Haemophilus ducreyi

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Haemophilus ducreyi
Haemophilus ducreyi 01.jpg
Photomicrograph of H. ducreyi
Scientific classification
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H. ducreyi
Binomial name
Haemophilus ducreyi
(Neveu-Lemaire 1921)
Bergey et al. 1923

Haemophilus ducreyi is a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus bacteria, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, a major cause of genital ulceration in developing countries characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid starts as an erythematous papular lesion that breaks down into a painful bleeding ulcer with a necrotic base and ragged edge.

Chancroid primary bacterial infectious disease that is a sexually transmitted infection located_in skin of the genitals, has_material_basis_in Haemophilus ducreyi, which is transmitted_by sexual contact. The infection has_symptom painful and soft ulcers.

Chancroid is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one individual to another solely through sexual contact. While uncommon in the western world, it is the most common cause of genital ulceration worldwide.

Contents

H. ducreyi can be cultured on chocolate agar. It is best treated with a macrolide like azithromycin and a third-generation cephalosporin like ceftriaxone. H. ducreyi gram stain appears as "school of fish." (See Finding Nemo)

Chocolate agar Growth medium

Chocolate agar (CHOC) or chocolate blood agar (CBA), is a nonselective, enriched growth medium used for isolation of pathogenic bacteria. It is a variant of the blood agar plate, containing red blood cells that have been lysed by slowly heating to 80°C. Chocolate agar is used for growing fastidious respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. In addition, some of these bacteria, most notably H. influenzae, need growth factors such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and hemin, which are inside red blood cells; thus, a prerequisite to growth for these bacteria is the presence of red blood cell lysates. The heat also inactivates enzymes which could otherwise degrade NAD. The agar is named for its color and contains no chocolate products.

Macrolide A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone

The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered. Macrolides belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Some macrolides have antibiotic or antifungal activity and are used as pharmaceutical drugs.

Cephalosporin class of pharmaceutical drugs

The cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".

Pathogenesis

H. ducreyi is an opportunistic microorganism that infects its host by way of breaks in the skin or epidermis. Inflammation then takes place as the area of infection is inundated with lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes. This pyogenic inflammation causes regional lymphadenitis in the sexually transmitted disease chancroid. [1]

Diagnosis

Although antigen detection, serology, and genetic amplification methods are sometimes used to diagnose infections with H. ducreyi and the genetic tests have greater sensitivity, they are not widely available, so cultures are currently considered the "gold standard" test. [2]

Sensitivity and specificity statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function, that are widely used in medicine:

In medicine and statistics, a gold standard test is usually the diagnostic test or benchmark that is the best available under reasonable conditions. Other times, a gold standard is the most accurate test possible without restrictions.

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References

  1. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 1256. ISBN   1-4160-2999-0.
  2. Alfa, Michelle (2005). "The laboratory diagnosis of Haemophilus ducreyi". Canadian Journal of Infectious Disease & Medicine Microbiology. 16 (1): 34–35. PMC   2095004 . PMID   18159525.