Rickettsia akari

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Rickettsia akari
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alphaproteobacteria
Order: Rickettsiales
Family: Rickettsiaceae
Genus: Rickettsia
Species group: Spotted fever group
Species:
R. akari
Binomial name
Rickettsia akari
Huebner, 1946

Rickettsia akari is a species of Rickettsia which causes rickettsialpox. [1] [2]

<i>Rickettsia</i> type of bacteria that causes typhus, among other diseases

Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that may occur in the forms of cocci 0.1 μm in diameter, rods 1–4 μm long, or threads of up to about 10 μm long. The term "rickettsia" has nothing to do with rickets, which is a deficiency disease resulting from lack of vitamin D; the bacterial genus Rickettsia was named after Howard Taylor Ricketts, in honour of his pioneering work on tick-borne spotted fever.

Rickettsialpox is a mite-borne infectious illness caused by bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Physician Robert Huebner and self-trained entomologist Charles Pomerantz played major roles in identifying the cause of the disease after an outbreak in 1946 in a New York City apartment complex, documented in "The Alerting of Mr. Pomerantz," a short story by medical writer Berton Roueché.

After a 1946 outbreak of a rickettsial-type disease at an apartment complex in Kew Gardens, Queens, an investigation was performed to identify the source of the infections. The incinerators in the buildings were not operated on a daily basis, leading to a buildup in food waste and attracting mice that were rampant throughout the building. The Mus musculus mice were found to be carrying mites, identified as the house mouse mite, Allodermanyssus sanguineus . Self-trained entomologist Charles Pomerantz asked permission to search the site and found the mites at various sites throughout the building, with blood-engorged mites found near chutes leading to the incinerator. The mites were collected and brought to a laboratory of the United States Public Health Service, which found in the mites an organism that had also been isolated from the mice, and from the blood of individuals infected with the disease. [3]

Kew Gardens, Queens Neighborhood of Queens in New York City of America

Kew Gardens is a neighborhood in the central area of the New York City borough of Queens. Kew Gardens, shaped roughly like a triangle, is bounded to the north by Union Turnpike and the Jackie Robinson Parkway, to the east by Van Wyck Expressway and 131st Street, to the south by Hillside Avenue, and to the west by Park Lane, Abingdon Road, and 118th Street. Forest Park and the neighborhood of Forest Hills are to the west, Flushing Meadows–Corona Park north, Richmond Hill south, Briarwood southeast, and Kew Gardens Hills east.

Mite common name for small arachnids

Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari. The term "mite" refers to the members of several groups in Acari but it is not a clade, and excludes the ticks, order Ixodida. Mites and ticks are characterised by the body being divided into two regions, the cephalothorax or prosoma, and an opisthosoma. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology.

Charles Pomerantz was a pest control expert and self-trained entomologist who played a pivotal role in identifying the etiology of a 1946 outbreak in New York City of what was later named rickettsialpox. In subsequent years, he spoke before audiences at colleges and other public forums about the menace from pests.

The organism was given its name by physician Robert Huebner, one of the scientists who had tracked down the source of the original 1946 epidemic; the akari portion of the bacteria's name represents the Greek word for "mite". [4]

Robert Joseph Huebner, was an American physician and virologist whose research into viruses, their causes and treatment that led to his breakthrough insights into the connections between viruses and cancer, leading to new treatments, as well as his hypothesized oncogene, which was discovered to be a trigger for normal cells turning cancerous.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

While active efforts to exterminate mice from buildings has greatly reduced recurrences of the diseases, a July 2002 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report a recent case in North Carolina, noting that cases have been reported in Croatia and Ukraine and that the R. akari organism may exist in "sylvan cycles", such as its isolation from voles in Korea. [5]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention government agency

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.

North Carolina State of the United States of America

North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U.S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties. The capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City.

Croatia Republic in Central Europe

Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. Its capital, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.

See also

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Rodent mite dermatitis is an often unrecognized ectoparasitosis occurring after human contact with haematophagous mesostigmatid mites that infest rodents, such has house mice, rats and hamsters. The condition is associated with the tropical rat mite, spiny rat mite and house-mouse mite which opportunistically feed on humans. Rodent mites are capable of surviving for long periods without feeding and travelling long distances when seeking hosts. Cases have been reported in homes, libraries, hospitals and care homes. A similar condition, known as gamasoidosis, is caused by avian mites.

References

  1. " rickettsialpox " at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. Mayer, Gene. "Bacteriology: Ch. 21: Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Bartonella". Microbiology and Immunology On-line. University of South Carolina School of Medicine.
  3. Greenberg M, Pellitteri OJ, Jellison WL (July 1947). "Rickettsialpox-A Newly Recognized Rickettsial Disease : III. Epidemiology" (PDF). Am J Public Health Nations Health . 37 (7): 860–8. doi:10.2105/ajph.37.7.860. PMC   1623794 . PMID   18016565.
  4. Beeman, Edward A. (2005). "Robert J. Huebner, M.D.:A Virologist's Odyssey" (PDF). National Institutes of Health.
  5. Krusell A, Comer JA, Sexton DJ (July 2002). "Rickettsialpox in North Carolina: a case report". Emerging Infect. Dis. 8 (7): 727–8. doi:10.3201/eid0807.010501. PMC   2730333 . PMID   12095443.