Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing of the teeth (dental hygiene) and cleaning between the teeth. It is important that oral hygiene be carried out on a regular basis to enable prevention of dental disease and bad breath. The most common types of dental disease are tooth decay (cavities, dental caries) and gum diseases, including gingivitis, and periodontitis.
General guidelines suggest brushing twice a day: after breakfast and before going to bed, but ideally the mouth would be cleaned after every meal. Cleaning between the teeth is called interdental cleaning and is as important as tooth brushing.This is because a toothbrush cannot reach between the teeth and therefore only removes about 50% of plaque from the surface of the teeth. There are many tools to clean between the teeth, including floss and interdental brushes; it is up to each individual to choose which tool they prefer to use.
Sometimes white or straight teeth are associated with oral hygiene. However, a hygienic mouth can have stained teeth or crooked teeth. To improve the appearance of their teeth, people may use tooth whitening treatments and orthodontics.
The importance of the role of the oral microbiome in dental health has been increasingly recognized.Data from human oral microbiology research shows that a commensal microflora can switch to an opportunistic pathogenic flora through complex changes in their environment. These changes are driven by the host rather than the bacteria. Archeological evidence of calcified dental plaque shows marked shifts in the oral microbiome towards a disease-associated microbiome with cariogenic bacteria becoming dominant during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiota are significantly less diverse than historic populations. Caries, for example, have become a major endemic disease, affecting 60-90% of schoolchildren in industrialized countries. In contrast, dental caries and periodontal diseases were rare in pre-Neolithic and early hominins.
Tooth decay is the most common global disease.Over 80% of cavities occur inside fissures in teeth where brushing cannot reach food left trapped after eating and saliva and fluoride have no access to neutralize acid and remineralize demineralized teeth, unlike easy-to-clean parts of the tooth, where fewer cavities occur.
Teeth cleaning is the removal of dental plaque and tartar from teeth to prevent cavities, gingivitis, gum disease, and tooth decay. Severe gum disease causes at least one-third of adult tooth loss.
Since before recorded history, a variety of oral hygiene measures have been used for teeth cleaning. This has been verified by various excavations done throughout the world, in which chew sticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones and porcupine quills have been found. In historic times, different forms of tooth cleaning tools have been used. Indian medicine (Ayurveda) has used the neem tree, or daatun, and its products to create teeth cleaning twigs and similar products; a person chews one end of the neem twig until it somewhat resembles the bristles of a toothbrush, and then uses it to brush the teeth. In the Muslim world, the miswak, or siwak, made from a twig or root, has antiseptic properties and has been widely used since the Islamic Golden Age. Rubbing baking soda or chalk against the teeth was also common; however, this can have negative side effects over time.
The Australian Healthcare and Hospital Association's (AHHA) most recent evidence brief) suggests that dental check-ups should be conducted once every 3 years for adults, and 1 every 2 years for children. It has been documented that dental professionals frequently advise for more frequent visits, but this advice is contraindicated by evidence suggesting that check up frequency should be based on individual risk factors, or the AHHA's check-up schedule. Professional cleaning includes tooth scaling, tooth polishing, and, if tartar has accumulated, debridement; this is usually followed by a fluoride treatment. However, the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) stated in 1998 that there is no evidence that scaling and polishing only above the gums provides therapeutic value, and cleaning should be done under the gums as well. The Cochrane Oral Health Group found only three studies meeting the criteria for inclusion in their study and found little evidence in them to support claims of benefits from supragingival (above the gum) tooth scaling or tooth polishing.
Dental sealants, which are applied by dentists, cover and protect fissures and grooves in the chewing surfaces of back teeth, preventing food from becoming trapped and thereby halt the decay process. An elastomer strip has been shown to force sealant deeper inside opposing chewing surfaces and can also force fluoride toothpaste inside chewing surfaces to aid in remineralising demineralised teeth.
Between cleanings by a dental hygienist, good oral hygiene is essential for preventing tartar build-up which causes the problems mentioned above. This is done through careful, frequent brushing with a toothbrush, combined with the use of dental floss or interdental brushes to prevent accumulation of plaque on the teeth.Powered toothbrushes reduce dental plaque and gingivitis more than manual toothbrushing in both short and long term. Further evidence is needed to determine the clinical importance of these findings.
Patients need to be aware of the importance of brushing and flossing their teeth daily. New parents need to be educated to promote healthy habits in their children.
Dental plaque, also known as dental biofilm, is a sticky, yellow film consisting of a wide range of bacteria which attaches to the tooth surfaces and can be visible around the gum line. It starts to reappear after the tooth surface has been cleaned, which is why regular brushing is encouraged.A high-sugar diet encourages the formation of plaque. Sugar (fermentable carbohydrates), is converted into acid by the plaque. The acid then causes the breakdown of the adjacent tooth, eventually leading to tooth decay.
If plaque is left on a subgingival (under the gum) surface undisturbed, not only is there an increased risk of tooth decay, but it will also go on to irritate the gums and make them appear red and swollen.Some bleeding may be noticed during tooth brushing or flossing. These are the signs of inflammation which indicate poor gum health (gingivitis).
The longer that plaque stays on the tooth surface, the harder and more attached to the tooth it becomes. That is when it is referred to as calculus and needs to be removed by a dental professional.If this is not treated, the inflammation will lead to the bone loss and will eventually lead to the affected teeth becoming loose.
Routine tooth brushing is the principal method of preventing many oral diseases, and perhaps the most important activity an individual can practice to reduce plaque buildup.Controlling plaque reduces the risk of the individual suffering from plaque-associated diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis, and caries – the three most common oral diseases. The average brushing time for individuals is between 30 seconds and just over 60 seconds. Many oral health care professionals agree that tooth brushing should be done for a minimum of two minutes, and be practiced at least twice a day. Brushing for at least two minutes per session is optimal for preventing the most common oral diseases, and removes considerably more plaque than brushing for only 45 seconds
Toothbrushing can only clean to a depth of about 1.5 mm inside the gingival pockets, but a sustained regime of plaque removal above the gum line can affect the ecology of the microbes below the gums and may reduce the number of pathogens in pockets up to 5 mm in depth.
Toothpaste (dentifrice) with fluoride, or alternatives such as nano-hydroxyapatite, is an important tool to readily use when tooth brushing. The fluoride (or alternative)in the dentifrice is an important protective factor against caries, and an important supplement needed to remineralize already affected enamel.However, in terms of preventing gum disease, the use of toothpaste does not increase the effectiveness of the activity with respect to the amount of plaque removed. People use toothpaste with nano-hydroxyapatite instead of fluoride as it performs the same function, and some people believe fluoride in toothpaste is a neurotoxin.
The modern manual tooth brush is a dental tool which consists of a head of nylon bristles attached to a long handle to help facilitate the manual action of tooth brushing. Furthermore, the handle aids in reaching as far back as teeth erupt in the oral cavity. The tooth brush is arguably a person's best tool for removing dental plaque from teeth, thus capable of preventing all plaque-related diseases if used routinely, correctly and effectively. Oral health professionals recommend the use of a tooth brush with a small head and soft bristles as they are most effective in removing plaque without damaging the gums.
The technique is crucial to the effectiveness of tooth brushing and disease prevention.Back and forth brushing is not effective in removing plaque at the gum line. Tooth brushing should employ a systematic approach, angle the bristles at a 45-degree angle towards the gums, and make small circular motions at that angle. This action increases the effectiveness of the technique in removing plaque at the gum line.
Electric toothbrushes are toothbrushes with moving or vibrating bristle heads. The two main types of electric toothbrushes are the sonic type which has a vibrating head, and the oscillating-rotating type in which the bristle head makes constant clockwise and anti-clockwise movements.
Sonic or ultrasonic toothbrushes vibrate at a high frequency with a small amplitude, and a fluid turbulent activity that aids in plaque removal.The rotating type might reduce plaque and gingivitis compared to manual brushing, though it is currently uncertain whether this is of clinical significance. The movements of the bristles and their vibrations help break up chains of bacteria up to 5mm below the gum line. The oscillating-rotating electric toothbrush on the other hand uses the same mechanical action as produced by manual tooth brushing – removing plaque via mechanical disturbance of the biofilm – however at a higher frequency.
Using electric tooth brushes is less complex in regards to brushing technique, making it a viable option for children, and adults with limited dexterity. The bristle head should be guided from tooth to tooth slowly, following the contour of the gums and crowns of the tooth.The motion of the toothbrush head removes the need to manually oscillate the brush or make circles.
Tooth brushing alone will not remove plaque from all surfaces of the tooth as 40% of the surfaces are interdental.One technique that can be used to access these areas is dental floss. When the proper technique is used, flossing can remove plaque and food particles from between the teeth and below the gums. The American Dental Association (ADA) reports that up to 80% of plaque may be removed by this method. The ADA recommends cleaning between the teeth as part of one's daily oral hygiene regime.
Types of floss include:
The type of floss used is a personal preference; however, without proper technique it may not be effective.The correct technique to ensure maximum plaque removal is as follows:
There are a few different options on the market that can make flossing easier if dexterity or coordination is a barrier, or as a preference over normal floss. Floss threaders are ideal for cleaning between orthodontic appliances, and flossettes are ideal for children and those with poor dexterity.Special flossettes are made for those with orthodontics.
Interdental brushes come in a range of color-coded sizes. They consist of a handle with a piece of wire covered in tapered bristles, designed to be placed into the interdental space for plaque removal.Studies indicate that interdental brushes are equally or more effective then floss when removing plaque and reducing gum inflammation. They are especially recommended to people with orthodontics, often to use as well as floss.
The steps in using an interdental brush are as follows:
The tongue contains numerous bacteria which causes bad breath. Tongue cleaners are designed to remove the debris built up on the tongue. Using a toothbrush to clean the tongue is another possibility, however it might be hard to reach the back of the tongue and the bristles of the toothbrush may be too soft to remove the debris.Steps of using a tongue scraper:
Some dental professionals recommend subgingival irrigation as a way to clean teeth and gums, instead of or in addition to flossing.
Single-tufted brushes are a tool in conjunction with tooth brushing.The tooth brush is designed to reach the 'hard to reach places' within the mouth. This tool is best used behind the lower front teeth, behind the back molars, crooked teeth and between spaces where teeth have been removed. The single- tufted brush design has an angled handle, a 4mm diameter and rounded bristle tips.
Toothbrushes with pointed rubber tips at the ends of the handles have been available for many years, and have more recently been replaced by a standalone tool called a gum stimulator designed to massage the gum line and the bases of the areas between the teeth. Such stimulators help to increase circulation to the gum line and to clear away bacteria which might not be removed by brushing and flossing alone.
Foods that help muscles and bones also help teeth and gums. Vitamin C is necessary, for example, to prevent scurvy which manifests as serious gum disease.
Eating a balanced diet and limiting sugar intake can help prevent tooth decay and periodontal disease.The Fédération dentaire internationale (FDI World Dental Federation) has promoted foods such as raw vegetables, plain yogurt, cheese, or fruit as dentally beneficial—this has been echoed by the American Dental Association (ADA).
Sugars are commonly associated with dental cavities. Other carbohydrates, especially cooked starches, e.g. crisps/potato chips, may also damage teeth, although to a lesser degree (and indirectly) since starch has to be converted to glucose by salivary amylase (an enzyme in the saliva) first. Sugars in foods that are more 'sticky', such as toffee, are likely to cause more damage to teeth than those in less 'sticky' foods, such as certain forms of chocolate or most fruits.
Chewing gum assists oral irrigation between and around the teeth, cleaning and removing particles, but for teeth in poor condition it may damage or remove loose fillings as well. Dental chewing gums claim to improve dental health. Sugar-free chewing gum stimulates saliva production, and helps to clean the surface of the teeth.
Chewing on solid objects such as ice can chip teeth, leading to further tooth fractures. Chewing on ice has been linked to symptoms of anemia. People with anemia tend to want to eat food with no nutritional value.
Drinking dark-colored beverages such as wine or beer may stain teeth, leading to a discolored smile. Drinking high-concentration alcohol can lead to a dry mouth, with little saliva to protect the teeth from plaque and bacteria.
Smoking is one of the leading risk factors associated with periodontal diseases.It is thought that smoking impairs and alters normal immune responses, eliciting destructive processes while inhibiting reparative responses promoting the incidence and development of periodontal diseases.
Regular vomiting, as seen in bulimia nervosa and morning sickness also causes significant damage, due to acid erosion.
There are three commonly used kinds of mouthwash: saline (salty water), essential oils (Listerine, etc.), and chlorhexidine gluconate.
Saline (warm salty water) is usually recommended after procedures like dental extractions. In a study completed in 2014, warm saline mouthrinse was compared to no mouthrinse in preventing alveolar osteitis (dry socket) after extraction. In the group that was instructed to rinse with saline, the prevalence of alveolar osteitis was less than in the group that did not.
Essential oils, found in Listerine mouthwash, contains eucalyptol, menthol, thymol, and methyl salicylate. CPC containing mouthwash contains cetyl pyridinium chloride, found in brands such as Colgate Plax, Crest Pro Health, Oral B Pro Health Rinse. In a meta-analyses completed in 2016, EO and CPC mouthrinses were compared and it was found that plaque and gingivitis levels were lower with EO mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque removal (toothbrushing and interdental cleaning).
Chlorhexidine gluconate is an antiseptic mouthrinse that should only be used in two-week time periods due to brown staining on the teeth and tongue.Compared to essential oils, it is more efficacious in controlling plaque levels, but has no better effect on gingivitis and is therefore generally used for post-surgical wound healing or the short-term control of plaque.
As mentioned earlier, sodium hypochlorite, a common household bleach, can be used as a 0.2% solution for 30 seconds two or three times a week as a cheap and effective means of combating harmful bacteria. The commercial product is 5% or 6%, so this requires diluting the product by a factor of about 30 (half a tablespoon in a full glass of water). The solution will lose activity with time and may be discarded after one day.
Dentures must be kept extremely clean. It is recommended that dentures be cleaned mechanically twice a day with a soft-bristled brush and denture cleansing paste. It is not recommended to use toothpaste, as it is too abrasive for acrylic, and will leave plaque retentive scratches in the surface. 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.08.002 . PMID 23948391.</ref>Dentures should be taken out at night, as leaving them in whilst sleeping has been linked to poor oral health. Leaving a denture in during sleep reduces the protective cleansing and antibacterial properties of saliva against Candida albicans (oral thrush) and denture stomatitis; the inflammation and redness of the oral mucosa underneath the denture. For the elderly, wearing a denture during sleep has been proven to greatly increase the risk of pneumonia. It is now recommended that dentures should be stored in a dry container overnight, as keeping dentures dry for 8 hours significantly reduces the amount of Candida albicans on an acrylic denture. Approximately once a week it is recommended to soak a denture overnight with an alkaline-peroxide denture cleansing tablet, as this has been proved to reduce bacterial mass and pathogenicity. Duyck J, Vandamme K, Muller P, Teughels W (December 2013). "Overnight storage of removable dentures in alkaline peroxide-based tablets affects biofilm mass and composition". Journal of Dentistry. 41 (12): 1281–9. doi:
As with dentures, it is recommended to clean retainers properly at least once a day (avoiding toothpaste and using soap) and to soak them overnight with an alkaline-peroxide denture cleansing tablet once a week. Hot temperatures will warp the shape of the retainer, therefore rinsing under cold water is preferred. Keeping the retainer in a plastic case and rinsing it beforehand considered to help reduce the number of bacteria being transferred back into the mouth.
While undertaking the braces treatment, it is recommended to use a small-sized or specialized toothbrush with a soft head to access hard-to-reach areas. Brushing after every meal is highly advisable. Regular flossing is as important as brushing, and helps to remove any plaque build-up, as well as smaller food particles that are stuck in your braces or between your teeth. Floss threaders for braces or interdental brushes are also an option.
To become a dental hygienist in the US one must attend a college or university that is approved by the Commission on Dental Accreditation and take the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination. There are several degrees one may receive. An associate degree after attending community college is the most common and only takes two years to obtain. After doing so, one may work in a dental office. There is also the option of receiving a bachelor's degree or master's degree if one plans to work in an educational institute either for teaching or research.
Several recent clinical studies suggest oral disease and inflammation (oral bacteria & oral infections) may be a risk factor for serious systemic diseases, such as:
Mouthwash, mouth rinse, oral rinse, or mouth bath is a liquid which is held in the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, and may be gargled, where the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. Bad breath may also occur.
A toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth, gums, and tongue. It consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles, atop of which toothpaste can be applied, mounted on a handle which facilitates the cleaning of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth. They are usually used alongside floss.
In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth. This process of precipitation kills the bacterial cells within dental plaque, but the rough and hardened surface that is formed provides an ideal surface for further plaque formation. This leads to calculus buildup, which compromises the health of the gingiva (gums). Calculus can form both along the gumline, where it is referred to as supragingival, and within the narrow sulcus that exists between the teeth and the gingiva, where it is referred to as subgingival.
Teeth cleaning is part of oral hygiene and involves the removal of dental plaque from teeth with the intention of preventing cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. People routinely clean their own teeth by brushing and interdental cleaning, and dental hygienists can remove hardened deposits (tartar) not removed by routine cleaning. Those with dentures and natural teeth may supplement their cleaning with a denture cleaner.
Dental floss is a cord of thin filaments used to remove food and dental plaque from between teeth in areas a toothbrush is unable to reach.
Abrasion is the non-carious, mechanical wears of tooth from interaction with objects other than tooth-tooth contact. It most commonly affects the premolars and canines, usually along the cervical margins. Based on clinical surveys, studies have shown that abrasion is the most common but not the sole aetiological factor for development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) and is most frequently caused by incorrect toothbrushing technique.
Periodontology or periodontics is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament. A periodontist is a dentist that specializes in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease and in the placement of dental implants.
Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It is a sticky colorless deposit at first, but when it forms tartar, it is often brown or pale yellow. It is commonly found between the teeth, on the front of teeth, behind teeth, on chewing surfaces, along the gumline, or below the gumline cervical margins. Dental plaque is also known as microbial plaque, oral biofilm, dental biofilm, dental plaque biofilm or bacterial plaque biofilm. Bacterial plaque is one of the major causes for dental decay and gum disease.
An oral irrigator is a home dental care device which uses a stream of high-pressure pulsating water intended to remove plaque and food debris between teeth and below the gum line. Regular use of an oral irrigator is believed to improve gingival health. The devices may also provide easier cleaning for braces and dental implants.
Tooth brushing is the act of scrubbing teeth with a toothbrush equipped with toothpaste. Interdental cleaning can be useful with tooth brushing, and together these two activities are the primary means of cleaning teeth, one of the main aspects of oral hygiene.
Gingival and periodontal pockets are dental terms indicating the presence of an abnormal depth of the gingival sulcus near the point at which the gingival tissue contacts the tooth.
Bleeding on probing which is also known as bleeding gums or gingival bleeding is a term used by dentists and dental hygienists when referring to bleeding that is induced by gentle manipulation of the tissue at the depth of the gingival sulcus, or interface between the gingiva and a tooth. Bleeding on probing, often abbreviated BoP, is a sign of periodontal inflammation and indicates some sort of destruction and erosion to the lining of the sulcus or the ulceration of sulcular epithelium. The blood comes from lamina propria after the ulceration of the lining.
Scaling and root planing, also known as conventional periodontal therapy, non-surgical periodontal therapy, or deep cleaning, is a procedure involving removal of dental plaque and calculus and then smoothing, or planing, of the (exposed) surfaces of the roots, removing cementum or dentine that is impregnated with calculus, toxins, or microorganisms, the etiologic agents that cause inflammation. This helps to establish a periodontium that is in remission of periodontal disease. Periodontal scalers and periodontal curettes are some of the tools involved.
Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms (microbiota) of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host. The environment present in the human mouth is suited to the growth of characteristic microorganisms found there. It provides a source of water and nutrients, as well as a moderate temperature. Resident microbes of the mouth adhere to the teeth and gums to resist mechanical flushing from the mouth to stomach where acid-sensitive microbes are destroyed by hydrochloric acid.
Dental Public Health (DPH) is a non-clinical specialty of dentistry that deals with the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health. Dental public health is involved in the assessment of key dental health needs and coming up with effective solutions to improve the dental health of populations rather than individuals.
A tongue cleaner is an oral hygiene device designed to clean the coating on the upper surface of the tongue. While there is tentative benefit from the use of a tongue cleaner it is insufficient to draw clear conclusions regarding bad breath. A 2006 Cochrane review found tentative evidence of decreased levels of odor molecules.
Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis. Most forms of gingivitis are plaque-induced.
Interdental cleaning or interproximal cleaning is part of oral hygiene where the aim is to clean the areas in between the teeth, otherwise known as the proximal surfaces of teeth. This is to remove the dental plaque in areas where a toothbrush cannot reach. The ultimate goal of interproximal cleaning is to prevent the development of interproximal caries and periodontal disease. The combined use of tooth brushing, and mechanical and manual interdental cleaning devices has been proven to reduce the prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases.
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