|Specialty|| Infectious disease, pulmonology, pediatrics |
Pseudomonas infection refers to a disease caused by one of the species of the genus Pseudomonas .
A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury. Diseases are often construed as medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs. A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the immune system can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, allergies and autoimmune disorders.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species. The members of the genus demonstrate a great deal of metabolic diversity and consequently are able to colonize a wide range of niches. Their ease of culture in vitro and availability of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strain genome sequences has made the genus an excellent focus for scientific research; the best studied species include P. aeruginosa in its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, the plant pathogen P. syringae, the soil bacterium P. putida, and the plant growth-promoting P. fluorescens.
P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, most commonly affecting immunocompromised patients, such as those with cystic fibrosisor AIDS. Infection can affect many different parts of the body, but infections typically target the respiratory tract (e.g. patients with CF or those on mechanical ventilation), causing bacterial pneumonia. In a surveillance study between 1986 and 1989, P. aeruginosa was the third leading cause of all nosocomial infections, and specifically the number one leading cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia and third leading cause of hospital-acquired UTI. Treatment of such infections can be difficult due to multiple antibiotic resistance, and in the United States, there was an increase in MDRPA (Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa) resistant to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides, from 0.9% in 1994 to 5.6% in 2002.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common encapsulated, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. A species of considerable medical importance, P. aeruginosa is a multidrug resistant pathogen recognized for its ubiquity, its intrinsically advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and its association with serious illnesses – hospital-acquired infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and various sepsis syndromes.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine. Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. Different people may have different degrees of symptoms.
Mechanical ventilation, or assisted ventilation, is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means are used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator, or the breathing may be assisted manually by a suitably qualified professional, such as an anesthesiologist, respiratory therapist, or paramedic, by compressing a bag valve mask device.
P. oryzihabitans can also be a human pathogen, although infections are rare. It can cause peritonitis,endophthalmitis, sepsis and bacteremia. Similar symptoms although also very rare can be seen by infections of P. luteola .
Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, also known as Flavimonas oryzihabitans, is a nonfermenting yellow-pigmented, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause sepsis, peritonitis, endophthalmitis, and bacteremia. It is an opportunistic pathogen of humans and warm-blooded animals that is commonly found in several environmental sources, from soil to rice paddies. They can be distinguished from other nonfermenters by their negative oxidase reaction and aerobic character. This organism can infect individuals that have major illnesses, including those undergoing surgery or with catheters in their body. Based on the 16S RNA analysis, these bacteria have been placed in the Pseudomonas putida group.
Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs. Symptoms may include severe pain, swelling of the abdomen, fever, or weight loss. One part or the entire abdomen may be tender. Complications may include shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the interior of the eye. It is a possible complication of all intraocular surgeries, particularly cataract surgery, with possible loss of vision and the eye itself. Infectious cause is the most common and various bacteria and fungi have been isolated as the cause of the endophthalmitis. Other causes include penetrating trauma, allergic reaction, and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Intravitreal injections expose patients to the risk of endophthalmitis, but with an incidence rate usually less than .05%.
P. plecoglossicida is a fish pathogenic species, causing hemorrhagic ascites in the ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).P. anguilliseptica is also a fish pathogen.
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a non-fluorescent, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium that causes hemorrhagic ascites in the ayu fish, from which it derives its name. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. plecoglossicida has been placed in the P. putida group.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen. Technically, it is more than 25 mL of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Symptoms may include increased abdominal size, increased weight, abdominal discomfort, and shortness of breath. Complications can include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
The ayu or sweetfish, Plecoglossus altivelis, is a species of fish. It is the only species in the genus Plecoglossus and family Plecoglossidae. It is a relative of the smelts and other fish in the order Osmeriformes.
Due to their hemolytic activity, even non-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas can occasionally become a problem in clinical settings, where they have been known to infect blood transfusions.
Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Blood is normally a sterile environment, so the detection of bacteria in the blood is always abnormal. It is distinct from sepsis, which is the host response to the bacteria.
Colistin, also known as polymyxin E, is an antibiotic produced by certain strains of the bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa. Colistin is a mixture of the cyclic polypeptides colistin A and B and belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics known as polymyxins. Colistin is effective against most Gram-negative bacilli.
Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections. This class of antibiotics is usually reserved for known or suspected multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Similar to penicillins and cephalosporins, carbapenems are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. However, these agents individually exhibit a broader spectrum of activity compared to most cephalosporins and penicillins. Furthermore, carbapenems are typically unaffected by emerging antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams.
Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Cefepime has an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both types of organism than third-generation agents. A 2007 meta-analysis suggested when data of trials were combined, mortality was increased in people treated with cefepime compared with other β-lactam antibiotics. In response, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration performed their own meta-analysis which found no mortality difference.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, nonfermentative, Gram-negative bacterium. It is an uncommon bacterium and human infection is difficult to treat. Initially classified as Bacterium bookeri, then renamed Pseudomonas maltophilia, S. maltophilia was also grouped in the genus Xanthomonas before eventually becoming the type species of the genus Stenotrophomonas in 1993.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It is named after the bacteriologist Paul Baumann. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-derived (nosocomial) infection. While other species of the genus Acinetobacter are often found in soil samples, it is almost exclusively isolated from hospital environments. Although occasionally it has been found in environmental soil and water samples, its natural habitat is still not known.
Pseudomonas luteola is an opportunistic pathogen, found ubiquitously in damp environments. Originally designated in the genus Chryseomonas, the species has since been reassigned to the genus Pseudomonas.
Arbekacin (INN) is a semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. It is primarily used for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Arbekacin was originally synthesized from dibekacin in 1973. It has been registered and marketed in Japan since 1990 under the trade name Habekacin. Arbekacin is no longer covered by patent and generic versions of the drug are also available under such trade names as Decontasin and Blubatosine.
Morganella morganii is a species of Gram-negative bacteria. It has a commensal relationship within the intestinal tracts of humans, mammals, and reptiles as normal flora. Although M. morganii has a wide distribution, it is considered an uncommon cause of community-acquired infection and it is most often encountered in postoperative and other nosocomial infections such as urinary tract infections.
Panophthalmitis is the inflammation of all coats of the animal eye including intraocular structures. It can be caused by infection, particularly from Pseudomonas species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium species, Whipple's disease, and also fungi. It can also be cause by other stress.
Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple antibiotics. They can cause bacteria infections that pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat for hospitalized patients and especially patients in intensive care units. Infections caused by MDR strains are correlated with increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospitalization. Thus, not only do these bacteria pose a threat to global public health, but also create a significant burden to healthcare systems.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new "superbug". The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as "nightmare bacteria". Examples of enzymes found in certain types of CRE are KPC and NDM. KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM have also been reported in Pseudomonas.
Ceftazidime/avibactam, brand names include Avycaz among others, is a combination drug composed of ceftazidime, a cephalosporin antibiotic, and avibactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor. It is used for the treatment of serious bacterial infections.
ESKAPE is an acronym encompassing the names of six bacterial pathogens commonly associated with antimicrobial resistance: ESKAPE is an acronym for their names and a reference to their ability to escape the effects of commonly used antibiotics through evolutionarily developed mechanisms, and also because it is a acronym made from the first letters of their scientific names: