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(Miyamoto et al. 1961)
| ATCC 17749 |
CCUG 4989 and 13445 and 16315
CIP 103336 and 75.3
NCCB 71013 and 77003
Oceanomonas alginolyticaMiyamoto et al. 1961
Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative marine bacterium. It is medically important since it causes otitis and wound infection.It is also present in the bodies of animals such as pufferfish, where it is responsible for the production of the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin.
Otitis is a general term for inflammation or infection of the ear, in both humans and other animals.
The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes. The family includes many familiar species which are variously called pufferfish, puffers, balloonfish, blowfish, blowies, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab. They are morphologically similar to the closely related porcupinefish, which have large external spines. The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the hard shells of crustaceans and mollusks, their natural prey.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals, it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in animals.
V. alginolyticus was first identified as a pathogen of humans in 1973.It occasionally causes eye, ear, and wound infections. It is a highly salt-tolerant species and can grow in salt concentrations of 10%. Most clinical isolates come from superinfected wounds that become contaminated at the beach. Tetracycline usually results in cure. V. alginolyticus is rare cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised hosts.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.
Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales, in the phylum Firmicutes. Cell division in streptococci occurs along a single axis, so as they grow, they tend to form pairs or chains that may appear bent or twisted.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic plankton. Plankton are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. The word zooplankton is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic, but some are larger and visible to the naked eye.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium. The bacterium's natural habitat is brackish or saltwater. Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera. V. cholerae is a facultative anaerobe and has a flagellum at one cell pole as well as pili. V. cholerae can undergo respiratory and fermentative metabolism. When ingested, V. cholerae can cause diarrhoea and vomiting in a host within several hours to 2–3 days of ingestion. V. cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch, working independently 30 years later, publicized the knowledge and the means of fighting the disease.
Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter typically appear comma- or s-shaped, and are motile.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Typically found in salt water, Vibrio species are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are motile and have polar flagella with sheaths. Vibrio species typically possess two chromosomes, which is unusual for bacteria. Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication, and are conserved together over time in the genus. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes.
Vibrio vulnificus is a species of Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped (bacillus), pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Present in marine environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas, V. vulnificus is related to V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera.
Aliivibrio fischeri is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found globally in marine environments. A. fischeri has bioluminescent properties, and is found predominantly in symbiosis with various marine animals, such as the Hawaiian bobtail squid. It is heterotrophic, oxidase-positive, and motile by means of a single polar flagella. Free-living A. fischeri cells survive on decaying organic matter. The bacterium is a key research organism for examination of microbial bioluminescence, quorum sensing, and bacterial-animal symbiosis. It is named after Bernhard Fischer, a German microbiologist.
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative, bioluminescent, marine bacterium in the genus Vibrio. V. harveyi is rod-shaped, motile, facultatively anaerobic, halophilic, and competent for both fermentative and respiratory metabolism. It does not grow below 4 °C. V. harveyi can be found free-swimming in tropical marine waters, commensally in the gut microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals, including Gorgonian corals, oysters, prawns, lobsters, the common snook, barramundi, turbot, milkfish, and seahorses. It is responsible for luminous vibriosis, a disease that affects commercially farmed penaeid prawns. Additionally, based on samples taken by ocean-going ships, V. harveyi is thought to be the cause of the milky seas effect, in which, during the night, a uniform blue glow is emitted from the seawater. Some glows can cover nearly 6,000 sq mi (16,000 km2).
The Vibrionaceae are a family of Proteobacteria given their own order. Inhabitants of fresh or salt water, several species are pathogenic, including the type species Vibrio cholerae, which is the agent responsible for cholera. Most bioluminescent bacteria belong to this family, and are typically found as symbionts of deep-sea animals.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium found in brackish, saltwater, which, when ingested, causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. V. parahaemolyticus is oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic, and does not form spores. Like other members of the genus Vibrio, this species is motile, with a single, polar flagellum.
Vibrio natriegens is a Gram-negative marine bacterium. It was first isolated from salt marsh mud. It is a salt-loving organism (halophile) requiring about 2% NaCl for growth. It reacts well to the presence of sodium ions which appear to stimulate growth in Vibrio species, to stabilise the cell membrane, and to affect sodium-dependent transport and mobility. Under optimum conditions, and all nutrients provided, the doubling time of V. natriegens can be less than 10 minutes. In the laboratory, the growth medium can be easily changed, thus affecting the growth rate of a culture. V. natriegens is commonly found in estuarine mud.
Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or non-hemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. It can be commensal in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, but it may also be pathogenic, causing diseases such as neonatal meningitis or endocarditis.
Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar, or TCBS agar, is a type of selective agar culture plate that is used in microbiology laboratories to isolate Vibrio species. TCBS agar is highly selective for the isolation of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus as well as other Vibrio species. TCBS agar contains high concentrations of sodium thiosulfate and sodium citrate to inhibit the growth of Enterobacteriaceae. Inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria is achieved by the incorporation of ox gall, which is a naturally occurring substance containing a mixture of bile salts and sodium cholate, a pure bile salt. Sodium thiosulfate also serves as a sulfur source and its presence, in combination with ferric citrate, allows for the easy detection of hydrogen sulfide production. Saccharose (sucrose) is included as a fermentable carbohydrate for metabolism by Vibrio species. The alkaline pH of the medium enhances the recovery of V. cholerae and inhibits the growth of others. Thymol blue and bromothymol blue are included as indicators of pH changes.
Vibrio anguillarum is a species of Gram-negative bacteria with a curved-rod shape and one polar flagellum. Classified under three biotypes, before scientists discovered that different strains of Vibrio anguillarum could be differentiated using serotypes. Vibrio anguillarum are halophiles that prefer warmer temperatures and neutral pH conditions. Vibrio anguillarum are able to compete for iron before the host can absorb it through iron acquisition mechanisms. It is an important pathogen of cultured salmonid fish, and causes the disease known as vibriosis or red pest of eels. This disease has the ability to impact brackish water, marine water, and freshwater species and may greatly impact cultured salmonid fish. Vibriosis has been observed in salmon, bream, eel, mullet, catfish, oysters, tilapia, and shrimp amongst others. The bacteria is most prevalent in late summer in salt or brackish water and gene transmission is mainly horizontal. Infection in humans is most commonly through the skin, but also through the mouth via contaminated food or water. It is widely distributed across the world. Vibrio anguillarum are damaging to the economy of aquaculture sector and fishing industries.
Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacillus commonly found in soil.
Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.
Chitin disaccharide deacetylase (EC 22.214.171.124, chitobiose amidohydolase, COD, chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase, chitin oligosaccharide amidohydolase) is an enzyme with systematic name 2-(acetylamino)-4-O-(2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose acetylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction
Vibrio furnissii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. Its type strain is ATCC 35016. V. furnissii is aerogenic, and uses L-rhamnose, L-arginine, L-arabinose, maltose, and D-mannitol, but not L-lysine, L-ornithine, or lactose. It has been isolated from patients with gastroenteritis, bacteremia, skin lesions, and septicemia.
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