Actinobacillosis

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Actinobacillosis
Specialty Infectious disease

Actinobacillosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Actinobacillus. [1]

<i>Actinobacillus</i> genus of bacteria

Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites or pathogens in mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. The bacteria are facultatively aerobic or anaerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates, and of reducing nitrates. The genomic DNA contains between 40 and 47 mol % guanine plus cytosine.

Contents

It is more commonly associated with animals than with humans. [2]

One of the most common forms seen by veterinarians is mouth actinobacillosis of cattle, due to Actinobacillus lignieresii. The most prominent symptom is the swelling of the tongue that protudes from the mouth and is very hard at palpation ("wooden tongue").

Cattle domesticated form of Aurochs

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos taurus.

Actinobacillus suis is an important disease of pigs of all ages and can lead to severe morbidity and sudden death. [3]

<i>Actinobacillus suis</i> species of bacterium

Actinobacillus suis is a beta-haemolytic, Gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family.

Causes

The infection is most commonly caused by abrasions on different soft tissues through which the bacteria, Actinobacillus lignieresii, enters. These soft tissues include subcutaneous tissues, the tongue, lymph nodes, lungs, and various tissues in the gastrointestinal tract. The injury results in different forms and locations of the disease depending on the location of the tissue. The commensal bacteria is also commonly found in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract, sometimes resulting in disease. [4] There are generally one or two cases of actinobacillosis per herd found in adult cows, foals or adult horses, and other similar animals. [5] [6]

Differential diagnosis

Mouth actinobacillosis of cattle must be differentiated from actinomycosis that affects bone tissues of the maxilla.

Actinomycosis in animals

Actinomycosis in animals is caused by Actinomyces bovis.

See also

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References

  1. "Merck Veterinary Manual".
  2. "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:actinobacillosis".[ permanent dead link ]
  3. "Actinobacillosis - Pig reviewed and published by Wikivet" . Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  4. Layman, Quinci D.; Rezabek, Grant B.; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Love, Brenda C.; Confer, Anthony W. (2014). "A Retrospective Study of Equine Actinobacillosis Cases 1999-2011". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 26 (3): 365–375. doi:10.1177/1040638714531766. PMID   24742921.
  5. Boden, Edward (2015). Black's Veterinary Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 10. ISBN   9781408181287 via EBL.
  6. Buttenschøn, J. (1989-02-12). "The Occurrence of Lesions in the Tongue of Adult Cattle and their Implications for the Development of Actinobacillosis". Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series A. 36 (1–10): 393–400. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0442.1989.tb00745.x. ISSN   1439-0442.
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