|Campylobacter jejuni bacteria|
|Families and genera|
The Campylobacterales are an order of Proteobacteria which make up the epsilon subdivision, together with the small family Nautiliaceae. Like all Proteobacteria, they are Gram-negative. Most of the species are microaerophilic.
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic) and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation.
The Nautiliaceae are a family of bacteria placed in an order to itself, Nautiliales, or in the order Campylobacterales. The members of the family are all thermophilic. They are:
Comparative genomic analysis has led to the identification of 49 proteins which are uniquely found in virtually all species of the order Campylobacterales. Additionally, two conserved signature indels have been identified which, along with the proteins, serve as molecular markers for the order. The indels are a three-amino-acid insertion in the B protein of the Uvr ABC system, and a two-amino-acid deletion in phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase.
Conserved signature inserts and deletions (CSIs) in protein sequences provide an important category of molecular markers for understanding phylogenetic relationships. CSIs, brought about by rare genetic changes, provide useful phylogenetic markers that are generally of defined size and they are flanked on both sides by conserved regions to ensure their reliability. While indels can be arbitrary inserts or deletions, CSIs are defined as only those protein indels that are present within conserved regions of the protein.
UvrABC endonuclease is a multienzyme complex in Escherichia coli involved in DNA repair by nucleotide excision repair, and it is, therefore, sometimes called an excinuclease. This UvrABC repair process, sometimes called the short-patch process, involves the removal of twelve nucleotides where a genetic mutation has occurred followed by a DNA polymerase, replacing these aberrant nucleotides with the correct nucleotides and completing the DNA repair. The subunits for this enzyme are encoded in the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC genes. This enzyme complex is able to repair many different types of damage, including cyclobutyl dimer formation.
In enzymology, a phenylalanine-tRNA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
The Aquificae phylum is a diverse collection of bacteria that live in harsh environmental settings. The name 'Aquificae' was given to this phylum based on an early genus identified within this group, Aquifex, which is able to produce water by oxidizing hydrogen. They have been found in springs, pools, and oceans. They are autotrophs, and are the primary carbon fixers in their environments. These bacteria are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods. They are true bacteria as opposed to the other inhabitants of extreme environments, the Archaea.
The Chloroflexia are one of six classes of bacteria in the phylum Chloroflexi, known as filamentous green non-sulfur bacteria. They produce energy from light and are named for their green pigment, usually found in photosynthetic bodies called chlorosomes.
Deinococcus–Thermus is a phylum of bacteria that are highly resistant to environmental hazards, also known as extremophiles. These bacteria have thick cell walls that give them gram-positive stains, but they include a second membrane and so are closer in structure to those of gram-negative bacteria. Cavalier-Smith calls this clade Hadobacteria.
The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals. Bacteroidetes spp. are part of normal, healthy placental microbiome.
Burkholderia is a genus of Proteobacteria whose pathogenic members include the Burkholderia cepacia complex which attacks humans and Burkholderia mallei, responsible for glanders, a disease that occurs mostly in horses and related animals; Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis; and Burkholderia cepacia, an important pathogen of pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF).
Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic. They are bacilli (rod-shaped), and in some phases of life they are, more particularly, club-shaped, which inspired the genus name.
The Rickettsiaceae are a family of bacteria. The genus Rickettsia is the most prominent genus within the family. From this family, the bacteria that eventually formed the mitochondrion is believed to have originated. Most human pathogens in this family are in genus Rickettsia. They spend part of their lifecycle in the bodies of arthropods such as ticks or lice, and are then transmitted to humans or other mammals by the bite of the arthropod. It contains Gram-negative bacteria, very sensitive to environmental exposure, thus is adapted to obligate intracellular infection. Rickettsia rickettsii is considered the prototypical infectious organism in the group.
The Pasteurellaceae comprise a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. Most members live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of birds and mammals, especially in the upper respiratory tract. Pasteurellaceae are typically rod-shaped, and are a notable group of facultative anaerobes. Their biochemical characteristics can be distinguished from the related Enterobacteriaceae by the presence of oxidase, and from most other similar bacteria by the absence of flagella.
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. It forms partially acid-fast beaded branching filaments. It contains a total of 85 species. Some species are nonpathogenic, while others are responsible for nocardiosis. Nocardia species are found worldwide in soil rich in organic matter. In addition, they are oral microflora found in healthy gingiva, as well as periodontal pockets. Most Nocardia infections are acquired by inhalation of the bacteria or through traumatic introduction.
Chlorobium is a genus of green sulfur bacteria. They are photolithotrophic oxidizers of sulfur and most notably utilise a noncyclic electron transport chain to reduce NAD+. Photosynthesis is achieved using a Type 1 Reaction Centre using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a. Two photosynthetic antenna complexes aid in light absorption: the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, and the chlorosomes which employ mostly BChl c, d, or e. Hydrogen sulfide is used as an electron source and carbon dioxide its carbon source.
Bifidobacteriales is an order of bacteria, in the subclass of Actinobacteridae.
Fibrobacteres is a small bacterial phylum which includes many of the major rumen bacteria, allowing for the degradation of plant-based cellulose in ruminant animals. Members of this phylum were categorized in other phyla. The genus Fibrobacter was removed from the genus Bacteroides in 1988.
The Streptomycetaceae are a family of Actinobacteria, making up to the monotypic suborder Streptomycineae. It includes the important genus Streptomyces. This was the original source of many antibiotics, namely streptomycin, the first antibiotic against tuberculosis.
Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria. Its members are highly diverse and possess few commonalities, but nevertheless share a common ancestor. Like all Proteobacteria, its members are gram-negative and some of its intracellular parasitic members lack peptidoglycan and are consequently gram variable.
Planctobacteria is a taxon created by Cavalier-Smith, specifically a division (phylum). However, it is not followed by the larger scientific community. Cavalier-Smith postulated that the Planctobacteria probably lost or reduced their peptidoglycan cell wall twice.
The order Flavobacteriales comprises three families of environmental bacteria.
Fibrobacter succinogenes is a cellulolytic bacterium species in the genus Fibrobacter. It is present in the rumen of cattle. Beta glucans are its substrate of choice in the rumen and its products after digestion include formate, acetate and succinate. Fibrobacter succinogenes forms characteristic extensive grooves in crystalline cellulose, and is also rather readily detached from its substrate during sample preparation.
The Nocardiaceae are a family of aerobic, non-fastidious, high G+C, Gram-positive actinomycetes that are commonly found in soil and water. Members of this family have been isolated from Antarctic soils. Nocardiaceae present coccobacilli, filamentous or, rarely, fragmented and palisading forms, and filamentous species grow in a branching morphological pattern similar to fungal hyphae.
The Pseudonocardiaceae are a family of bacteria in the order Actinomycetales and the only member of the suborder Pseudonocardineae.
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