Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Scientific classification
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actinomycetemcomitans
Binomial name
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
(Klinger, 1912)

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, non-motile bacterium that is often found in association with localized aggressive periodontitis, a severe infection of the periodontium. It is also suspected to be involved in chronic periodontitis. [1] Less frequently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with non-oral infections such as endocarditis. Its role in aggressive periodontitis was first discovered by Danish-born periodontist Jørgen Slots, a professor of dentistry and microbiology at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry.

Periodontium the structures surrounding and supporting the tooth

The periodontium is the specialized tissues that both surround and support the teeth, maintaining them in the maxillary and mandibular bones. The word comes from the Greek terms περί peri-, meaning "around" and -odont, meaning "tooth". Literally taken, it means that which is "around the tooth". Periodontics is the dental specialty that relates specifically to the care and maintenance of these tissues. It provides the support necessary to maintain teeth in function. It consists of four principal components, namely:

Chronic periodontitis chronic inflammatory process that affects the tissues that surround and support the teeth

Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues that is caused by the accumulation of profuse amounts of dental plaque. Periodontitis initially begins as gingivitis and can progress onto chronic and subsequent aggressive periodontitis according to the 1999 classification. Diagnosing chronic periodontitis is important in its early stages to prevent severe and irreversable damage to the protective and supportive structures of the tooth. However, due to chronic periodontitis being a painless progressing disease, few patients will seek dental care in the early stages. Mild to moderate chronic periodontitis can be managed by proper mechanical removal of the biofilm and calculus subgingivally. Full and effective oral hygiene and regular 3 monthly periodontal checkups are important for maintaining the stability of the disease.

Denmark constitutional monarchy in Europe

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.

Contents

'Bacterium actinomycetem comitans' was first described by Klinger (1912) as coccobacillary bacteria isolated together with Actinomyces from actinomycotic lesions in humans. It was reclassified as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Topley & Wilson (1929) and as Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans by Potts et al. (1985). The species has attracted attention because of its association with localized aggressive periodontitis. [2]

Nomenclature

Recent studies have shown a phylogenetic similarity of A. actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus, H. paraphrophilus, and H. segnis, suggesting the new genus Aggregatibacter for them. [2]

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Importance

It is one of the bacteria that might be implicated in destructive periodontal disease. Although it has been found more frequently in localized aggressive periodontitis, [3] prevalence in any population is rather high. It has also been isolated from actinomycotic lesions (mixed infection with certain Actinomyces species, in particular A. israelii). It possesses certain virulence factors that enable it to invade tissues, such as the pore-forming toxin leukotoxin A (LtxA). It has also been isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis and as an etiologic agent in endocarditis. [4] The pore-forming toxin LtxA of A. actinomycetemcomitans may be a trigger of the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis due to its ability to stimulate protein citrullination, a post-translational protein modification targeted by autoantibodies in this disease. [5] [6]

Bacteria A domain of prokaryotes – single celled organisms without a nucleus

Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

Periodontal disease human disease of the tissues surrounding the teeth

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. Bad breath may also occur.

Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.

Virulence factors

Granulocyte mature white blood cells with granules in the cytoplasm

Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes or polymorphonuclear neutrophils because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into three segments. This distinguishes them from the mononuclear agranulocytes. In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often refers specifically to "neutrophil granulocytes", the most abundant of the granulocytes; the other types have lower numbers. Granulocytes are produced via granulopoiesis in the bone marrow.

Cytolethal distending toxin

Cytolethal distending toxins are a class of heterotrimeric toxins produced by certain gram-negative bacteria that display DNase activity. These toxins trigger G2/M cell cycle arrest in specific mammalian cell lines, leading to the enlarged or distended cells for which these toxins are named. Affected cells die by apoptosis.

Antibody large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells, used by the immune system; large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope that is specific for one particular epitope on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly. Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region, which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.

A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes

Small RNA

In bacteria small RNA s are involved in gene regulation. Jorth et al. identified 9 sRNA by Northern blotting from computer predicted candidates in strain VT1169 and 202 sRNA by RNA seq in strain 624. [7] [8] A systematic screen by RNA-seq and RT-PCR in HK1651 strain (a clinical isolate from an aggressive periodontitis patient), quantified 70 sRNAs and further identified 17 differentially expressed sRNAs during growth phases. [9] Target prediction indicated possibility of sRNA interaction with several virulence genes. [9] This study confirmed the presence of one of previously identified Fur regulated sRNAs JA04 identified in strain HK1651.

Bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) are small RNAs produced by bacteria; they are 50- to 500-nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules, highly structured and containing several stem-loops. Numerous sRNAs have been identified using both computational analysis and laboratory-based techniques such as Northern blotting, microarrays and RNA-Seq in a number of bacterial species including Escherichia coli, the model pathogen Salmonella, the nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, marine cyanobacteria, Francisella tularensis, Streptococcus pyogenes, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can affect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure.

Four non-coding small RNAs containing a Fur box-like sequence were identified by bioinformatics analysis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitansHK1651 called JA01-JA04. The transcription of sRNAs was confirmed by Northern blot. Fur binding was demonstrated to each sRNA promoter, and that transcription of the sRNAs was decreased in presence of iron and increased by iron limitation. JA03 may have the ability to regulate biofilm formation. JA01 is conserved only among A. actinomycetemcomitans. JA02 is present in both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. multocida. JA 03 and JA04 are most widely conserved and have orthologues across many Pasteurellaceae. HrrF RNA is another Fur-regulated sRNA conserved among the Pasteurcellaceae.

See also

Related Research Articles

The HACEK organisms are a group of fastidious gram-negative bacteria that are an unusual cause of infective endocarditis, which is an inflammation of the heart due to bacterial infection. HACEK is an abbreviation of the initials of the genera of this group of bacteria: Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella. The HACEK organisms are a normal part of the human microbiota, living in the oral-pharyngeal region.

<i>Actinomyces naeslundii</i> Species of bacterium

Actinomyces naeslundii is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium found in the mouth of humans. The species has been implicated in periodontal disease, as well as various tooth cavities. In other cases, A. naeslundii is associated with good oral health. It is one of the first bacteria to occupy the oral cavity and colonize the tooth's surface. It has also been isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

<i>Actinomyces</i> genus of bacteria

Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinobacteria class of bacteria. They are all gram-positive. Actinomyces species are facultatively anaerobic, and they grow best under anaerobic conditions. Actinomyces species may form endospores, and, while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus-like branched networks of hyphae. The aspect of these colonies initially led to the incorrect assumption that the organism was a fungus and to the name Actinomyces, "ray fungus".

Clostridia highly polyphyletic class of bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes

The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. They are distinguished from the Bacilli by lacking aerobic respiration. They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. Species of the class Clostridia are often but not always Gram-positive and have the ability to form spores. Studies show they are not a monophyletic group, and their relationships are not entirely certain. Currently, most are placed in a single order called Clostridiales, but this is not a natural group and is likely to be redefined in the future.

Pasteurellaceae family of bacteria

The Pasteurellaceae comprise a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. Most members live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of birds and mammals, especially in the upper respiratory tract. Pasteurellaceae are typically rod-shaped, and are a notable group of facultative anaerobes. Their biochemical characteristics can be distinguished from the related Enterobacteriaceae by the presence of oxidase, and from most other similar bacteria by the absence of flagella.

Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium. It forms black colonies on blood agar.

Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms (microbiota) of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host. The environment present in the human mouth allows the growth of characteristic microorganisms found there. It provides a source of water and nutrients, as well as a moderate temperature. Resident microbes of the mouth adhere to the teeth and gums to resist mechanical flushing from the mouth to stomach where acid-sensitive microbes are destroyed by hydrochloric acid.

Treponema denticola is a Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic, motile and highly proteolytic spirochete bacterium. It dwells in a complex and diverse microbial community within the oral cavity and is highly specialized to survive in this environment. T. denticola is associated with the incidence and severity of human periodontal disease. Having elevated T. denticola levels in the mouth is considered one of the main etiological agents of periodontitis. T. denticola is related to the syphilis-causing obligate human pathogen, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. It has also been isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

<i>Actinobacillus</i> genus of bacteria

Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites or pathogens in mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. The bacteria are facultatively aerobic or anaerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates, and of reducing nitrates. The genomic DNA contains between 40 and 47 mol % guanine plus cytosine.

Veillonella parvula is a bacterium in the genus Veillonella. It is a normal part of the oral flora but can be associated with diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries as well as various systemic infections. It has also been isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

Prevotella intermedia is a gram-negative, obligate anaerobic pathogenic bacterium involved in periodontal infections, including gingivitis and periodontitis, and often found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. It is commonly isolated from dental abscesses, where obligate anaerobes predominate. P. intermedia is thought to be more prevalent in patients with noma.

Aggressive periodontitis describes a type of periodontal disease and includes two of the seven classifications of periodontitis:

  1. Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP)
  2. Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP)

Well studied Periodontal pathogens are bacteria that have been shown to significantly contribute to periodontitis.

Haemophilus segnis is a bacterium.

Actinomyces viscosus is a human and animal pathogen/pathobiont which colonises the mouths of 70% of adult humans. A. viscosus has a low level of virulence and is often mistaken with other actinomycetes.

Jørgen Slots is a Danish-born periodontist notable for his contributions to the field of periodontology. He is currently professor of periodontology and microbiology at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, and served as chairman of periodontology from 1991 to 2001.

N-glycosyltransferase is an enzyme in prokaryotes which transfers individual hexoses onto asparagine sidechains in substrate proteins, using a nucleotide-bound intermediary, within the cytoplasm. They are distinct from regular N-glycosylating enzymes, which are oligosaccharyltransferases that transfer pre-assembled oligosaccharides. Both enzyme families however target a shared amino acid sequence asparagine-any amino acid except proline-serine or threonine (N-x-S/T), with some variations.

References

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