Escherichia coli O104:H4

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Escherichia coli O104:H4 is an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli , and the cause of the 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak. [1] The "O" in the serological classification identifies the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen, and the "H" identifies the flagella antigen.

Enteroaggregative <i>Escherichia coli</i>

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli are a pathotype of Escherichia coli associated with acute and chronic diarrhea in both the developed and developing world. EAEC are defined by their "stacked-brick" pattern of adhesion to the human laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. The pathogenesis of EAEC involves the aggregation of and adherence of the bacteria to the intestinal mucosa, where they elaborate enterotoxins and cytotoxins that damage host cells and induce inflammation that results in diarrhea.

Bacteria A domain of prokaryotes – single celled organisms without a nucleus

Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

Lipopolysaccharide chemical compound

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

Contents

Analysis of genomic sequences obtained by BGI Shenzhen shows that the O104:H4 outbreak strain is an enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC or EAggEC) type that has acquired Shiga toxin genes, presumably by horizontal gene transfer. [2] [3] [4] Genome assembly and copy-number analysis both confirmed that two copies of the Shiga toxin stx2 prophage gene cluster are a distinctive characteristic of the genome of the O104:H4 outbreak strain. [5] [6] The O104:H4 strain is characterized by these genetic markers: [6] [7]

DNA sequencing biological research program

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleic acid sequence – the order of nucleotides in DNA. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.

Shiga toxin

Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages. The toxins are named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxin (SLT) is a historical term for similar or identical toxins produced by Escherichia coli. The most common sources for Shiga toxin are the bacteria S. dysenteriae and the some serotypes of Escherichia coli (STEC), which includes serotypes O157:H7, and O104:H4.

Tellurite oxide mineral

Tellurite is a rare oxide mineral composed of tellurium dioxide (TeO2).

Intimin

Intimin is a virulence factor (adhesin) of EPEC and EHEC E. coli strains. It is an attaching and effacing (A/E) protein, which with other virulence factors is necessary and responsible for enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic diarrhoea.

Beta-lactamase enzyme

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics' structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.

The European Commission (EC) integrated approach to food safety [8] defines a case of Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) diarrhea caused by O104:H4 by an acute onset of diarrhea or bloody diarrhea together with the detection of the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or the Shiga gene stx2. [9] Prior to the 2011 outbreak, only one case identified as O104:H4 had been observed, in a woman in South Korea in 2005. [10]

European Commission executive institution of the European Union

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be completely independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, and the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, and then appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament.

Diarrhea Loose or liquid bowel movements

Diarrhea is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behaviour. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are exclusively breastfed, however, are normal.

Pathophysiology

E. coli O104 is a Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC). The toxins cause illness and the associated symptoms by sticking to the intestinal cells and aggravating the cells along the intestinal wall. [11] [12] This, in turn, can cause bloody stools to occur. Another effect from this bacterial infection is hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is a condition characterized by destruction of red blood cells, that over a long period of time can cause kidney failure. [13] Some common symptoms of HUS are vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and blood in the urine. [12]

Infection

A common mode of E. coli O104:H4 infection involves ingestion of fecally contaminated food; the disease can thus be considered a foodborne illness. Most recently in 2011, an outbreak of the O104:H4 strain in Germany caused the death of several people, and landed hundreds of citizens in hospital. [14] [15] [12] German authorities traced the infection back to fenugreek sprouts grown from contaminated seeds imported from Egypt, but these results are debated.[ citation needed ]

Foodborne illness illness resulting from food that is spoiled or contaminated by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, or toxins

Foodborne illness is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

Fenugreek species of plant

Fenugreek is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop. Its seeds and leaves are common ingredients in dishes from South and Central Asia.

Treatment

To diagnose infection with STEC, a patient's stool (feces) can be tested in a laboratory for the presence of Shiga toxin. Testing methods used include direct detection of the toxin by immunoassay, or detection of the stx2 gene or other virulence-factor genes by PCR. If infection with STEC is confirmed, the E. coli strain may be serotyped to determine whether O104:H4 is present. [11]

E. coli O104:H4 is difficult to treat as it is resistant to many antibiotics, although it is susceptible to carbapenems. [14]

Prevention

Spread of E. coli is prevented simply by thorough hand-washing with soap, washing and hygienically preparing food, and properly heating/cooking food, so the bacteria are destroyed. [16]

Related Research Articles

<i>Escherichia coli</i> species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium

Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

<i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7 serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli. It is a cause of disease, typically foodborne illness, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk and undercooked ground beef. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and to kidney failure; these have been reported to cause the deaths of children younger than five years of age, of elderly patients, and of patients whose immune systems are otherwise compromised.

<i>Shigella</i> genus of bacteria

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative aerobic, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897.

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Human disease

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a group of blood disorders characterized by low red blood cells, acute kidney failure, and low platelets. Initial symptoms typically include bloody diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and weakness. Kidney problems and low platelets then occur as the diarrhea is improving. While children are more commonly affected adults may have worse outcomes. Complications may include neurological problems and heart failure.

The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components are B subunits. All of these toxins share a similar structure and mechanism for entering targeted host cells. The B subunit is responsible for binding to receptors to open up a pathway for the A subunit to enter the cell. The A subunit is then able to use its catalytic machinery to take over the host cell's regular functions.

Escherichia coli O121 is a pathogenic serotype of Escherichia coli, associated with Shiga toxin, intestinal bleeding, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS, if left untreated, can lead to kidney failure.

<i>Escherichia coli</i> O104:H21

Escherichia coli O104:H21 is a rare serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals. The presence of many serotypes of E. coli in animals is beneficial or does not cause disease in animals. However, some serotypes of E. coli have been recognized as pathogenic to humans, e.g. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O121 and E. coli O104:H21.

Robert V. Tauxe, MD, MPH, USPHS (Ret.) is the Director of the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria whose infection causes a syndrome that is identical to shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. EIEC are highly invasive, and they use adhesin proteins to bind to and enter intestinal cells. They produce no toxins, but severely damage the intestinal wall through mechanical cell destruction.

The RTX toxin superfamily is a group of cytolysins and cytotoxins produced by bacteria. There are over 1000 known members with a variety of functions. The RTX family is defined by two common features: characteristic repeats in the toxin protein sequences, and extracellular secretion by the type I secretion systems (T1SS). The name RTX refers to the glycine and aspartate-rich repeats located at the C-terminus of the toxin proteins, which facilitate export by a dedicated T1SS encoded within the rtx operon.

2011 Germany <i>E. coli</i> O104:H4 outbreak serious outbreak of foodborne illness focused in northern Germany in May through June 2011

A novel strain of Escherichia coli O104:H4 bacteria caused a serious outbreak of foodborne illness focused in northern Germany in May through June 2011. The illness was characterized by bloody diarrhea, with a high frequency of serious complications, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a condition that requires urgent treatment. The outbreak was originally thought to have been caused by an enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) strain of E. coli, but it was later shown to have been caused by an enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain that had acquired the genes to produce Shiga toxins, present in organic fenugreek sprouts.

Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). Only a minority of the strains cause illness in humans. The ones that do are collectively known as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and are major causes of foodborne illness. When infecting humans, they often cause gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, and bloody diarrhea and sometimes cause a severe complication called hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The group and its subgroups are known by various names. They are distinguished from other strains of intestinal pathogenic E. coli including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC).

Antimotility agents are drugs used to alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea. These include loperamide (Imodium), diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil), and opiates such as paregoric, tincture of opium, codeine, and morphine. In diarrhea caused by invasive pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, the use of such agents has generally been strongly discouraged, though evidence is lacking that they are harmful when administered in combination with antibiotics in Clostridium difficile cases. Use of antimotility agents in children and the elderly has also been discouraged in treatment of EHEC due to an increased rate of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Pathogenic <i>Escherichia coli</i>

Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes are pathogenic and can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls. E. coli are also responsible for a majority of cases of urinary tract infections. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine.

The 2015 United States E. coli outbreak is an incident in the United States involving the spread of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through contaminated celery which was consumed in chicken salad at various large retailers. A product recall covering more than one dozen states and over 155,000 products has taken place as a result of the incident.

References

  1. Mellman, Alexander; Harmsen, D; Cummings, CA; et al. (July 20, 2011). "Prospective genomic characterization of the German enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak by rapid next generation sequencing technology". PLoS One . 6 (7): e22751. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022751.
  2. "BGI Sequences Genome of the Deadly E. coli in Germany and Reveals New Super-Toxic Strain". BGI. 2011-06-02. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  3. David Tribe (2011-06-02). "BGI Sequencing news: German EHEC strain is a chimera created by horizontal gene transfer". Biology Fortified . Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  4. Maev Kennedy and agencies (2011-06-02). "E. coli outbreak: WHO says bacterium is a new strain". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-04.
  5. "BGI releases the complete map of the Germany E. coli O104 genome and attributed the strain as a category of Shiga toxin-producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (STpEAEC)". BGI. 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2011-06-20.
  6. 1 2 "Copy number analysis of German outbreak strain E. coli EHEC O104:H4". Johannes Kepler University of Linz. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
  7. "Characterization of EHEC O104:H4" (PDF). Robert Koch Institute. 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
  8. "The EU integrated approach to food safety".
  9. "Case Definition for diarrhoea and haemolytic uremic syndrome caused by O104:H4" (PDF). European Commission. 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
  10. Bae, WK; Lee, YK; Cho, MS; et al. (June 30, 2006). "A case of haemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Escherichia coli O104:H4". Yonsei Medical Journal. 47 (3): 473–479. doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.3.437. PMC   2688167 Lock-green.svg. PMID   16807997.
  11. 1 2 Frank, C; Werber, D; Cramer, JP; et al. (October 26, 2011). "Epidemic profile of Shiga-toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany". New England Journal of Medicine. 365: 1771–1780. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1106483. PMID   21696328.<http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1106483>
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  13. European Food Safety Authority. "Shiga Toxin-producing E. Coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 Outbreaks in Europe:." EFSA Journal. European Food Safety Authority, 3 Nov. 2011. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2390>.
  14. 1 2 Gorman, Christine. "E. Coli on the March: Scientific American." Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American. Scientific American, 7 Aug. 2011. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=e-coli-on-the-march>.
  15. "July 8, 2011: Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing E. Coli O104 (STEC O104:H4) Infections Associated with Travel to Germany | E. Coli." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 8 July 2011. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2011/ecolio104/>.
  16. "CDC - Escherichia coli O157:H7, General Information - NCZVED." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 8 July 201. Web. 08 Nov. 2011.