Pasteurellosis

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Pasteurellosis
Specialty Infectious disease   Blue pencil.svg

Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacterial genus Pasteurella , [1] which is found in humans and other animals.

Contents

Pasteurella multocida (subspecies P. m. septica and P. m. multocida) is carried in the mouth and respiratory tract of various animals, including pigs. [2] It is a small, Gram-negative bacillus with bipolar staining by Wayson stain. In animals, it can originate in fulminant septicaemia (chicken cholera), but is also a common commensal.

Until taxonomic revision in 1999, [3] Mannheimia spp. were classified as Pasteurella spp., and infections by organisms now called Mannheimia spp., as well as by organisms now called Pasteurella spp., were designated as pasteurellosis. The term "pasteurellosis" is often still applied to mannheimiosis, although such usage has declined.

Types

The several forms of the infection are:

Other locations are possible, such as septic arthritis, meningitis, and acute endocarditis, but are very rare.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made with isolation of Pasteurella multocida in a normally sterile site (blood, pus, or cerebrospinal fluid).

Treatment

As the infection is usually transmitted into humans through animal bites, antibiotics usually treat the infection, but medical attention should be sought if the wound is severely swelling. Pasteurellosis is usually treated with high-dose penicillin if severe. Either tetracycline or chloramphenicol provides an alternative in beta-lactam-intolerant patients. However, it is most important to treat the wound.

Animals

P. multocida causes numerous pathological conditions in domestic animals. It often acts with other infectious agents, such as Chlamydia and Mycoplasma species and viruses. Environmental conditions (transportation, housing deficiency, and bad weather) also play a role.

These diseases are considered caused by P. multocida, alone or associated with other pathogens:

See also

References

  1. Kuhnert P; Christensen H, eds. (2008). Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. www.horizonpress.com. Caister Academic Press. ISBN   978-1-904455-34-9.
  2. Hunt Gerardo, S.; Citron, D. M.; Claros, M. C.; Fernandez, H. T.; Goldstein, E. J. C. (2001). "Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica Differentiation by PCR Fingerprinting and -Glucosidase Activity". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39 (7): 2558–2564. doi:10.1128/JCM.39.7.2558-2564.2001. ISSN   0095-1137. PMC   88184 . PMID   11427568.
  3. Angen Ø, Mutters R, Caugant DA, Olsen JE, Bisgaard M (1999). "Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (Pt 1): 67–86. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-1-67. PMID   10028248.
  4. Lloret, Albert; Egberink, Herman; Addie, Diane; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Möstl, Karin; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C (2013). "Pasteurella Multocida Infection in Cats". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 15 (7): 570–572. doi:10.1177/1098612X13489215. ISSN   1098-612X. PMID   23813817.
  5. 1 2 Zecchinon L, Fett T, Desmecht D (2005). "How Mannheimia haemolytica defeats host defence through a kiss of death mechanism". Vet. Res. 36 (2): 133–56. doi:10.1051/vetres:2004065. PMID   15720968.
  6. 1 2 Brogden KA, Lehmkuhl HD, Cutlip RC (1998). "Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats". Vet. Res. 29 (3–4): 233–54. PMID   9689740.
  7. Saigas on the brink: Multidisciplinary analysis of the factors influencing mass mortality events. Richard A. Kock,, Mukhit Orynbayev, Sarah Robinson, Steffen Zuther, Navinder J. Singh, Wendy Beauvais, Eric R. Morgan, Aslan Kerimbayev, Sergei Khomenko, Henny M. Martineau, Rashida Rystaeva, Zamira Omarova, Sara Wolfs, Florent Hawotte, Julien Radoux and Eleanor J. Milner-Gulland. Science Advances 17 Jan 2018: Vol. 4, no. 1, eaao2314 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao2314
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