Rickettsia conorii

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Rickettsia conorii
Rickettsia conorii in Vero.gif
Rickettsia conorii observed in Vero cells (red rods; magnification ×1,000) [1]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alphaproteobacteria
Order: Rickettsiales
Family: Rickettsiaceae
Genus: Rickettsia
Species group: Spotted fever group
Species:
R. conorii
Binomial name
Rickettsia conorii
Brumpt 1932 [2]

Rickettsia conorii is a Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium of the genus Rickettsia that causes human disease called Boutonneuse fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, Israeli tick typhus, Astrakhan spotted fever, Kenya tick typhus, Indian tick typhus, or other names that designate the locality of occurrence while having distinct clinical features. [3] [4] It is a member of the spotted fever group and the most geographically dispersed species in the group, recognized in most of the regions bordering on the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, Israel, Kenya, and other parts of North, Central, and South Africa, and India. [3] The prevailing vector is the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus . The bacterium was isolated by Emile Brumpt in 1932 [5] and named after A. Conor who, in collaboration with A. Bruch, provided the first description of boutonneuse fever in Tunisia in 1910. [6]

<i>Rickettsia</i> type of bacteria that causes typhus, among other diseases

Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that may occur in the forms of cocci 0.1 μm in diameter, rods 1–4 μm long, or threads of up to about 10 μm long. The term "rickettsia" has nothing to do with rickets, which is a deficiency disease resulting from lack of vitamin D; the bacterial genus Rickettsia was named after Howard Taylor Ricketts, in honour of his pioneering work on tick-borne spotted fever.

Boutonneuse fever Human disease

Boutonneuse fever is a fever as a result of a rickettsial infection caused by the bacterium Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Boutonneuse fever can be seen in many places around the world, although it is endemic in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. This disease was first described in Tunisia in 1910 by Conor and Bruch and was named boutonneuse due to its papular skin rash characteristics.

A spotted fever is a type of tick-borne disease which presents on the skin. They are all caused by bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Typhus is a group of similar diseases also caused by Rickettsia bacteria, but spotted fevers and typhus are different clinical entities.

The genome of the bacterium has been sequenced [7] and four subspecies have been identified. [8]

Related Research Articles

Rocky Mountain spotted fever human disease

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial disease spread by ticks. It typically begins with a fever and headache, which is followed a few days later with the development of a rash. The rash is generally made up of small spots of bleeding and starts on the wrists and ankles. Other symptoms may include muscle pains and vomiting. Long-term complications following recovery may include hearing loss or loss of part of an arm or leg.

Mediterranean fever may refer to:

<i>Rickettsia rickettsii</i> species of prokaryote

Rickettsia rickettsii is a gram-negative, intracellular, coccobacillus bacterium that is around 0.8 to 2.0 micrometers long. R. rickettsi is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. R. rickettsii is one of the most pathogenic Rickettsia strains. It affects a large majority of the Western Hemisphere and small portions of the Eastern Hemisphere.

A rickettsiosis is a disease caused by intracellular bacteria.

<i>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</i> species of arachnid

The brown dog tick, commonly called kennel tick, or pan-tropical dog tick, is a species of tick which is found worldwide, but more commonly in warmer climates. This species is unusual among ticks in that its entire life cycle can be completed indoors.

Rickettsia typhi is a species of infectious bacterium of the genus Rickettsia; it is the causative agent of Murine typhus.

African tick bite fever spotted fever that has material basis in Rickettsia africae, which is transmitted by ticks

African tick bite fever (ATBF) is a bacterial infection spread by the bite of a tick. Symptoms may include fever, headache, muscles pains, and a rash. At the site of the bite there is typically a red skin sore with a dark center. Onset usually occur 4–10 days after the bite. Complications are rare, however may include joint inflammation. Some people do not develop symptoms.

Rickettsia australis is a bacterium that causes a medical condition called Queensland tick typhus. The probable vectors are the tick species, Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes tasmani. Small marsupials are suspected reservoirs of this bacterium.

North Asian tick typhus, also known as Siberian tick typhus, is a condition characterized by a maculopapular rash.

Rickettsia helvetica, previously known as the Swiss Agent, is a bacterium found in Dermacentor reticulatus and other ticks which has been implicated as a suspected but unconfirmed human pathogen. First recognized in 1979 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Switzerland as a new member of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, the Rickettsia helvetica bacterium was eventually isolated in 1993. Although R. helvetica was initially thought to be harmless in humans and many animal species, some individual case reports suggest that it may be capable of causing a non-specific fever in humans. In 1997 a man living in eastern France seroconverted to Rickettsia 4 weeks after onset of an unexplained febrile illness. In 2010, a case report indicated that tick-borne R. helvetica can also cause meningitis in humans.

Didier Raoult is a French biologist. He holds MD and Ph.D. degrees and specializes in infectious diseases.

Rickettsia felis is a species of bacterium, the pathogen that causes cat-flea typhus in humans. In cats the disease is known as flea-borne spotted fever. Rickettsia felis also is regarded as the causative organism of many cases of illnesses generally classed as fevers of unknown origin in humans in Africa.

Rickettsia honei is a species of Rickettsia.

<i>Rickettsia sibirica</i> species of prokaryote

Rickettsia sibirica is a species of Rickettsia. This bacterium is the etiologic agent of North Asian tick typhus, which is also known as Siberian tick typhus. The ticks that transmit it are primarily various species of Dermacentor and Haemaphysalis.

Rickettsia japonica is a species of Rickettsia. It can cause Japanese spotted fever.

Rickettsia heilongjiangensis is a species of gram negative Alphaproteobacteria, within the spotted fever group, being carried by ticks. It is pathogenic.

Rickettsia massiliae is a tick-borne pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia species.

Rickettsia asiatica is a tick-borne pathogenic species borne by Ixodes ovatus. The type strain of Rickettsia asiatica sp. nov. is IO-1T.

References

  1. Rovery C, Brouqui P, Raoult D (2008). "Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery". Emerg Infect Dis. 14 (9): 1360–1367. doi:10.3201/eid1409.071133. PMC   2603122 . PMID   18760001.
  2. Skerman, VBD; McGowan, V; Sneath, PHA, eds. (1989). Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (amended ed.). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology
  3. 1 2 Yu, XJ; Walker, DH (2005). "Genus I. Rickettsia da Rocha-Lima 1916, 567AL". In Brenner, DJ; Krieg, NR; Staley, JT; et al. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 2, Part C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer
  4. Parola, P; Paddock, CD; Raoult, D (2005). "Tick-Borne Rickettsioses around the World: Emerging Diseases Challenging Old Concepts". Clin Microbiol Rev. 18 (4): 719–756. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.4.719-756.2005. PMC   1265907 . PMID   16223955.
  5. Brumpt, E (1932). "Longevité du virus de la fièvre boutonneuse (Rickettsia conorii, n. sp.) chez la tique Rhipicephalus sanguineus". C. R. Soc. Biol. 110: 1119–1202.
  6. Conor, A & A Bruch (1910). "Une fièvre éruptive observée en Tunisie". Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filial. 8: 492–496.
  7. Ogata H, Audic S, Renesto-Audiffren P, et al. (September 2001). "Mechanisms of evolution in Rickettsia conorii and R. prowazekii". Science. 293 (5537): 2093–8. Bibcode:2001Sci...293.2093O. doi:10.1126/science.1061471. PMID   11557893.
  8. Zhu Y, Fournier PE, Eremeeva M, Raoult D (2005). "Proposal to create subspecies of Rickettsia conorii based on multi-locus sequence typing and an emended description of Rickettsia conorii". BMC Microbiol. 5: 11. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-5-11. PMC   1079849 . PMID   15766388.

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