Shigella sonnei

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Shigella sonnei
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Gram negative Shigella sonnei bacteria which spent 48 hours cultured on Hektoen enteric agar (HEK).
Scientific classification
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S. sonnei
Binomial name
Shigella sonnei
(Levine 1920) Weldin 1927 [1]
Synonyms

Bacterium sonneiLevine 1920

Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella . [2] Together with Shigella flexneri , it is responsible for 90% of shigellosis cases. [3] Shigella sonnei is named for the Danish bacteriologist Carl Olaf Sonne. [4] [5] It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, non-spore-forming bacterium. [6]

<i>Shigella</i> genus of bacteria

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative aerobic, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897.

<i>Shigella flexneri</i> species of bacterium

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several different serogroups of Shigella are described; S. flexneri belongs to group B. S. flexneri infections can usually be treated with antibiotics, although some strains have become resistant. Less severe cases are not usually treated because they become more resistant in the future.

Shigellosis Human disease

Shigellosis is an infection of the intestines caused by Shigella bacteria. Symptoms generally start one to two days after exposure and include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and feeling the need to pass stools even when the bowels are empty. The diarrhea may be bloody. Symptoms typically last five to seven days. Complications can include reactive arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Contents

Pathophysiology

This species polymerizes host cell actin.

Evolution

This species is clonal and has spread worldwide. Analysis of 132 strains has shown that they originated from a common ancestor in Europe around 1500 AD. [7]

Causes

"Group D" Shigella bacteria cause shigellosis. Those infected with the bacteria release it into their stool, thus causing possibility of spread through food or water, or from direct contact to a person orally. Having poorly sanitized living conditions or contaminated food or water contributes to contracting the disease. [8]

People at risk

Infants and toddlers, the elderly, travelers, and ill people are susceptible to the most severe symptoms of S. sonnei disease. Shigellosis is commonly suffered by individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex, as well as non-AIDS homosexual men. The other people who are at risk include the gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Shigellosis could also be passed through HIV-infected persons who already have contracted a more severe and prolonged shigellosis, including having the infection spread into the blood, which can be life-threatening to the person. [9] [10]

Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves; many such men do not sexually identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual.

Symptoms

Infections can result in acute fever, acute abdominal cramping, cramping rectal pain, nausea, watery diarrhea, or blood, mucus, or pus in the stool, which may occur within 1–7 days after coming in contact with the bacteria. [8] Most Shigella infection usually clears up without complications, but if left untreated or delay in diagnosis may lead to some serious complication such as dehydration (especially severe dehydration can lead to shock and death), seizure, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), toxic megacolon, and reactive arthritis. [11] Persons with diarrhea usually recover completely, although it may be several months before their bowel habits are entirely normal. Once someone has had shigellosis, they are not likely to get infected with that specific type again for at least several years. However, they can still get infected with other types of Shigella. [12]

Fever common medical sign characterized by elevated body temperature

Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set point. There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C. The increase in set point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold. This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat. When the set point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat. Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure. This is more common in young children. Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C.

Rectal pain is the symptom of pain in the area of the rectum. A number of different causes (68) have been documented.

Diarrhea Loose or liquid bowel movements

Diarrhea is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behaviour. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are exclusively breastfed, however, are normal.

Possible complications

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Human disease

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a group of blood disorders characterized by low red blood cells, acute kidney failure, and low platelets. Initial symptoms typically include bloody diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and weakness. Kidney problems and low platelets then occur as the diarrhea is improving. While children are more commonly affected adults may have worse outcomes. Complications may include neurological problems and heart failure.

Dehydration in physiology, excessive loss of body water

In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes. It occurs when free water loss exceeds free water intake, usually due to exercise, disease, or high environmental temperature. Mild dehydration can also be caused by immersion diuresis, which may increase risk of decompression sickness in divers.

Rectal prolapse rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body

Rectal prolapse is when the rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body. However, most researchers agree that there are 3 to 5 different types of rectal prolapse, depending on if the prolapsed section is visible externally, and if the full or only partial thickness of the rectal wall is involved.

Prevention

No vaccines are available for Shigella. The best prevention against shigellosis is thorough, frequent, and cautious handwashing with soap and water before and after using the washroom and before handling food; also, a strict adherence to standard food and water safety precautions is important. Avoid having sexual intercourse with those people who have diarrhea or who recently recovered from diarrhea. It is also important to avoid swallowing water from ponds, lakes, or untreated swimming pools. [14] [15]

Treatment

Antibiotic resistance has been reported. [16]

Growth in lab

It can be grown on MAC agar and TSA, at 37 °C optimally, but it also grows at 25 °C. It is facultatively anaerobic and chemo-organotrophic, and produces acid when carbohydrates are catabolized.

Related Research Articles

<i>Escherichia coli</i> species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium

Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

<i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7 serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli. It is a cause of disease, typically foodborne illness, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk and undercooked ground beef. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and to kidney failure; these have been reported to cause the deaths of children younger than five years of age, of elderly patients, and of patients whose immune systems are otherwise compromised.

Dysentery inflammation of the intestine causing diarrhea with blood

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains. Other symptoms may include fever and a feeling of incomplete defecation. The disease is caused by several types of infectious pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.

Shiga-like toxin

Shiga-like toxin, also known as verotoxin and verocytotoxin, is a toxin generated by some strains of Escherichia coli. It is named for its similarity to the AB5-type Shiga toxin produced by the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae.

Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine

Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract—the stomach and small intestine. Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Fever, lack of energy and dehydration may also occur. This typically lasts less than two weeks. It is not related to influenza, though it has been called the "stomach flu".

Campylobacteriosis genus of Gram-negative bacteria

Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni. It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Plesiomonas shigelloides is a species of bacteria that was formerly classified in the family Vibrionaceae, but now most microbiologists agree that a better classification is in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which has been isolated from freshwater, freshwater fish, and shellfish and from many types of animals including humans, cattle, goats, swine, cats, dogs, monkeys, vultures, snakes, and toads.

Toxic megacolon Human disease

Toxic megacolon is an acute form of colonic distension. It is characterized by a very dilated colon (megacolon), accompanied by abdominal distension (bloating), and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock.

<i>Shigella dysenteriae</i> species of bacterium

Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella. Shigella species can cause shigellosis. Shigellae are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria.

Proctitis Human disease

Proctitis is an inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum, affecting only the last 6 inches of the rectum.

Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery, and is a severe form of shigellosis.

Childhood immunizations in the United States

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Gastroenterocolitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the stomach, small intestines, and colon.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria whose infection causes a syndrome that is identical to shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. EIEC are highly invasive, and they use adhesin proteins to bind to and enter intestinal cells. They produce no toxins, but severely damage the intestinal wall through mechanical cell destruction.

Escherichia coli O104:H4 is an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli, and the cause of the 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak. The "O" in the serological classification identifies the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen, and the "H" identifies the flagella antigen.

Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). Only a minority of the strains cause illness in humans. The ones that do are collectively known as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and are major causes of foodborne illness. When infecting humans, they often cause gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, and bloody diarrhea and sometimes cause a severe complication called hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The group and its subgroups are known by various names. They are distinguished from other strains of intestinal pathogenic E. coli including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC).

References

  1. Parte, A.C. "Shigella". Bacterio.net.
  2. Shigella+sonnei at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  3. Shigellosis~clinical at eMedicine
  4. Carl Olaf Sonne at Who Named It?
  5. Shigella sonnei at Who Named It?
  6. "Shigella sonnei". Microbewiki.
  7. Holt, Kathryn E; Baker, Stephen; Weill, François-Xavier; Holmes, Edward C; Kitchen, Andrew; Yu, Jun; Sangal, Vartul; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; Kim, Dong Wook; Choi, Seon Young; Kim, Su Hee; da Silveira, Wanderley D; Pickard, Derek J; Farrar, Jeremy J; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R (2012). "Shigella sonnei genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicate recent global dissemination from Europe". Nature Genetics. 44 (9): 1056–9. doi:10.1038/ng.2369. PMC   3442231 . PMID   22863732.
  8. 1 2 MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Shigellosis
  9. Bad Bug Book 2d ed. – BBB – Shigella spp., Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook, FDA.
  10. "General Information | Shigella – Shigellosis | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-10-12.
  11. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Shigella Infection". Shigella Infection Complications. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 24 August 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  12. CDC Staff""
  13. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Shigella Infection". Shigella Infection Complications. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 24 August 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  14. "General Information | Shigella – Shigellosis | CDC". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  15. "Shigellosis – Chapter 3 – 2016 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  16. Jain, Sanjay K.; Gupta, Amita; Glanz, Brian; Dick, James; Siberry, George K. (2005). "Antimicrobial-Resistant Shigella sonnei". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 24 (6): 494–7. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000164707.13624.a7. PMID   15933557.