Gentamicin

Last updated
Gentamicin
Gentamicin C2.svg
Gentamicin.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation /ˌɛntəˈmsən/
Trade names Cidomycin, Genticyn, Garamycin, others
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a682275
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: D
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
    Routes of
    administration
    IV, eye drop, IM, topical
    Drug class Aminoglycoside antibiotic
    ATC code
    Legal status
    Legal status
    • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
    Pharmacokinetic data
    Bioavailability limited bioavailability by mouth
    Protein binding 0–10%
    Elimination half-life 2 h
    Excretion Kidney
    Identifiers
    CAS Number
    PubChem CID
    IUPHAR/BPS
    DrugBank
    ChemSpider
    UNII
    KEGG
    ChEBI
    ChEMBL
    ECHA InfoCard 100.014.332 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
    Chemical and physical data
    Formula C21H43N5O7
    Molar mass 477.596 g/mol g·mol−1
    3D model (JSmol)
     X mark.svgNYes check.svgY  (what is this?)    (verify)

    Gentamicin, sold under brand name Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections. [1] This may include bone infections, endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among others. [1] It is not effective for gonorrhea or chlamydia infections. [1] It can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle, or topically. [1] Topical formulations may be used in burns or for infections of the outside of the eye. [2] In the developed world, it is often only used for two days until bacterial cultures determine what specific antibiotics the infection is sensitive to. [3] The dose required should be monitored by blood testing. [1]

    Antibiotic drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

    An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

    Osteomyelitis bone inflammation disease that has material basis in infection located in bone or located in bone marrow

    Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness, fever, and weakness. The long bones of the arms and legs are most commonly involved in children, while the feet, spine, and hips are most commonly involved in adults.

    Endocarditis endocardium disease characterized by inflammation of the endocardium of the heart chambers and valves

    Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves. Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, the mural endocardium, or the surfaces of intracardiac devices. Endocarditis is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations, which is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant inflammatory cells. In the subacute form of infective endocarditis, the vegetation may also include a center of granulomatous tissue, which may fibrose or calcify.

    Contents

    Gentamicin can cause inner ear problems and kidney problems. [1] The inner ear problems can include problems with balance and hearing loss. [1] These problems may be permanent. [1] If used during pregnancy, it can cause harm to the developing baby. [1] However, it appears to be safe for use during breastfeeding. [4] Gentamicin is a type of aminoglycoside. [1] It works by disrupting the ability of the bacteria to make proteins, which typically kills the bacteria. [1]

    Hearing loss Partial or total inability to hear

    Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf person has little to no hearing. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. In children, hearing problems can affect the ability to learn spoken language and in adults it can create difficulties with social interaction and at work. In some people, particularly older people, hearing loss can result in loneliness. Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent.

    Pregnancy time when children develop inside the mothers body before birth

    Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. Childbirth typically occurs around 40 weeks from the start of the last menstrual period (LMP). This is just over nine months, where each month averages 31 days. When measured from fertilization it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following fertilization, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination. Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test.

    Breastfeeding feeding of babies and young children with milk from a womans breast

    Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours, and the duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast. Older children feed less often. Mothers may pump milk so that it can be used later when breastfeeding is not possible. Breastfeeding has a number of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks.

    Gentamicin was patented in 1962 and approved for medical use in 1964. [5] It is made from the bacterium Micromonospora purpurea . [1] Gentamicin is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, which lists the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. [6] It is available as a generic medication. [7] The injectable's wholesale cost in the developing world in 2014 was between US$0.05 and US$0.58 per mL. [8]

    A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

    United States dollar Currency of the United States of America

    The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars.

    Medical uses

    Gentamicin is active against a wide range of bacterial infections, mostly Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas , Proteus , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia , and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus . [9] Gentamicin is used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, blood, bone and soft tissue infections of these susceptible bacteria. [10]

    <i>Pseudomonas</i> genus of bacteria

    Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species. The members of the genus demonstrate a great deal of metabolic diversity and consequently are able to colonize a wide range of niches. Their ease of culture in vitro and availability of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strain genome sequences has made the genus an excellent focus for scientific research; the best studied species include P. aeruginosa in its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, the plant pathogen P. syringae, the soil bacterium P. putida, and the plant growth-promoting P. fluorescens.

    <i>Proteus</i> (bacterium) genus of bacteria

    Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Proteus bacilli are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes, being found in decomposing animal matter, sewage, manure soil, the mammalian intestine, and human and animal feces. They are opportunistic pathogens, commonly responsible for urinary and septic infections, often nosocomial.

    <i>Escherichia coli</i> species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium

    Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

    There is insufficient evidence to support gentamicin as the first line treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. [11] Gentamicin is not used for Neisseria meningitidis or Legionella pneumophila bacterial infections (because of the risk of the person going into shock from lipid A endotoxin found in certain Gram-negative organisms). Gentamicin is also useful against Yersinia pestis , its relatives, and Francisella tularensis (the organism responsible for tularemia often seen in hunters and trappers). [12]

    <i>Neisseria gonorrhoeae</i> species of bacterium

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879. It causes the sexually transmitted genitourinary infection gonorrhea as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.

    <i>Neisseria meningitidis</i> Species of bacterium that can cause meningitis

    Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. It has also been reported to be transmitted through oral sex and cause urethritis in men. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. About 10% of adults are carriers of the bacteria in their nasopharynx. As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing developmental impairment and death in about 10% of cases. It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. It occurs worldwide in both epidemic and endemic form. N. meningitidis is spread through saliva and respiratory secretions during coughing, sneezing, kissing, chewing on toys and even through sharing a source of fresh water. It infects its host cells by sticking to them with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc and has several virulence factors.

    <i>Legionella pneumophila</i> species of bacterium

    Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. L. pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in this group and is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis.

    Some Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. have varying degrees of resistance to gentamicin. [13]

    Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria

    The family Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 50 genera and more than 200 species. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacteriales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.

    <i>Enterococcus</i> genus of bacteria of the family Streptococcaceae

    Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone. Two species are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90–95%) and E. faecium (5–10%). Rare clusters of infections occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus.

    <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> species of bacterium

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although S. aureus usually acts as a commensal of the human microbiota it can also become an opportunistic pathogen, being a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. Despite much research and development, no vaccine for S. aureus has been approved.

    Adverse effects

    Adverse effects of gentamicin can range from less severe reactions, such as nausea and vomiting, to more severe reactions including: [9]

    Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are thought to be dose related with higher doses causing greater chance of toxicity. [9] These two toxicities may have delayed presentation, sometimes not appearing until after completing treatment. [9]

    Kidney damage

    Kidney damage is a problem in 10-25% of people who receive aminoglycosides, and gentamicin is one of the most nephrotoxic drugs of this class. [14] Oftentimes, acute nephrotoxicity is reversible, but it may be fatal. [9] The risk of nephrotoxicity can be affected by the dose, frequency, duration of therapy, and concurrent use of certain medications, such as NSAIDs, diuretics, cisplatin, ciclosporin, cephalosporins, amphotericin, iodide contrast media, and vancomycin. [14]

    Factors that increase risk of nephrotoxicity include: [14]

    Kidney dysfunction is monitored by measuring creatinine in the blood, electrolyte levels, urine output, presence of protein in the urine, and concentrations of other chemicals, such as urea, in the blood. [14]

    Inner ear

    About 11% of the population who receives aminoglycosides experience damage to their inner ear. [15] The common symptoms of inner ear damage include tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo, trouble with coordination, and dizziness. [16] Chronic use of gentamicin can affect two areas of the ears. First, damage of the inner ear hair cells can result in irreversible hearing loss. Second, damage to the inner ear vestibular apparatus can lead to balance problems. [16] To reduce the risk of ototoxicity during treatment, it is recommended to stay hydrated. [9]

    Factors that increase the risk of inner ear damage include: [9] [10]

    Mechanism of action

    Gentamicin is a bactericidal antibiotic that works by binding the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, negatively impacting protein synthesis. The primary mechanism of action is generally accepted to work through ablating the ability of the ribosome to discriminate on proper transfer RNA and messenger RNA interactions. [17] Typically, if an incorrect tRNA pairs with an mRNA codon at the aminoacyl site of the ribosome, adenosines 1492 and 1493 are excluded from the interaction and retract, signaling the ribosome to reject the aminoacylated tRNA::Elongation Factor Thermo-Unstable complex. [18] However, when gentamicin binds at helix 44 of the 16S rRNA, it forces the adenosines to maintain the position they take when there is a correct, or cognate, match between aa-tRNA and mRNA. [19] This leads to the acceptance of incorrect aa-tRNAs, causing the ribosome to synthesize proteins with wrong amino acids placed throughout (roughly every 1 in 500). [20] The non-functional, mistranslated proteins misfold and aggregate, eventually leading to death of the bacterium. A secondary mechanism has been proposed based on crystal structures of gentamicin in a secondary binding site at helix 69 of the 23S rRNA, which interacts with helix 44 and proteins that recognize stop codons. At this secondary site, gentamicin is believed to preclude interactions of the ribosome with ribosome recycling factors, causing the two subunits of the ribosome to stay complexed even after translation completes. This creates a pool of inactive ribosomes that can no longer re-intiate and translate new proteins. [21]

    Components

    Gentamicin is composed of a number of related gentamicin components and fractions which have varying degrees of antimicrobial potency. [22] The main components of gentamicin include members of the gentamicin C complex: gentamicin C1, gentamicin C1a, and gentamicin C2 which compose approximately 80% of gentamicin and have been found to have the highest antibacterial activity. Gentamicin A, B, X, and a few others make up the remaining 20% of gentamicin and have lower antibiotic activity than the gentamicin C complex. [23] The exact composition of a given sample or lot of gentamicin is not well defined, and the level of gentamicin C components or other components in gentamicin may differ from lot-to-lot depending on the gentamicin manufacturer or manufacturing process. Because of this lot-to-lot variability, it can be difficult to study various properties of gentamicin including pharmacokinetics and microorganism susceptibility if there is an unknown combination of chemically related but different compounds. [24]

    Contraindications

    Gentamicin should not be used if a person has a history of hypersensitivity, such as anaphylaxis, or other serious toxic reaction to gentamicin or any other aminoglycosides. [10] It is also contra-indicated in Myasthenia gravis and other neuromuscular disorders. [25]

    Special populations

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding

    Gentamicin is not recommended in pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks for the mother. Gentamicin can cross the placenta and several reports of irreversible bilateral congenital deafness in children have been seen. Intramuscular injection of gentamicin in mothers can cause muscle weakness in the newborn. [10]

    The safety and efficacy for gentamicin in nursing mothers has not been established. Detectable gentamicin levels are found in human breast milk and in nursing babies. [10]

    Elderly

    In the elderly, renal function should be assessed before beginning therapy as well as during treatment due to a decline in glomerular filtration rate. Gentamicin levels in the body can remain higher for a longer period of time in this population. Gentamicin should be used cautiously in persons with renal, auditory, vestibular, or neuromuscular dysfunction. [9]

    Children

    Gentamicin may not be appropriate to use in children, including babies. Studies have shown higher serum levels and a longer half-life in this population.[ citation needed ] Kidney function should be checked periodically during therapy. Long-term effects of treatment can include hearing loss and balance problems. Hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and muscle weakness have been reported when used by injection. [9]

    History

    Gentamicin for injection Gentamicin for injection.jpg
    Gentamicin for injection

    Gentamicin is produced by the fermentation of Micromonospora purpurea . It was discovered in 1963 by Weinstein, Wagman et al. at Schering Corporation in Bloomfield, N.J. while working with source material (soil samples) provided by Rico Woyciesjes. [26] Subsequently, it was purified and the structures of its three components were determined by Cooper, et al., also at the Schering Corporation. It was initially used as a topical treatment for burns at burn units in Atlanta and San Antonio and was introduced into IV usage in 1971. It remains a mainstay for use in sepsis.

    It is synthesized by Micromonospora , a genus of Gram-positive bacteria widely present in the environment (water and soil). To highlight their specific biological origins, gentamicin and other related antibiotics produced by this genus (verdamicin, mutamicin, sisomicin, netilmicin, and retymicin) generally have their spellings ending in ~micin and not in ~mycin.

    Research

    Gentamicin is also used in molecular biology research as an antibacterial agent in tissue and cell culture, to prevent contamination of sterile cultures. Gentamicin is one of the few heat-stable antibiotics that remain active even after autoclaving, which makes it particularly useful in the preparation of some microbiological growth media.[ citation needed ]

    Related Research Articles

    Ampicillin chemical compound

    Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis. It may also be used to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns. It is used by mouth, by injection into a muscle, or intravenously. Like all antibiotics, it is not useful for the treatment of viral infections.

    Amoxicillin antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic often used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. These include middle ear infection, strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, and urinary tract infections among others. It is taken by mouth, or less commonly by injection.

    Chloramphenicol chemical compound

    Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes use as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis. By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever. Its use by mouth or by injection is only recommended when safer antibiotics cannot be used. Monitoring both blood levels of the medication and blood cell levels every two days is recommended during treatment.

    Erythromycin chemical compound

    Erythromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes respiratory tract infections, skin infections, chlamydia infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and syphilis. It may also be used during pregnancy to prevent Group B streptococcal infection in the newborn, as well as to improve delayed stomach emptying. It can be given intravenously and by mouth. An eye ointment is routinely recommended after delivery to prevent eye infections in the newborn.

    Tetracycline chemical compound

    Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections. This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis. It is taken by mouth.

    Vancomycin pharmaceutical drug

    Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. It is recommended intravenously as a treatment for complicated skin infections, bloodstream infections, endocarditis, bone and joint infections, and meningitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Blood levels may be measured to determine the correct dose. Vancomycin is also recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis. When taken by mouth it is very poorly absorbed.

    Streptomycin An antibiotic effective against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, endocarditis, brucellosis, Burkholderia infection, plague, tularemia, and rat bite fever. For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. It is given by injection into a vein or muscle.

    Neomycin antibiotic, mixture of chemical

    Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eyedrops. Neomycin belongs to aminoglycoside class of antibiotics that contain two or more amino sugars connected by glycosidic bonds.

    Aminoglycoside molecule or a portion of a molecule composed of amino-modified sugars

    Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial medications that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar). The term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains amino sugar substructures. Aminoglycoside antibiotics display bactericidal activity against Gram-negative aerobes and some anaerobic bacilli where resistance has not yet arisen but generally not against Gram-positive and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria.

    Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, for example, as a side effect of a drug. The effects of ototoxicity can be reversible and temporary, or irreversible and permanent. It has been recognized since the 19th century. There are many well-known ototoxic drugs used in clinical situations, and they are prescribed, despite the risk of hearing disorders, to very serious health conditions. Ototoxic drugs include antibiotics such as gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, loop diuretics such as furosemide and platinum-based chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and vincristine. A number of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have also been shown to be ototoxic. This can result in sensorineural hearing loss, dysequilibrium, or both. Some environmental and occupational chemicals have also been shown to affect the auditory system and interact with noise.

    Nephrotoxicity is toxicity in the kidneys. It is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medications, on renal function. There are various forms, and some drugs may affect renal function in more than one way. Nephrotoxins are substances displaying nephrotoxicity.

    Paromomycin chemical compound

    Paromomycin is an antimicrobial used to treat a number of parasitic infections including amebiasis, giardiasis, leishmaniasis, and tapeworm infection. It is a first line treatment for amebiasis or giardiasis during pregnancy. Otherwise it is generally a second line treatment option. It is used by mouth, applied to the skin, or by injection into a muscle.

    Kanamycin A chemical compound

    Kanamycin A, often referred to simply as kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis. It is not a first line treatment. It is used by mouth, injection into a vein, or injection into a muscle. Kanamycin is recommended for short-term use only, usually from 7 to 10 days. As with most antibiotics, it is ineffective in viral infections.

    Tobramycin chemical compound

    Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces tenebrarius that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. It is especially effective against species of Pseudomonas.

    Amikacin chemical compound

    Amikacin is an antibiotic used for a number of bacterial infections. This includes joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infections. It is also used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It is used either by injection into a vein or muscle.

    Netilmicin chemical compound

    Netilmicin is a member of the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics. These antibiotics have the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Netilmicin is not absorbed from the gut and is therefore only given by injection or infusion. It is only used in the treatment of serious infections particularly those resistant to gentamicin.

    Sisomicin chemical compound

    Sisomicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, isolated from the fermentation broth of a new species of the genus Micromonospora. It is a newer broad-spectrum aminoglycoside most structurally related to gentamicin.

    Dihydrostreptomycin chemical compound

    Dihydrostreptomycin is a derivative of streptomycin that has a bactericidal properties. It is a semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis.

    Protein synthesis inhibitor compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually anti-bacterial agents or toxins

    A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins.

    Arbekacin chemical compound

    Arbekacin (INN) is a semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. It is primarily used for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Arbekacin was originally synthesized from dibekacin in 1973. It has been registered and marketed in Japan since 1990 under the trade name Habekacin. Arbekacin is no longer covered by patent and generic versions of the drug are also available under such trade names as Decontasin and Blubatosine.

    References

    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Gentamicin sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-08-16. Retrieved Aug 15, 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
    2. Bartlett, Jimmy (2013). Clinical Ocular Pharmacology (s ed.). Elsevier. p. 214. ISBN   9781483193915. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    3. Moulds, Robert; Jeyasingham, Melanie (October 2010). "Gentamicin: a great way to start". Australian Prescriber (33): 134–135. Archived from the original on 2011-03-13.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    4. "Gentamicin use while breastfeeding". Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
    5. Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 507. ISBN   9783527607495.
    6. "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    7. Burchum, Jacqueline (2014). Lehne's pharmacology for nursing care. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1051. ISBN   9780323340267. Archived from the original on 2016-03-11.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    8. "Gentamicin sulfate". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
    9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Gentamicin" (PDF). Baxter Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
    10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Product Monograph" (PDF). Sandoz Canada Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
    11. Emma, Hathorn; Divya, Dhasmana; Lelia, Duley; Jonathan, DC Ross (2014). "The effectiveness of gentamicin in the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a systematic review". Systematic Reviews. 3: 104. doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-104. PMC   4188483 . PMID   25239090.
    12. Goljan, Edward F. (2011). Rapid Review Pathology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier. p. 241. ISBN   978-0-323-08438-3.
    13. "Gentamicin spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and Resistance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
    14. 1 2 3 4 Lopez-Novoa, Jose M; Quiros, Yaremi; Vicente, Laura; Morales, Ana I; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J (Jan 2011). "New insights into the mechanism of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity: an integrative point of view". Kidney International. 79 (1): 33–45. doi:10.1038/ki.2010.337. PMID   20861826.
    15. East, J E; Foweraker, J E; Murgatroyd, F D (2005-05-01). "Gentamicin induced ototoxicity during treatment of enterococcal endocarditis: resolution with substitution by netilmicin". Heart. 91 (5): e32. doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.028308. ISSN   1355-6037. PMC   1768868 . PMID   15831617.
    16. 1 2 Selimoglu, Erol (2007-01-01). "Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 13 (1): 119–126. doi:10.2174/138161207779313731. ISSN   1873-4286. PMID   17266591.
    17. "DrugBank-Gentamicin". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
    18. Dao, E. Han (2018-08-23). "Structure of the 30S ribosomal decoding complex at ambient temperature". RNA. 24 (12): 1667–1676. doi:10.1261/rna.067660.118. PMC   6239188 . PMID   30139800.
    19. Wilson, Daniel (2013-12-16). "Ribosome-targeting antibiotics and mechanisms of bacterial resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 12 (1): 34–48. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3155. PMID   24336183.
    20. Garrett, Roger; Douthwaite, Stephen; Liljas, Andres; Matheson, Alistair; Moore, Peter; Harry, Noller (2000). The Ribosome. ASM Press. pp. 419–429. ISBN   978-1-55581-184-6.
    21. Borovinskaya, MA; Pai, RD; Zhang, W; Schuwirth, BS; Holton, JM; Hirokawa, G; Kaji, H; Cate, JH (2007-07-29). "Structural basis for aminoglycoside inhibition of bacterial ribosome recycling". Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. 14 (8): 727–32. doi:10.1038/nsmb1271. PMID   17660832.
    22. Weinstein, Marvin J. (1967). "Biological Activity of the Antibiotic Components of the Gentamicin Complex". Journal of Bacteriology. 94 (3): 789–790. PMC   251956 . PMID   4962848.
    23. Vydrin, A. F. (2003). "Component Composition of Gentamicin Sulfate Preparations". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 37 (8): 448–449. doi:10.1023/a:1027372416983.
    24. Isoherranen, Nina; Eran, Lavy (2000). "Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin C1, C1a, and C2 in Beagles after a Single Intravenous Dose". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 44 (6): 1443–1447. doi:10.1128/aac.44.6.1443-1447.2000. PMC   89894 . PMID   10817690.
    25. Weinstein, Marvin; Wagman (1963). "Gentamicin, A New Antimicrobial Complex from Micromonospora". J Med Chem. 6 (4): 463–464. doi:10.1021/jm00340a034. PMID   14184912.

    Further reading

    U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information: Medical Genetics Summaries - Gentamicin Therapy and MT-RNR1 Genotype