|Burkholderia pseudomallei colonies on a blood agar plate|
The Burkholderiales are an order of Proteobacteria.Like all Proteobacteria, they are Gram-negative. They include several pathogenic bacteria, including species of Burkholderia , Bordetella , and Ralstonia . They also include Oxalobacter and related genera, which are unusual in using oxalic acid as their source of carbon. . Other well-studied genera include Alcaligenes , Cupriavidus , Achromobacter , Comamonas , Delftia , Massilia , Duganella , Janthinobacterium , Polynucleobacter (important freshwater bacterioplankton), non-pathogenic Paraburkholderia , Caballeronia , Polaromonas , Thiomonas , Collimonas , Hydrogenophaga , Sphaerotilus , Variovorax , Acidovorax , Rubrivivax and Rhodoferax (both members of the photosynthetic purple nonsulfur bacteria), and Herbaspirillum (capable of nitrogen-fixation).
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic) and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation.
Burkholderia is a genus of Proteobacteria whose pathogenic members include the Burkholderia cepacia complex which attacks humans and Burkholderia mallei, responsible for glanders, a disease that occurs mostly in horses and related animals; Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis; and Burkholderia cepacia, an important pathogen of pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF).
Bordetella is a genus of small, Gram-negative coccobacilli of the phylum Proteobacteria. Bordetella species, with the exception of B. petrii, are obligate aerobes, as well as highly fastidious, or difficult to culture. All species can infect humans. The first three species to be described ; are sometimes referred to as the 'classical species'. One of these is also motile.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation. They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane.
The Rhizobiaceae is a family of proteobacteria comprising multiple subgroups that enhance and hinder plant development. Some bacteria found in the family are used for plant nutrition and collectively make up the rhizobia. Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to induce crown galls or hairy roots found on the stem. The family has been of an interest to scientists for centuries in their ability to associate with plants and modify plant development. The Rhizobiaceae are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative. They are aerobic, and the cells are usually rod-shaped. Many species of the Rhizobiaceae are diazotrophs which are able to fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots.
The Rhodocyclaceae are a family of gram-negative bacteria. They are given their own order in the beta subgroup of Proteobacteria, and include many genera previously assigned to the family Pseudomonadaceae.
Sphingomonadaceae are a family of the Alphaproteobacteria. An important feature is the presence of sphingolipids in the outer membrane of the cell wall. The cells are ovoid or rod-shaped. Others are also pleomorphic, i.e. the cells change the shape over time. Some species are phototrophic.
The Rhodobacteraceae are a family of proteobacteria in the order Rhodobacterales within the alpha subgroup. Like all proteobacteria, they are gram-negative. It contains chemoorganotrophs and photoheterotrophs bacteria. Many occur in aquatic habitats.
The Pseudomonadales are an order of Proteobacteria. A few members are opportunistic pathogens, such as species of Pseudomonas, Moraxella, and Acinetobacter, which may cause pneumonia.
The Vibrionaceae are a family of Proteobacteria given their own order. Inhabitants of fresh or salt water, several species are pathogenic, including the type species Vibrio cholerae, which is the agent responsible for cholera. Most bioluminescent bacteria belong to this family, and are typically found as symbionts of deep-sea animals.
The Burkholderiaceae are a family of bacteria included in the order Burkholderiales. It includes some pathogenic species, such as Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis).
The Alcaligenaceae are a family of bacteria, included in the order Burkholderiales. Members are found in water, soil, humans, and other animals. Some species, like Bordetella, are pathogenic for humans and for some other animals.
The Oxalobacteraceae are a family of bacteria, included in the order Burkholderiales. Like all Proteobacteria, Oxalobacteraceae are Gram-negative. The family includes strict aerobes, strict anaerobes, and nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) members. The cells are curved, vibroid, or straight rod-shaped.
The Acidithiobacillales are an order of bacteria within the class Acidithiobacillia and comprises the genera Acidithiobacillus and Thermithiobacillus. Originally, both were included in the genus Thiobacillus, but they are not related to the type species, which belongs to the Betaproteobacteria.
Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C. They are a commonly used indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. Coliforms can be found in the aquatic environment, in soil and on vegetation; they are universally present in large numbers in the feces of warm-blooded animals. While coliforms themselves are not normally causes of serious illness, they are easy to culture, and their presence is used to indicate that other pathogenic organisms of fecal origin may be present. Such pathogens include disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or protozoa and many multicellular parasites. Coliform procedures are performed in aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
The Deltaproteobacteria are a class of Proteobacteria. All species of this group are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative.
Betaproteobacteria are a class of gram-negative bacteria, and one of the eight classes of the phylum Proteobacteria.
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria. Several medically, ecologically, and scientifically important groups of bacteria belong to this class. Like all Proteobacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria are Gram-negative.
Achromobacter is a genus of bacteria, included in the family Alcaligenaceae in the order Burkholderiales. The cells are Gram-negative straight rods and are motile by using one to 20 peritrichous flagella. They are strictly aerobic and are found in water and soils. They have also been identified as a contaminant in laboratory cell cultures. They have been identified as opportunistic human pathogens in people with certain immunosuppressive conditions such as cystic fibrosis, cancer and kidney failure.
Non-fermenters are a taxonomically heterogeneous group of bacteria of the division Proteobacteria that cannot catabolize glucose, and are thus unable to ferment. This does not necessarily exclude that species can catabolize other sugars or have anaerobiosis like fermenting bacteria.
Leptothrix is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria in the class Betaproteobacteria. The name is from the Greek leptos thrix. They occur in standing or slow-flowing, ferruginous, neutral to slightly acidic fresh waters with only low concentrations of organic matter. The energy metabolism of Leptothrix is strictly aerobic, oxidative, and chemoorganoheterotrophic. Five species are known: L. ochracea, L. discophora, L. cholodnii, L. lopholea, and L. mobilis.
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