Klebsiella oxytoca

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Klebsiella oxytoca
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Klebsiella
Species:K. oxytoca
Binomial name
Klebsiella oxytoca
(Flügge 1886)
Lautrop 1956

Klebsiella oxytoca is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is closely related to K. pneumoniae , from which it is distinguished by being indole-positive; it also has slightly different growth characteristics in that it is able to grow on melezitose, but not 3-hydroxybutyrate.

<i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> species of bacterium

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose fermenter on MacConkey agar.

Melezitose chemical compound

Melezitose, also spelled melicitose, is a nonreducing trisaccharide sugar that is produced by many plant sap eating insects, including aphids such as Cinara pilicornis by an enzyme reaction. This is beneficial to the insects, as it reduces the stress of osmosis by reducing their own water potential. The melezitose is part of the honeydew which acts as an attractant for ants and also as a food for bees. This is useful to the lice as they have a symbiotic relationship with ants. Melezitose can be partially hydrolyzed to glucose and turanose the latter of which is an isomer of sucrose.


K. oxytoca is characterized by negative methyl red, positive VP, positive citrate, urea and TSI gas production, is AA, and negative for TSI sulfide, DNAse, growth on sulfide-indole motility medium and the phenylalanine deaminase test.

Voges–Proskauer or VP is a test used to detect acetoin in a bacterial broth culture. The test is performed by adding alpha-naphthol and potassium hydroxide to the Voges-Proskauer broth which has been inoculated with bacteria. A cherry red color indicates a positive result, while a yellow-brown color indicates a negative result.

The citrate test detects the ability of an organism to use citrate as the sole source of carbon and energy.

TSI slant differential medium used in microbiology

The Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) test is a microbiological test roughly named for its ability to test a microorganism's ability to ferment sugars and to produce hydrogen sulfide. It is often used in the selective identification of enteric bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella.

It is a diazotroph, able to colonise plant hosts and fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form which the plant can use. Association of K. oxytoca with the barley rhizosphere during an entire vegetative period has been demonstrated. The bacteria adhere strongly to root hairs, and less strongly to the surface of the zone of elongation and root cap mucilage. [1]

Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.

Barley Species of plant

Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

Like other enterobacteria, it is capable of acquiring antibiotic resistance, and isolates have been shown to produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases as well as carbapenemases. [2]

Industrial uses

K. oxytoca has shown promise in industrial ethanol fuel production, [3] and is referenced as being used to produce hydrogen in patents filed by Nanologix, Inc.

Fuel any material that stores energy that can later be extracted, in presence of a oxidizer or a catalyser, or under the effect of a tool, but which is not conserved after the reaction

A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy.

Clinical significance and epidemiology.

Infections can result in colitis and sepsis. [4]

Outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca have occurred in multiple hospitals and ICUs throughout the world, and handwashing stations have been identified as a potentially important environmental reservoir. [5]


Houseflies (Musca domestica) have a mutualistic relationship with the bacterium K. oxytoca. This bacterium can live on the surface of the housefly eggs and has a deterrent effect on the fungi growing in manure, thus benefiting the fly larvae which are competing with the fungi for nutrients. [6]

Related Research Articles

Beta-lactamase enzyme

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics' structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.

Bacterial capsule

The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell. It is a well-organized layer, not easily washed off, and it can be the cause of various diseases.

Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, parasites. Recognizing different degrees of MDR, the terms extensively drug resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) have been introduced. The definitions were published in 2011 in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection and are openly accessible.

Carbapenem group of β-lactam antibiotics

Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections. This class of antibiotics is usually reserved for known or suspected multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Similar to penicillins and cephalosporins, carbapenems are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. However, these agents individually exhibit a broader spectrum of activity compared to most cephalosporins and penicillins. Furthermore, carbapenems are typically unaffected by emerging antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams.

The indole test is a biochemical test performed on bacterial species to determine the ability of the organism to convert tryptophan into indole. This division is performed by a chain of a number of different intracellular enzymes, a system generally referred to as "tryptophanase."

Cefotiam chemical compound

Cefotiam is a parenteral second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It has broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. As a beta-lactam, its bactericidal activity results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis via affinity for penicillin-binding proteins.

Klebsiella aerogenes, previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes, is a Gram-negative, oxidase negative, catalase positive, citrate positive, indole negative, rod-shaped bacterium. The bacterium is approximately 1-3 microns in length, and is capable of motility via peritrichous flagella.

Housefly species of insect

The housefly is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is believed to have evolved in the Cenozoic era, possibly in the Middle East, and has spread all over the world as a commensal of humans. It is the most common fly species found in houses. Adults are grey to black, with four dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. They have red eyes, set farther apart in the slightly larger female.

<i>Hydrotaea</i> genus of insects

Hydrotaea is a genus of insects in the housefly family, Muscidae. They occur in most regions of the world but are more populous in warmer climates. They are often found on feces in summer months, and are therefore generally found in close proximity to livestock. Among the 130 known species in this genus, one of the most commonly recognized is the dump fly.

Purple urine bag syndrome

Purple urine bag syndrome, or PUBS is a medical syndrome where purple discoloration of urine occurs in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infection. Bacteria in the urine produce the enzyme indoxyl phosphatase. This converts indoxyl sulfate in the urine into the red and blue colored compounds indirubin and indigo. The most commonly implicated bacteria are Providencia stuartii, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 chemical compound

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The gene for NDM-1 is one member of a large gene family that encodes beta-lactamase enzymes called carbapenemases. Bacteria that produce carbapenemases are often referred to in the news media as "superbugs" because infections caused by them are difficult to treat. Such bacteria are usually susceptible only to polymyxins and tigecycline.

Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple antibiotics. They can cause bacteria infections that pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat for hospitalized patients and especially patients in intensive care units. Infections caused by MDR strains are correlated with increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospitalization. Thus, not only do these bacteria pose a threat to global public health, but also create a significant burden to healthcare systems.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new "superbug". The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as "nightmare bacteria". Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC and NDM. KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM have also been reported in Pseudomonas.

Avibactam chemical compound

Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor developed by Actavis jointly with AstraZeneca. A new drug application for avibactam in combination with ceftazidime was approved by the FDA on February 25, 2015, for treating complicated urinary tract (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) caused by antibiotic resistant-pathogens, including those caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

Wautersiella is a genus of bacteria most closely related to Empedobacter brevis in the family Flavobacteriaceae and the order Flavobacteriales. Originally described in 2006 by Kämpfer et al. based on 26 clinical isolates from Belgium that shared 94-95% homology after 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The species described was named Wautersiella falsenii in honor of contemporary microbiologists Belgian Georges Wauters and Norwegian Enevold Falsen.

Vaborbactam chemical compound

Vaborbactam (INN) is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor discovered by Rempex Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of The Medicines Company. While not effective as an antibiotic by itself, it restores potency to existing antibiotics by inhibiting the beta-lactamase enzymes that would otherwise degrade them. When combined with an appropriate antibiotic it can be used for the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections.


  1. Brisse S, Grimont F & Grimont P AD (2006). Prokaryotes. New York, NY: Springer New York. pp. 159–196.
  2. Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zarfel, Gernot; Wuerstl, Benjamin; Leitner, Eva; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Posch, Josefa; Krause, Robert; Grisold, Andrea J. (2012-04-01). "Nosocomial Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Austria". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 56 (4): 2158–2161. doi:10.1128/AAC.05440-11. ISSN   0066-4804. PMC   3318378 Lock-green.svg. PMID   22290949.
  3. Dien B, Cotta M, Jeffries T (2003). "Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 63 (3): 258–66. doi:10.1007/s00253-003-1444-y. PMID   13680206.
  4. Högenauer C, Langner C, Beubler E, et al. (December 2006). "Klebsiella oxytoca as a causative organism of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (23): 2418–26. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa054765. PMID   17151365.
  5. Leitner, Eva; Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Herzog, Kathrin; Pekard-Amenitsch, Shiva; Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J. (2015-01-01). "Contaminated Handwashing Sinks as the Source of a Clonal Outbreak of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca on a Hematology Ward". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (1): 714–716. doi:10.1128/AAC.04306-14. ISSN   0066-4804. PMC   4291428 Lock-green.svg. PMID   25348541.
  6. Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard (2009). "Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites". Naturwissenschaften. 96 (9): 1127–1132. doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0574-1.