Last updated
Specialty Infectious disease

Actinobacillosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Actinobacillus. [1]

<i>Actinobacillus</i> genus of bacteria

Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites or pathogens in mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. The bacteria are facultatively aerobic or anaerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates, and of reducing nitrates. The genomic DNA contains between 40 and 47 mol % guanine plus cytosine.


It is more commonly associated with animals than with humans. [2]

One of the most common forms seen by veterinarians is mouth actinobacillosis of cattle, due to Actinobacillus lignieresii. The most prominent symptom is the swelling of the tongue that protudes from the mouth and is very hard at palpation ("wooden tongue").

Cattle domesticated form of Aurochs

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos taurus.

Actinobacillus suis is an important disease of pigs of all ages and can lead to severe morbidity and sudden death. [3]

<i>Actinobacillus suis</i> species of bacterium

Actinobacillus suis is a beta-haemolytic, Gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family.


The infection is most commonly caused by abrasions on different soft tissues through which the bacteria, Actinobacillus lignieresii, enters. These soft tissues include subcutaneous tissues, the tongue, lymph nodes, lungs, and various tissues in the gastrointestinal tract. The injury results in different forms and locations of the disease depending on the location of the tissue. The commensal bacteria is also commonly found in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract, sometimes resulting in disease. [4] There are generally one or two cases of actinobacillosis per herd found in adult cows, foals or adult horses, and other similar animals. [5] [6]

Differential diagnosis

Mouth actinobacillosis of cattle must be differentiated from actinomycosis that affects bone tissues of the maxilla.

Actinomycosis in animals

Actinomycosis in animals is caused by Actinomyces bovis.

See also

Related Research Articles

Gastrointestinal tract organ system within humans and other animals pertaining the stomach and intestines

The gastrointestinal tract is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs.

Brucellosis Human disease

Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. It is also known as undulant fever, Malta fever, and Mediterranean fever.

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination antibiotic drug

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is a combination consisting of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. It is specifically used for otitis media, strep throat, pneumonia, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, animal bites, and tuberculosis. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.

<i>Actinomyces</i> genus of bacteria

Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinobacteria class of bacteria. They are all gram-positive. Actinomyces species are facultatively anaerobic, and they grow best under anaerobic conditions. Actinomyces species may form endospores, and, while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus-like branched networks of hyphae. The aspect of these colonies initially led to the incorrect assumption that the organism was a fungus and to the name Actinomyces, "ray fungus".

Mastocytoma hematologic cancer that has material basis in mast cells

A mastocytoma or mast cell tumor is a type of round-cell tumor consisting of mast cells. It is found in humans and many animal species; it also can refer to an accumulation or nodule of mast cells that resembles a tumor.

<i>Peptostreptococcus</i> genus of bacteria

Peptostreptococcus is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria. The cells are small, spherical, and can occur in short chains, in pairs or individually. They typically move using cilia. Peptostreptococcus are slow-growing bacteria with increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Peptostreptococcus is a normal inhabitant of the healthy lower reproductive tract of women.

Blackleg (disease) infectious bacterial disease

Blackleg, black quarter, quarter evil, or quarter ill is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a Gram-positive bacterial species. It is seen in livestock all over the world, usually affecting cattle, sheep, and goats. It has been seen occasionally in farmed bison and deer. The acute nature of the disease makes successful treatment difficult, and the efficacy of the commonly used vaccine is disputed.

Veterinary surgery

Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics, soft tissue surgery, and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement, fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures are performed by veterinary surgeons. Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery [neuters, minor mass excisions, etc.], some also perform additional procedures.

Cefquinome chemical compound

Cefquinome is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with pharmacological and antibacterial properties valuable in the treatment of coliform mastitis and other infections. It is only used in veterinary applications.

Veterinary virology

Veterinary virology is the study of viruses in non-human animals. It is an important branch of veterinary medicine.

Soft tissue sarcoma refer to a broad group of tumors that originate from connective tissues. They tend to have similar histologic appearance and biological behavior, and can be either benign or malignant. Soft tissue sarcomas can arise in any part of the pet's body but skin and subcutaneous tumors are the most commonly observed. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprise approximately 15% of all skin and subcutaneous tumors in dogs and approximately 7% of all skin and subcutaneous tumors in cats. The variety of different tumors that fall under the category of soft tissue sarcomas includes fibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant nerve sheath tumors, myxosarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, mesenchymoma, and spindle cell tumor.

<i>Actinomyces israelii</i> species of bacterium

Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the Actinomyces. Known to live commensally on and within humans, A. israelii is an opportunistic pathogen and a cause of actinomycosis. Many physiologically diverse strains of the species are known to exist, though all are strict anaerobes. It was named after the German Surgeon, James Adolf Israel (1848–1926), who studied the organism for the first time in 1878.

Cutaneous actinomycosis is a chronic disease that affects the deep subcutaneous tissue of the skin. Caused by an anaerobic, Gram-positive, filamentous type of bacteria in the genus Actinomyces, invasion of the soft tissue leads to the formation of abnormal channels leading to the skin surface that discharge pale yellow sulfur granules.

Blue eye disease is caused by La Piedad Michoacán Mexico virus (LPMV), the only member virus of the species Porcine rubulavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Synonyms for the disease include "Blue Eye Syndrome" and "Porcine Paramyxovirus Blue Eye Disease", and "La Piedad Michoacán Paramyxovirus Infection".

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, respiratory pathogen found in pigs. It was first reported in 1957, and was formally declared to be the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia in 1964. It was reclassified in 1983 after DNA studies showed it was more closely related to A. lignieresii.

Human digestive system combination of anatomical organs that are responsible for digestive function

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The process of digestion has many stages. The first stage is the cephalic phase of digestion which begins with gastric secretions in response to the sight and smell of food. The next stage starts in the mouth.


  1. "Merck Veterinary Manual".
  2. "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:actinobacillosis".[ permanent dead link ]
  3. "Actinobacillosis - Pig reviewed and published by Wikivet" . Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  4. Layman, Quinci D.; Rezabek, Grant B.; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Love, Brenda C.; Confer, Anthony W. (2014). "A Retrospective Study of Equine Actinobacillosis Cases 1999-2011". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 26 (3): 365–375. doi:10.1177/1040638714531766. PMID   24742921.
  5. Boden, Edward (2015). Black's Veterinary Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 10. ISBN   9781408181287 via EBL.
  6. Buttenschøn, J. (1989-02-12). "The Occurrence of Lesions in the Tongue of Adult Cattle and their Implications for the Development of Actinobacillosis". Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series A. 36 (1–10): 393–400. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0442.1989.tb00745.x. ISSN   1439-0442.