Enterobacter cloacae

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Enterobacter cloacae
Enterobacter cloacae 01.png
Enterobacter cloacae on tryptic soy agar.
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Binomial name
Enterobacter cloacae
(Jordan 1890)
Hormaeche and Edwards 1960
Subspecies

E. c. subsp. cloacae
E. c. subsp. dissolvens

Synonyms

Bacillus cloacaeJordan 1890
Kkl Bacterium cloacae(Jordan 1890) Lehmann and Neumann 1896
Cloaca cloacae(Jordan 1890) Castellani and Chalmers 1919
Aerobacter cloacae(Jordan 1890) Bergey et al. 1923
Aerobacter cloacae(Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1958
Erwinia dissolvens(Rosen 1922) Burkholder 1948
Pseudomonas dissolvensRosen 1922
Bacterium dissolvensRosen 1922
Phytomonas dissolvens(Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926
Aplanobacter dissolvens(Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926
Aerobacter dissolvens(Rosen 1922) Waldee 1945
Enterobacter dissolvens(Rosen 1922) Brenner et al. 1988

Contents

Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.

Facultative anaerobic organism organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present

A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation if oxygen is absent.

<i>Bacillus</i> genus of bacteria

Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, a member of the phylum Firmicutes, with 266 named species. The term is also used to describe the shape (rod) of certain bacteria; and the plural Bacilli is the name of the class of bacteria to which this genus belongs. Bacillus species can be either obligate aerobes: oxygen dependent; or facultative anaerobes: having the ability to be anaerobic in the absence of oxygen. Cultured Bacillus species test positive for the enzyme catalase if oxygen has been used or is present.

Microbiology

In microbiology labs, E. cloacae is frequently grown at 30 °C on nutrient agar or broth or at 35 °C in tryptic soy broth. [1] It is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium, is facultatively anaerobic, and bears peritrichous flagella. It is oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. [2]

Nutrient agar

Nutrient agar is a general purpose medium supporting growth of a wide range of non-fastidious organisms. It typically contains (mass/volume):

Tryptic soy broth or Trypticase soy broth is used in microbiology laboratories as a culture broth to grow aerobic bacteria. It is a complex, general purpose medium that is routinely used to grow certain pathogenic bacteria, which tend to have high nutritional requirements. Its agar counterpart is tryptic soy agar (TSA). One of the components of Tryptic soy broth is Phytone, which is an enzymatic digest of soybean meal.

Gram stain Method of staining used to differentiate bacterial species into two large groups (Gram-positive and Gram-negative)

Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups. The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique.

Industrial use

Enterobacter cloacae has been used in a bioreactor-based method for the biodegradation of explosives and in the biological control of plant diseases. [3]

Bioreactor device or system that supports a biologically active environment

A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment. In one case, a bioreactor is a vessel in which a chemical process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic. These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from litres to cubic metres, and are often made of stainless steel.

Biodegradation Decomposition by living organisms

Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi.

Safety

E. cloacae is considered a biosafety level 1 organism in the United States and level 2 in Canada.[ citation needed ]

Biosafety level level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents

A biosafety level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the highest at level 4 (BSL-4). In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels. In the European Union, the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive. In Canada the four levels are known as Containment Levels. Facilities with these designations are also sometimes given as P1 through P4, as in the term "P3 laboratory".

Genomics

A draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae was announced in 2012. The bacteria used in the study were isolated from giant panda feces. [4]

Genome entirety of an organisms hereditary information; genome of organism (encoded by the genomic DNA) is the (biological) information of heredity which is passed from one generation of organism to the next; is transcribed to produce various RNAs

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA. The genome includes both the genes and the noncoding DNA, as well as mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA. The study of the genome is called genomics.

Giant panda species of mammal

The giant panda, also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo. Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food.

Clinical significance

Enterobacter cloacae is a member of the normal gut flora of many humans and is not usually a primary pathogen. [5] Some strains have been associated with urinary tract and respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised individuals. Treatment with cefepime and gentamicin has been reported. [6]

Gut flora community of microorganisms in the gut

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit.

Cefepime chemical compound

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Cefepime has an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both types of organism than third-generation agents. A 2007 meta-analysis suggested when data of trials were combined, mortality was increased in people treated with cefepime compared with other β-lactam antibiotics. In response, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration performed their own meta-analysis which found no mortality difference.

Gentamicin chemical compound

Gentamicin, sold under brand name Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections. This may include bone infections, endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among others. It is not effective for gonorrhea or chlamydia infections. It can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle, or topically. Topical formulations may be used in burns or for infections of the outside of the eye. In the developed world, it is often only used for two days until bacterial cultures determine what specific antibiotics the infection is sensitive to. The dose required should be monitored by blood testing.

A 2012 study in which Enterobacter cloacae transplanted into previously germ-free mice resulted in increased obesity when compared with germ-free mice fed an identical diet, suggesting a link between obesity and the presence of Enterobacter gut flora. [7]

Species of the E. cloacae complex

E. cloacae was described for the first time in 1890 by Jordan[201] as Bacillus cloacae, and then underwent numerous taxonomical changes, becoming 'Bacterium cloacae' in 1896 (Lehmann and Neumann), Cloaca cloacae in 1919 (Castellani and Chalmers), it was identified as 'Aerobacter cloacae' in 1923 (Bergey et al.), Aerobacter cloacae in 1958 (Hormaeche and Edwards) and E. cloacae in 1960 (Hormaeche and Edwards), by which it is still known today.[7] E. cloacae is ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments (water, sewage, soil and food). These strains occur as commensal microflora in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals[1] and play an important role as pathogens in plants and insects. This diversity of habitats is mirrored by the genetic variety of the nomenspecies E. cloacae.[6] E. cloacae is also an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for bacteremia and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections, as well as endocarditis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and skin and soft tissue infections. The skin and the GI tract are the most common sites through which E. cloacae can be contracted.[1,29]

E. cloacae tends to contaminate various medical, intravenous and other hospital devices. Nosocomial outbreaks have also been associated with colonization of certain surgical equipment and operative cleaning solutions. Another potential reservoir for nosocomial bacteremia is the heparin solution used to irrigate certain intravascular devices continually. This fluid had been implicated as a reservoir for outbreaks of device-associated bacteremia in several instances.[30]

In recent years, E. cloacae has emerged as one of the most commonly found nosocomial pathogen in neonatal units, with several outbreaks of infection being reported.[31] In 1998, van Nierop et al. reported an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit with nine deaths,[32] and in 2003, Kuboyama et al. reported three outbreaks with 42 systemic infections and a mortality of 34%.[33] This microorganism may be transmitted to neonates through contaminated intravenous fluids, total parenteral nutrition solutions and medical equipment. Many single-clone outbreaks, probably caused by cross-transmission via healthcare workers, have been described, suggesting that inpatients can also act as a reservoir.[31] The type strains of the species are E. cloacae ATCC 49162 and 13047. This latter strain is the first complete genome sequence of the E. cloacae species and the type strain is E. cloacae subsp. cloacae.

The complete E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC 13047 genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5,314,588 bp and two circular plasmids, pECL_A and pECL_B, of 200,370 and 85,650 bp (GenBank accession numbers CP001918, CP001919 and CP001920, respectively).[34]

The other genomes of E. cloacae that have been sequenced are deposited in GenBank under accession numbers CP002272, CP002886, FP929040 and AGSY00000000.

E. asburiae is named after Mary Alyce Fife-Asbury, an American bacteriologist who made many important contributions to the classification of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly in describing new Klebsiella and Salmonella serotypes,[35–37] new genera and new species.[38–42] E. asburiae sp. nov. was described in 1986 based on the enteric group 17.[43] This group was defined in 1978 as a group of biochemically similar strains isolated from different human specimens[44] and sent to the CDC. Before the designation of 'enteric group 17', these strains had been reported as unidentified or atypical Citrobacter or Enterobacter strains.[44] After several studies, it was shown that these strains represent a single new species in the genus Enterobacter, which was named E. asburiae.

E. asburiae strains have been isolated from the soil and implicated in the mobilization of phosphate for plant nutrition from calcium phosphate, but most E. asburiae species have been isolated from human sources. The type strain of the species E. asburiae is ATCC 35953 and was isolated from lochia exudates of a 22-year-old woman in the USA.[43] The only sequenced strain of E. asburiae is LF7a, which contains a circular DNA (4,812,833 bp) and two circular plasmids, pENTAS01 (166,725 bp) and pENTAS02 (32,574 bp), which were submitted by Lucas et al. in 2011 to the US DOE Joint Genome Institute (CA, USA; GenBank accession numbers CP003026.1, CP003027.1 and CP003028.1, respectively).

E. hormaechei is named after Estenio Hormaeche, a Uruguayan microbiologist who (with PR Edwards) proposed and defined the genus Enterobacter.[7] The name E. hormaechei was formerly called enteric group 75, which contained 11 strains that were sent to the CDC for identification between 1973 and 1984. Twelve additional strains were received from 1985 to 1987, three of which were blood isolates. E. hormaechei was first described on the basis of 23 isolates sent to the CDC for identification. At that time, they could not be assigned to a species since they were negative in the D-sorbitol and melibiose tests and did not fit the biochemical profile of any established Enterobacter species. The species E. hormaechei was proposed to be lactose-, D-sorbitol-, raffinose-, melibiose- and esculin-negative and 87% dulcitol-positive. These species were originally defined by O'Hara et al. when a large hybridization group of enteric organisms was isolated and found to be associated with bloodstream infections.[10]

The type strain of E. hormaechei is ATCC 49162 and was isolated from the sputum of a man in California in 1977.[10] The whole-genome shotgun sequencing project was submitted in 2011 to the Human Genome Sequencing Center (TX, USA; GenBank accession number AFHR00000000).

E. hormaechei consists of three different subspecies: E. hormaechei subsp. oharae, E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei and E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii, which corresponds to genetic clusters VI, VII and VIII, respectively.[8] The differentiation of these subspecies is based on their particular properties and biochemical tests.[11]

E. hormaechei is commonly isolated as a nosocomial pathogen of clinical significance;[45,46] it has been reported in several outbreaks of sepsis in neonatal intensive care units in the USA[47] and in Brazil, where the outbreak originated from contaminated parenteral nutrition.[48]

E. kobei is named after Kobe City (Japan), where the type strain of this species was isolated. E. kobei was first described by Kosako et al. based on a collection of 23 strains with the general traits of E. cloacae and the common phenotypic difference of being Voges–Proskauer-negative.[49] The name E. kobei is proposed for a group of organisms referred to as NIH group 21 at the NIH, Tokyo. It was later found that NIH group 21 also resembled the CDC enteric group 69,[50] and E. kobei was compared with the latter. On the basis of DNA relatedness, both organisms could be included in a single taxon. However, the CDC enteric group 69 was described as positive in Voges–Proskauer and yellow pigmentation,[50] whereas all strains of E. kobei were Voges–Proskauer- and pigmentation-negative. These findings suggest that the relationship of both organisms is at the subspecies or biogroup level. The type strain of E. kobei is NIH 1485–1479 and was isolated by blood culture of a diabetic patient.

E. ludwigii, named after Wolfgang Ludwig, a microbiologist working in bacterial systematics[51] and who developed the ARB databases as well as making them public.[52] This description is based on the phylogenetic analyses of partial hsp60 sequence data collected in a population genetic study,[6] as well as on DNA–DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic characterizations.

The type strain EN-119T was isolated from midstream urine of an 18-year-old male patient with a nosocomial urinary tract infection while he was hospitalized at the Grosshadern University-Hospital Munich, Germany. The GenBank accession number of the 16S rDNA of strain EN-119T is AJ853891.[12]

E. nimipressuralis The species E. nimipressuralis was originally defined by Brenner et al. and was formerly called Erwinia nimipressuralis, which was isolated from nonclinical sources (e.g., elm trees with a disease called wet wood).[43] Erwinia nimipressuralis was inserted in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in 1980. This microorganism is biochemically similar to E. cloacae, but it is different for acid production from sucrose and raffinose, whereas E. cloacae is positive in these tests. The type strain of E. nimipressuralis is ATCC 9912 and isolated from the elm Ulmus spp. in the USA (GenBank accession number AJ567900).

E. cloacae subsp.cloacae strain PR-4 was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence with phylogenetic tree view from explosive laden soil by P Ravikumar (GenBank accession number KP261383). [8]

E. cloacae SG208 identified as a predominant microorganism in mixed culture isolated from petrochemical sludge, IOCL, Guwahati is responsible for degradation of benzene was reported by Padhi and Gokhale (2016)[137].

See also

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Cephalosporin class of pharmaceutical drugs

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Colistin chemical compound

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Carbapenem group of β-lactam antibiotics

Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections. This class of antibiotics is usually reserved for known or suspected multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Similar to penicillins and cephalosporins, carbapenems are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. However, these agents individually exhibit a broader spectrum of activity compared to most cephalosporins and penicillins. Furthermore, carbapenems are typically unaffected by emerging antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams.

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Temocillin chemical compound

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<i>Cronobacter sakazakii</i> species of Gammaproteobacteria

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<i>Proteus penneri</i> species of bacterium

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MCR-1

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