha-toxin is absorbed by soft tissues, it can inhibit the migration of white blood cells from blood vessels into the soft tissue, thus impairing phagocyte function. The two toxins together can cause destruction of red blood cells in blood vessels, damage to the integrity of the blood vessels, and suppression of heart function.

Clostridium sordellii can also produce two major toxins: all known virulent strains produce the essential virulence factor lethal toxin (TcsL), and a number also produce haemorrhagic toxin (TcsH). TcsL and TcsH are both members of the large clostridial cytotoxin (LCC) family. [10] The key Clostridium septicum virulence factor is a pore-forming toxin called alpha-toxin, though it is unrelated to the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Myonecrotic infections caused by these clostridial species commonly occur in injecting heroin users. Those with clostridial infections typically have severe pain at the wound site, where the wound typically drains foul-smelling blood mixed with serum (serosanguinous discharge). Shock can progress rapidly after initial injury or infection, and once the state of shock is established, the chance of dying exceeds 50%. Another bacterium associated with similar rapid disease progression is group A streptococcal infection (mostly Streptococcus pyogenes). Meanwhile, other bacterial infections require two or more days to become symptomatic. [2]

Type II infection - This infection accounts for 20 to 30% of cases, mainly involving the extremities. [4] [11] This mainly involves Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria, alone or in combination with staphylococcal infections. Both types of bacteria can progress rapidly and manifest as toxic shock syndrome. Streptococcus species produce M protein, which acts as a superantigen, stimulating a massive systemic immune response which is not effective against the bacterial antigen, precipitating shock. Type II infection more commonly affects young, healthy adults with a history of injury. [2]

Type III infection - Vibrio vulnificus , a bacterium found in saltwater, is a rare cause of this infection, which occurs through a break in the skin. Disease progression can be as rapid as type II infection without any visible skin changes. [2]

Type IV infection - Some authors have described the type IV infection as fungal infection. [4]

Diagnosis

Necrotizing fasciitis producing gas in the soft tissues as seen on CT scan Pnecrotisingfasc.png
Necrotizing fasciitis producing gas in the soft tissues as seen on CT scan
Necrotizing fasciitis as seen on ultrasound [12]
Micrograph of necrotizing fasciitis, showing necrosis (center of image) of the dense connective tissue, i.e. fascia, interposed between fat lobules (top-right and bottom-left of image), H&E stain Necrotizing fasciitis - intermed mag.jpg
Micrograph of necrotizing fasciitis, showing necrosis (center of image) of the dense connective tissue, i.e. fascia, interposed between fat lobules (top-right and bottom-left of image), H&E stain

Early diagnosis is difficult, as the disease often looks early on like a simple superficial skin infection. [4] While a number of laboratory and imaging modalities can raise the suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis, none can rule it out. [13] The gold standard for diagnosis is a surgical exploration in a setting of high suspicion. When in doubt, a small incision can be made into the affected tissue, and if a finger easily separates the tissue along the fascial plane, the diagnosis is confirmed and an extensive debridement should be performed. [2]

Medical imaging

Imaging has a limited role in the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. The time delay in performing imaging is a major concern. Plain radiography may show subcutaneous emphysema (gas in the subcutaneous tissue), which is strongly suggestive of necrotizing changes, but it is not sensitive enough to detect all the cases, because necrotizing skin infections caused by bacteria other than clostridial infections usually do not show subcutaneous emphysema. If the diagnosis is still in doubt, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more sensitive modalities than plain radiography. However, both the CT scan and MRI are not sensitive enough to rule out necrotizing changes completely. [2] CT scan may show fascial thickening, edema, subcutaneous gas, and abscess formation. [2] In MRI, when fluid collection with deep fascia involvement occurs, thickening or enhancement with contrast injection, necrotizing fasciitis should be strongly suspected. Meanwhile, ultrasonography can show superficial abscess formation, but is not sensitive enough to diagnose necrotizing fasciitis. [2] CT scan is able to detect about 80% of cases, while MRI may pick up slightly more. [14]

Scoring system

A white blood cell count less than 15,000 cells/mm3 and serum sodium level greater than 135 mmol/l have a sensitivity of 90% in detecting the necrotizing soft tissue infection.[ citation needed ] It also has a 99% chance of ruling out necrotizing changes if the values have shown otherwise. Various scoring systems are being developed to determine the likelihood of getting necrotizing fasciitis, but a scoring system developed by Wong and colleagues in 2004 is the most commonly used. It is the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score, which can be used to stratify by risk those people having signs of severe cellulitis or abscess to determine the likelihood of necrotizing fasciitis being present. It uses six laboratory values: C-reactive protein, total white blood cell count, hemoglobin, sodium, creatinine, and blood glucose. [2] A score of 6 or more indicates that necrotizing fasciitis should be seriously considered. [15] The scoring criteria are:

However, the scoring system has not been validated. The values would be falsely positive if any other inflammatory conditions are present. Therefore, the values derived from this scoring system should be interpreted with caution. [2] About 10% of patients with necrotizing fasciitis in the original study still had a LRINEC score <6. [15] A validation study showed that patients with a LRINEC score ≥6 have a higher rate of both death and amputation. [17]

Prevention

Necrotizing fasciitis can be partly prevented by good wound care and handwashing. [3]

Treatment

Surgical debridement (cutting away affected tissue) is the mainstay of treatment for necrotizing fasciitis. Early medical treatment is often presumptive; thus, antibiotics should be started as soon as this condition is suspected. Tissue cultures (rather than wound swabs) are taken to determine appropriate antibiotic coverage, and antibiotics may be changed in light of results. Besides blood pressure control and hydration, support should be initiated for those with unstable vital signs and low urine output. [2]

Surgery

Aggressive wound debridement should be performed early, usually as soon as the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) is made. Surgical incisions often extend beyond the areas of induration (the hardened tissue) to remove the damaged blood vessels that are responsible for the induration. However, cellulitic soft tissues are sometimes spared from debridement for later skin coverage of the wound. More than one operation may be used to remove additional necrotic tissue. In some cases when an extremity is affected by a NSTI, amputation may be the surgical treatment of choice. After the wound debridement, adequate dressings should be applied to prevent exposure of bones, tendons, and cartilage so that such structures do not dry out and to promote wound healing. [2]

For necrotizing infection of the perineal area (Fournier's gangrene), wound debridement and wound care in this area can be difficult because of the excretory products that often render this area dirty and affect the wound-healing process. Therefore, regular dressing changes with a fecal management system can help to keep the wound at the perineal area clean. Sometimes, colostomy may be necessary to divert the excretory products to keep the wound at the perineal area clean. [2]

Antibiotics

Empiric antibiotics are usually initiated as soon as the diagnosis of NSTI has been made, and then later changed to culture-guided antibiotic therapy. In the case of NSTIs, empiric antibiotics are broad-spectrum, covering gram-positive (including MRSA), gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. [18]

While studies have compared moxifloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (a penicillin) and evaluated appropriate duration of treatment (varying from 7 to 21 days), no definitive conclusions on the efficacy of treatment, ideal duration of treatment, or the adverse effects could be made due to poor-quality evidence. [18]

Add on therapy

- Hyperbaric oxygen : While human and animal studies have shown that high oxygen tension in tissues helps to reduce edema, stimulate fibroblast growth, increase the killing ability of white blood cells, inhibit bacterial toxin release, and increase antibiotic efficacy, [2] no high-quality trials have been shown to support or refute the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with NSTIs. [18]

- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG): No clear difference between using IVIG and placebo has been shown in the treatment of NSTIs, and one study showed serious adverse effects with IVIG use, including acute kidney injury, allergic reactions, aseptic meningitis syndrome, haemolytic anaemia, thrombi, and transmissible agents. [18]

- AB103: One study assessed the efficacy of a new type of treatment that affects the immune response, called AB103. The study showed no difference in mortality with use of this therapy, but it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions due to low-quality evidence. [18]

- Supportive therapy: Supportive therapy, often including intravenous hydration, wound care, anticoagulants to prevent thromboembolic events, pain control, etc. should always be provided to patients when appropriate.

Epidemiology

Necrotizing fasciitis affects about 0.4 in every 100,000 people per year in the United States. [4] About 1,000 cases of necrotizing fasciitis cases occur per year in the United States, but the rates have been increasing. This could be due to increasing awareness of this condition, leading to increased reporting, or bacterial virulence or increasing bacterial resistance against antibiotics. [2] In some areas of the world, it is as common as one in every 100,000 people. [4]

Higher rates of necrotizing fasciitis are seen in those with obesity or diabetes, and those who are immunocompromised or alcoholic, or have peripheral artery disease. However, the disease may also occur in young, healthy adults with no underlying illnesses. NSAIDs may increase the rates of necrotizing infections due to the modification of immune response in the body, because NSAIDs inhibit the cycloxygenase -1 and cycloxygenase-2 enzymes which are important in producing thromboxane and prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandin has been responsible for fever, inflammation, and pain. The inhibition of prostangladin E2 production reduces inflammatory response and leukocyte adhesion, and thus reduces immune response against bacterial invasion, giving rise to soft-tissue infection. [2]

History

In the fifth century BC, Hippocrates described necrotizing soft tissue infection as a disease which was the complication of streptococcal infection where those affected would have "erysipelas all over the body while the cause was only a trivial accident. Bones, flesh, and sinew (cord, tendon, or nerve) would fall off from the body and there were many deaths". The first English description for necrotizing soft-tissue infection was by British surgeon Leonard Gillespie and British physicians Gilbert Blaine and Thomas Trotter in the 18th century. At that time, necrotizing soft-tissue infection was known as phagedaenic ulcer (ulceration that spreads and destroys surrounding tissue), phagedena gangrenous, gangrenous ulcer, malignant ulcer, putrid ulcer, or hospital gangrene. Later, "hospital gangrene" became more commonly used. In 1871 Confederate States Army surgeon Joseph Jones reported 2,642 cases of hospital gangrene with a mortality rate of 46%. In 1883, Dr Jean-Alfred Fournier described the necrotizing infection of the perineum and scrotum which termed as Fournier gangrene today. The term "necrotizing fasciitis" was first coined by Wilson in 1952. Its definition has become broader, to include not only infection of fascia, but also other soft-tissue infection. [2]

Notable cases

See also

Related Research Articles

Gangrene serious and potentially life-threatening condition

Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply. Symptoms may include a change in skin color to red or black, numbness, swelling, pain, skin breakdown, and coolness. The feet and hands are most commonly affected. Certain types may present with a fever or sepsis.

<i>Clostridium perfringens</i> species of prokaryote

Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever-present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycolate medium.

Lung abscess lung disease characterized by microbial infection which causes a type of liquefactive necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid

Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection.

Gas gangrene disease for all sorts of living things

Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas in tissues in gangrene. This deadly form of gangrene usually is caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria. About 1,000 cases of gas gangrene are reported yearly in the United States.

<i>Peptostreptococcus</i> genus of prokaryotes

Peptostreptococcus is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria. The cells are small, spherical, and can occur in short chains, in pairs or individually. They typically move using cilia. Peptostreptococcus are slow-growing bacteria with increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Peptostreptococcus is a normal inhabitant of the healthy lower reproductive tract of women.

Mediastinitis inflammatory process affecting the mediastinum

Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest, or mediastinum. It can be either acute or chronic. It is thought to be due to four different etiologies:

Blackleg (disease) infectious bacterial disease

Blackleg, black quarter, quarter evil, or quarter ill is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a Gram-positive bacterial species. It is seen in livestock all over the world, usually affecting cattle, sheep, and goats. It has been seen occasionally in farmed bison and deer. The acute nature of the disease makes successful treatment difficult, and the efficacy of the commonly used vaccine is disputed.

Fournier gangrene

Fournier gangrene is a type of necrotizing fasciitis or gangrene affecting the external genitalia and/or perineum. It commonly occurs in older men, but it can also occur in women and children. It is more likely to occur in diabetics, alcoholics, or those who are immunocompromised.

Clostridial necrotizing enteritis (CNE), also called enteritis necroticans or pigbel, is a potentially fatal type of food poisoning caused by a β-toxin of Clostridium perfringens, Type C. It occurs in some developing countries, but was also documented in Germany following World War II, where it was called "Darmbrand". The toxin is normally inactivated by certain proteolytic enzymes and by normal cooking, but when these protections are impeded, and low protein is consumed, the disease emerges.

Open fracture

Open fracture is a type of bone fracture in orthopedics, frequently caused by high energy trauma. It is a bone fracture associated with a break in the skin continuity which can cause complications such as infection, malunion, and nonunion. Gustilo open fracture classification is the most commonly used method to classify open fractures, to guide treatment and to predict clinical outcomes. Advanced trauma life support is the first line of action in dealing with open fractures and to rule out other life-threatening condition in cases of trauma. Cephalosporin should be the first line of antibiotics. The antibiotics should be continued for 24 hours to minimise the risk of infections. Therapeutic irrigation, wound debridement, early wound closure and bone fixation are the main management of open fractures. All these actions aimed to reduce the risk of infections.

Ecthyma gangrenosum is a type of skin lesion characterized by vesicles or blisters which rapidly evolve into pustules and necrotic ulcers with undermined tender erythematous border. "Ecthyma" means a pus forming infection of the skin with an ulcer, "gangrenosum" refers to the accompanying gangrene or necrosis. It is pathognomonic of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram negative, aerobic bacillus.

<i>Clostridium septicum</i> species of prokaryote

Clostridium septicum is a gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobic bacterium.

Pus

Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection. An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule, pimple, or spot.

A skin and skin structure infection (SSSI), also referred to as skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI), is an infection of skin and associated soft tissues. The pathogen involved is usually a bacterial species. Such infections often requires treatment by antibiotics.

Clostridium histolyticum is a species of bacteria found in feces and the soil. It is a motile, gram-positive, aerotolerant anaerobe. C. histolyticum is pathogenic in many species, including guinea pigs, mice, and rabbits, and humans. C. histolyticum has been shown to cause gas gangrene, often in association with other bacteria species.

Anaerobic infections are caused by anaerobic bacteria. Obligately anaerobic bacteria do not grow on solid media in room air ; facultatively anaerobic bacteria can grow in the presence or absence of air. Microaerophilic bacteria do not grow at all aerobically or grow poorly, but grow better under 10% carbon dioxide or anaerobically. Anaerobic bacteria can be divided into strict anaerobes that can not grow in the presence of more than 0.5% oxygen and moderate anaerobic bacteria that are able of growing between 2 and 8% oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria usually do not possess catalase, but some can generate superoxide dismutase which protects them from oxygen.

<i>Clostridium tertium</i> species of prokaryote

Clostridium tertium is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Although it can be considered an uncommon pathogen in humans, there has been substantial evidence of septic episodes in human beings. C. tertium is easily decolorized in Gram-stained smears and can be mistaken for a Gram-negative organism. However, C.tertium does not grow on selective media for Gram-negative organisms.

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Classification
D
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