Smoking cessation

Last updated

Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, which is addictive and can cause dependence. [1] [2] Nicotine withdrawal makes the process of quitting often difficult. [3]

Tobacco smoking practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the resulting smoke

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke. The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica and South America. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus.

Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes. Temperatures in burning cigarettes range from about 400 ℃ between puffs to about 900 ℃ during a puff. During the burning of the cigarette tobacco, thousands of chemical substances are generated by combustion, distillation, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. Tobacco smoke is used as a fumigant and inhalant.

Nicotine chemical found naturally in certain plants that acts as a mild stimulant

Nicotine is a stimulant and potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is naturally produced in the nightshade family of plants and used for the treatment of tobacco use disorders as a smoking cessation aid and nicotine dependence for the relief of withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine acts as a receptor agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), except at two nicotinic receptor subunits where it acts as a receptor antagonist.


Seventy percent of smokers would like to quit smoking, and 50 percent report attempting to quit within the past year. [4] Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco cessation significantly reduces the risk of dying from tobacco-related diseases such as coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), [5] and lung cancer. [6] Due to its link to many chronic diseases, cigarette smoking has been restricted in many public areas.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease type of lung disease characterized by long-term poor airflow

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walking or getting dressed, become difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years.

Lung cancer cancer in the lung

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas. The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing, weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

Many different strategies can be used for smoking cessation, including abruptly quitting without assistance ("cold turkey"), cutting down then quitting, behavioral counseling, and medications such as bupropion, cytisine, nicotine replacement therapy, or varenicline. Most smokers who try to quit do so without assistance, though only 3% to 6% of quit attempts without assistance are successful long-term. [7] Behavioral counseling and medications each increase the rate of successfully quitting smoking, and a combination of behavioral counseling with a medication such as bupropion is more effective than either intervention alone. [8] A meta-analysis from 2018, conducted on 61 RCT, showed that one year after people quit smoking with the assistance of first line smoking cessation medications (and some behavioral help), only approximately 20% of them sustained abstinent, as compared to around 12% who did not take medication. [9]

Cold turkey abrupt cessation of a substance dependence

"Cold turkey" refers to the abrupt cessation of a substance dependence and the resulting unpleasant experience, as opposed to gradually easing the process through reduction over time or by using replacement medication. The term comes from the piloerection or "goose bumps" that occurs with abrupt withdrawal from opioids, which resembles the skin of a plucked refrigerated turkey.

Bupropion chemical compound

Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. It is an effective antidepressant on its own, but is also used as an add-on medication in cases of incomplete response to first-line SSRI antidepressants. Bupropion is taken in tablet form and is available only by prescription in most countries.

Cytisine chemical compound

Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae. It has been used medically to help with smoking cessation. Its molecular structure has some similarity to that of nicotine and it has similar pharmacological effects. Like varenicline, cytisine is a partial agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Cytisine has a short half-life of 4.8 hours, and is rapidly eliminated from the body. The use of cytisine for smoking cessation remains relatively unknown outside Eastern Europe.

In nicotine-dependent smokers, quitting smoking can lead to symptoms of nicotine withdrawal such as nicotine cravings, anxiety, irritability, depression, and weight gain. [10] :2298 Professional smoking cessation support methods generally attempt to address nicotine withdrawal symptoms to help the client break free of nicotine addiction.

Nicotine withdrawal A very difficult time

Nicotine withdrawal is a group of symptoms that occur in the first few weeks upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of nicotine. Symptoms include intense cravings for nicotine, anger/irritability, anxiety, depression, impatience, trouble sleeping, restlessness, hunger or weight gain, and difficulty concentrating. A smoking cessation program may improve one’s chance for success in quitting nicotine. Nicotine withdrawal is recognized in both the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the WHO International Classification of Diseases.

Anxiety emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety involves the expectation of future threat. Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. It is often accompanied by muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.

Depression (mood) state of low mood and aversion to activity

Depression, a state of low mood and aversion to activity, can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being. Symptoms of the mood disorder is marked by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration and a significant increase/decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping. A great deal of people also have feelings of dejection, hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal tendencies. It can either be short term or long term depending on the severity of the person condition. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one. It is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. Depressed mood may also be a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.


Major reviews of the scientific literature on smoking cessation include:

Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize findings qualitatively or quantitatively. Systematic reviews formulate research questions that are broad or narrow in scope, and identify and synthesize studies that directly relate to the systematic review question. They are designed to provide a complete, exhaustive summary of current evidence relevant to a research question. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are key to the practice of evidence-based medicine, and a review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study.

United States Department of Health and Human Services department of the US federal government

The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).

Meta-analysis statistical method that summarizes data from multiple sources

A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.


It is common for ex-smokers to have made a number of attempts (often using different approaches on each occasion) to stop smoking before achieving long-term abstinence. According to a recent survey from UNC over 74.7% of smokers attempt to quit without any assistance, [16] otherwise known as "Cold Turkey", or with home remedies. A recent study estimated that ex-smokers make between 6 and 30 attempts before successfully quitting. [15] Identifying which approach or technique is eventually most successful is difficult; it has been estimated, for example, that only about 4% to 7% of people are able to quit smoking on any given attempt without medicines or other help. [1] [17] A recent review of unassisted quit attempts in 9 countries found that the majority of quit attempts are still unassisted, though the trend seems to be shifting. In the U.S., for example, the rate of unassisted quitting fell from 91.8% in 1986 to 52.1% during 2006 to 2009. [18] The most frequent unassisted methods were "cold turkey", a term that has been used to mean either unassisted quitting or abrupt quitting [18] and "gradually decreased number" of cigarettes, or "cigarette reduction". [2]

Cold turkey

"Cold turkey" is a colloquial term indicating abrupt withdrawal from an addictive drug, and in this context indicates sudden and complete cessation of all nicotine use. In three studies, it was the quitting method cited by 76%, [19] 85%, [20] or 88% [21] of long-term successful quitters. In a large British study of ex-smokers in the 1980s, before the advent of pharmacotherapy, 53% of the ex-smokers said that it was "not at all difficult" to stop, 27% said it was "fairly difficult", and the remaining 20% found it very difficult. [22] Studies have found that two-thirds of recent quitters reported using the cold turkey method and found it helpful. [23]


A 21mg dose nicotine patch applied to the left arm. Nicoderm.JPG
A 21mg dose nicotine patch applied to the left arm.

The American Cancer Society notes that "Studies in medical journals have reported that about 25% of smokers who use medicines can stay smoke-free for over 6 months." [24] Single medications include:

Further increased chance of success was found when a combination of the nicotine patch and a faster acting form was used. [27] A study found that 93% of over-the-counter NRT users relapse and return to smoking within six months. [28]
There is weak evidence that adding mecamylamine to nicotine is more effective than nicotine alone. [29]

The 2008 US Guideline specifies that three combinations of medications are effective: [12] :118–120

A meta-analysis from 2018, conducted on 61 RCT, showed that during their first year of trying to quit, approximately 80% of the participants in the studies who got drug assistance (bupropion, NRT, or varenicline) returned to smoking while 20% continued to not smoke for the entire year (i.e.: remained sustained abstinent). [9] In comparison, 12% the people who got placebo kept from smoking for (at least) an entire year. [9] This makes the net benefit of the drug treatment to be 8% after the first 12 months. [9] In other words, out of 100 people who will take medication, approximately 8 of them would remain non-smoking after one year thanks to the treatment. [9] During the course of one year, the benefit from using smoking cessation medications (Bupropion, NRT, or Varenicline) decreases from 17% in 3 months, to 12% in 6 months to 8% in 12 months. [9]

Cut down to quit

Gradual reduction involves slowly reducing one's daily intake of nicotine. This can theoretically be accomplished through repeated changes to cigarettes with lower levels of nicotine, by gradually reducing the number of cigarettes smoked each day, or by smoking only a fraction of a cigarette on each occasion. A 2009 systematic review by researchers at the University of Birmingham found that gradual nicotine replacement therapy could be effective in smoking cessation. [38] [39] There is no significant difference in quit rates between smokers who quit by gradual reduction or abrupt cessation as measured by abstinence from smoking of at least six months from the quit day, suggesting that people who want to quit can choose between these two methods. [40]

Set a Quit Plan and Quit Date

Most smoking cessation resources such as the CDC [41] and Mayo Clinic [42] encourage smokers to create a quit plan, including setting a quit date, which helps them anticipate and plan ahead for smoking challenges. A quit plan can improve a smoker’s chance of a successful quit [43] [44] [45] as can setting Monday as the quit date, given that research has shown that Monday more than any other day is when smokers are seeking information online to quit smoking [46] and calling state quit lines. [47]

Community interventions

A Cochrane review found evidence that community interventions using "multiple channels to provide reinforcement, support and norms for not smoking" had an effect on smoking cessation outcomes among adults. [48] Specific methods used in the community to encourage smoking cessation among adults include:

Psychosocial approaches


Some health organizations manage text messaging services to help people avoid smoking Text messaging used to provide encouragement to quit smoking.png
Some health organizations manage text messaging services to help people avoid smoking

According to the most recent Cochrane review in 2019, self-help materials may produce a small increase in quit rates specially when there is no other supporting intervention form. [79] In the 2008 Guideline, "the effect of self-help was weak," and the number of types of self-help did not produce higher abstinence rates. [12] :89–91 Nevertheless, self-help modalities for smoking cessation include:

  • In-person self-help groups such as Nicotine Anonymous, [80] [81] or web-based cessation resources such as, which offers various types of assistance including self-help materials. [82]
  • WebMD: a resource providing health information, tools for managing health, and support. [83]
  • Interactive web-based and stand-alone computer programs and online communities which assist participants in quitting. For example, "quit meters" keep track of statistics such as how long a person has remained abstinent. [84] In the 2008 US Guideline, there was no meta-analysis of computerised interventions, but they were described as "highly promising." [12] :93–94 A meta-analysis published in 2009, [85] a Cochrane review updated in 2013, [86] [ needs update ] and a 2011 systematic review [87] found the evidence base for such interventions weak, although interactive and tailored interventions show some promise.
  • Mobile phone-based interventions: A 2016 updated Cochrane review stated that "the current evidence supports a beneficial impact of mobile phone-based cessation interventions on six-month cessation outcomes. [88] A 2011 randomized trial of mobile phone-based smoking cessation support in the UK found that a Txt2Stop cessation program significantly improved cessation rates at 6 months. [89] A 2013 meta-analysis also noted "modest benefits" of mobile health interventions. [90]
  • Interactive web-based programs combined with a Mobile phone: Two RCTs documented long-term treatment effects (abstinence rate: 20-22 %) of such interventions,. [91] [92]
  • Self-help books such as Allen Carr's Easy Way to Stop Smoking. [93]
  • Spirituality: In one survey of adult smokers, 88% reported a history of spiritual practice or belief, and of those more than three-quarters were of the opinion that using spiritual resources may help them quit smoking. [94]
  • A review of mindfulness training as a treatment for addiction showed reduction in craving and smoking following training. [95]
  • Physical activities help in the maintenance of smoking cessation even if there is no conclusive evidence of the most appropriate exercise intensity. [96]

Biochemical feedback

Various methods exist which allow a smoker to see the impact of their tobacco use, and the immediate effects of quitting. Using biochemical feedback methods can allow tobacco-users to be identified and assessed, and the use of monitoring throughout an effort to quit can increase motivation to quit. [97] [98] A recent Cochrane Review found "little evidence about the effects of most types of biomedical tests for risk assessment on smoking cessation,". [99]

  • Breath carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring: Because carbon monoxide is a significant component of cigarette smoke, a breath carbon monoxide monitor can be used to detect recent cigarette use. Carbon monoxide concentration in breath has been shown to be directly correlated with the CO concentration in blood, known as percent carboxyhemoglobin. The value of demonstrating blood CO concentration to a smoker through a non-invasive breath sample is that it links the smoking habit with the physiological harm associated with smoking. [100] Within hours of quitting, CO concentrations show a noticeable decrease, and this can be encouraging for someone working to quit. Breath CO monitoring has been utilized in smoking cessation as a tool to provide patients with biomarker feedback, similar to the way in which other diagnostic tools such as the stethoscope, the blood pressure cuff, and the cholesterol test have been used by treatment professionals in medicine. [97]
  • Cotinine: A metabolite of nicotine, cotinine is present in smokers. Like carbon monoxide, a cotinine test can serve as a reliable biomarker to determine smoking status. [101] Cotinine levels can be tested through urine, saliva, blood, or hair samples, with one of the main concerns of cotinine testing being the invasiveness of typical sampling methods.

While both measures offer high sensitivity and specificity, they differ in usage method and cost. As an example, breath CO monitoring is non-invasive, while cotinine testing relies on a bodily fluid. These two methods can be used either alone or together, for example, in a situation where abstinence verification needs additional confirmation. [102]

Competitions and incentives

Financial or material incentives to entice people to quit smoking improves smoking cessation while the incentive is in place. [103] Competitions that require participants to deposit their own money, "betting" that they will succeed in their efforts to quit smoking, appear to be an effective incentive. [103] However, in head to head comparisons with other incentive models such as giving participants NRT or placing them in a more typical rewards program, it is more difficult to recruit participants for this type of contest. [104] There is evidence that incentive programs may be effective for pregnant mothers who smoke. [103]

A different 2008 Cochrane review found that one type of competition, "Quit and Win," did increase quit rates among participants. [105]

Healthcare systems

Interventions delivered via healthcare providers and healthcare systems have been shown to improve smoking cessation among people who visit those services.

Substitutes for cigarettes

Alternative approaches

Special populations

Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years leading up to 2016, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. [134]

Children and adolescents

Methods used with children and adolescents include:

A Cochrane review, mainly of studies combining motivational enhancement and psychological support, concluded that "complex approaches" for smoking cessation among young people show promise. [135] The 2008 US Guideline recommends counselling-style support for adolescent smokers on the basis of a meta-analysis of seven studies. [12] :159–161 Neither the Cochrane review nor the 2008 Guideline recommends medications for adolescents who smoke.

Pregnant women

Smoking during pregnancy can cause adverse health effects in both the woman and the fetus. The 2008 US Guideline determined that "person-to-person psychosocial interventions" (typically including "intensive counseling") increased abstinence rates in pregnant women who smoke to 13.3%, compared with 7.6% in usual care. [12] :165–167 Mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a greater tendency towards premature births. Their babies are often underdeveloped, have smaller organs, and weigh much less than the normal baby. In addition, these babies have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to many diseases such as middle ear inflammations and asthmatic bronchitis, which can bring significant morbidity. There is also an increased chance that the child will be a smoker in adulthood. A systematic review showed that psychosocial interventions help women to stop smoking in late pregnancy and can reduce the incidence of low birthweight infants. [139]

It is a myth that a female smoker can cause harm to a fetus by quitting immediately upon discovering she is pregnant. This idea is not based on any medical study or fact. [140]


Studies across 20 countries show a strong association between patients with schizophrenia and smoking. People with schizophrenia are much more likely to smoke than those without the disease.[1] [141] For example, in the United States, 80% or more of people with schizophrenia smoke, compared to 20% of the general population in 2006. [142]


A 2008 Cochrane review of smoking cessation activities in work-places concluded that "interventions directed towards individual smokers increase the likelihood of quitting smoking,". [143] A 2010 systematic review determined that worksite incentives and competitions needed to be combined with additional interventions to produce significant increases in smoking cessation rates. [144]

Hospitalized smokers

Percent increase of success for six months over unaided attempts for each type of quitting (chart from West & Shiffman based on Cochrane review data Smoking cessation-West&Shiffman.png
Percent increase of success for six months over unaided attempts for each type of quitting (chart from West & Shiffman based on Cochrane review data

Smokers who are hospitalised may be particularly motivated to quit. [12] :149–150 A 2012 Cochrane review found that interventions beginning during a hospital stay and continuing for one month or more after discharge were effective in producing abstinence. [146]

Patients undergoing elective surgery may get benefits of preoperative smoking cessation interventions, when starting 4–8 weeks before surgery with weekly counselling intervention for behavioral support and use of nicotine replacement therapy. [147] It is found to reduce the complications and the number of postoperative morbidity. [147]

Mood disorders

People who have mood disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have a greater chance to begin smoking and lower chance to quit smoking. [148]

Homeless and poverty-stricken populations

Homelessness doubles the likelihood of an individual currently being a smoker. This is independent of other socioeconomic factors and behavioral health conditions. Homeless individuals have the same rates of the desire to quit smoking but are less likely than the general population to be successful in their attempt to quit. [149] [150]

In the United States, 60-80% of homeless adults are current smokers. This is a considerably higher rate than that of the general adult population of 19%. [149] Many current smokers who are homeless report smoking as a means of coping with "all the pressure of being homeless." [149] The perception that homeless people smoking is "socially acceptable" can also reinforce these trends. [149]

Americans under the poverty line have higher rates of smoking and lower rates of quitting than those over the poverty line. [151] [152] [150] It has been shown that while the homeless population as a whole is concerned about short-term effects of smoking such as shortness of breath of recurrent bronchitis, that are not as concerned with long-term consequences. [151] The homeless population has unique barriers to quit smoking such as unstructured days, the stress of finding a job, and immediate survival needs that supersede the desire to quit smoking. [151]

These unique barriers can be combated thusly: pharmacotherapy and behavioral counseling for high levels of nicotine dependence, emphasis of immediate financial benefits to those who concern themselves with the short-term over the long-term, partnering with shelters to reduce the social acceptability of smoking in this population, increased taxing not just on cigarettes but also on alternative tobacco products, to further make the addiction more difficult to fund. [153]

Comparison of success rates

Comparison of success rates across interventions can be difficult because of different definitions of "success" across studies. [146] Robert West and Saul Shiffman, authorities in this field recognized by government health departments in a number of countries, [145] :73,76,80 have concluded that, used together, "behavioral support" and "medication" can quadruple the chances that a quit attempt will be successful.

A 2008 systematic review in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention found that group behavioural therapy was the most effective intervention strategy for smoking cessation, followed by bupropion, intensive physician advice, nicotine replacement therapy, individual counselling, telephone counselling, nursing interventions, and tailored self-help interventions; the study did not discuss varenicline. [154]

Individuals who sustained damage to the insula were able to more easily abstain from smoking. Smoking insula.jpg
Individuals who sustained damage to the insula were able to more easily abstain from smoking.

Factors affecting success

Quitting can be harder for individuals with dark pigmented skin compared to individuals with pale skin since nicotine has an affinity for melanin-containing tissues. Studies suggest this can cause the phenomenon of increased nicotine dependence and lower smoking cessation rate in darker pigmented individuals. [156]

There is an important social component to smoking. A 2008 study of a densely interconnected network of over 12,000 individuals found that smoking cessation by any given individual reduced the chances of others around them lighting up by the following amounts: a spouse by 67%, a sibling by 25%, a friend by 36%, and a coworker by 34%. [157] Nevertheless, a Cochrane review determined that interventions to increase social support for a smoker's cessation attempt did not increase long-term quit rates. [158] [ needs update ]

Smokers who are trying to quit are faced with social influences that may persuade them to conform and continue smoking. Cravings are easier to detain when one's environment does not provoke the habit. If a person who stopped smoking has close relationships with active smokers, he or she is often put into situations that make the urge to conform more tempting. However, in a small group with at least one other not smoking, the likelihood of conformity decreases. The social influence to smoke cigarettes has been proven to rely on simple variables. One researched variable depends on whether the influence is from a friend or non-friend. [159] The research shows that individuals are 77% more likely to conform to non-friends, while close friendships decrease conformity. Therefore, if an acquaintance offers a cigarette as a polite gesture, the person who has stopped smoking will be more likely to break his commitment than if a friend had offered. Recent research from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey of over 6,000 smokers found that smokers with fewer smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit and to succeed in their quit attempt. [160]

Expectations and attitude are significant factors. A self-perpetuating cycle occurs when a person feels bad for smoking yet smokes to alleviate feeling bad. Breaking that cycle can be a key in changing the sabotaging attitude. [161]

Smokers with major depressive disorder may be less successful at quitting smoking than non-depressed smokers. [12] :81 [162]

Relapse (resuming smoking after quitting) has been related to psychological issues such as low self-efficacy, [163] [164] or non-optimal coping responses; [165] however, psychological approaches to prevent relapse have not been proven to be successful. [166] In contrast, varenicline is suggested to have some effects and nicotine replacement therapy may help the unassissted abstainers. [166] [167]

Side effects

Duration of nicotine withdrawal symptoms
Craving for tobacco3 to 8 weeks [168]
DizzinessFew days [168]
Insomnia1 to 2 weeks [168]
Headaches1 to 2 weeks [168]
Chest discomfort1 to 2 weeks [168]
Constipation1 to 2 weeks [168]
Irritability2 to 4 weeks [168]
Fatigue2 to 4 weeks [168]
Cough or nasal dripFew weeks [168]
Lack of concentrationFew weeks [168]
HungerUp to several weeks [168]


In a 2007 review of the effects of abstinence from tobacco, Hughes concluded that "anger, anxiety, depression, difficulty concentrating, impatience, insomnia, and restlessness are valid withdrawal symptoms that peak within the first week and last 2–4 weeks." [169] In contrast, "constipation, cough, dizziness, increased dreaming, and mouth ulcers" may or may not be symptoms of withdrawal, while drowsiness, fatigue, and certain physical symptoms ("dry mouth, flu symptoms, headaches, heart racing, skin rash, sweating, tremor") were not symptoms of withdrawal. [169]

Weight gain

Giving up smoking is associated with an average weight gain of 4–5 kilograms (8.8–11.0 lb) after 12 months, most of which occurs within the first three months of quitting. [170]

The possible causes of the weight gain include:

The 2008 Guideline suggests that sustained-release bupropion, nicotine gum, and nicotine lozenge be used "to delay weight gain after quitting." [12] :173–176 A 2012 Cochrane review concluded that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend a particular program for preventing weight gain. [174]


Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine addiction causes a down-regulation of the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters as the brain attempts to compensate for the artificial stimulation caused by smoking. Therefore, when people stop smoking, depressive symptoms such as suicidal tendencies or actual depression may result, [162] [175] although a recent international study comparing smokers who had stopped for 3 months with continuing smokers found that stopping smoking did not appear to increase anxiety or depression. [176] This side effect of smoking cessation may be particularly common in women, as depression is more common among women than among men. [177]


A recent study by The British Journal of Psychiatry has found that smokers who successfully quit feel less anxious afterward with the effect being greater among those who had mood and anxiety disorders than those that smoked for pleasure. [178]

Health benefits

Many of tobacco's detrimental health effects can be reduced or largely removed through smoking cessation. The health benefits over time of stopping smoking include: [179]

The British Doctors Study showed that those who stopped smoking before they reached 30 years of age lived almost as long as those who never smoked. [181] Stopping in one's sixties can still add three years of healthy life. [181] A randomized trial from the U.S. and Canada showed that a smoking cessation program lasting 10 weeks decreased mortality from all causes over 14 years later. [182] A recent article on mortality in a cohort of 8,645 smokers who were followed-up after 43 years determined that “current smoking and lifetime persistent smoking were associated with an increased risk of all-cause, CVD [cardiovascular disease], COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], and any cancer, and lung cancer mortality. [183]

Another published study, "Smoking Cessation Reduces Postoperative Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis," examined six randomized trials and 15 observational studies to look at the effects of preoperative smoking cessation on postoperative complications. The findings were: 1) taken together, the studies demonstrated decreased the likelihood of postoperative complications in patients who ceased smoking prior to surgery; 2) overall, each week of cessation prior to surgery increased the magnitude of the effect by 19%. A significant positive effect was noted in trials where smoking cessation occurred at least four weeks prior to surgery; 3) For the six randomized trials, they demonstrated on average a relative risk reduction of 41% for postoperative complications. [184]


Smokers as a percentage of the population for the United States, the Netherlands, Norway, Japan, and Finland. Smokers-as-a-percentage-of-adult-pop.jpg
Smokers as a percentage of the population for the United States, the Netherlands, Norway, Japan, and Finland.

Cost-effectiveness analyses of smoking cessation activities have shown that they increase quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at costs comparable with other types of interventions to treat and prevent disease. [12] :134–137 Studies of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation include:

The frequency of smoking cessation among smokers varies across countries. Smoking cessation increased in Spain between 1965 and 2000, [188] in Scotland between 1998 and 2007, [189] and in Italy after 2000. [190] In contrast, in the U.S. the cessation rate was "stable (or varied little)" between 1998 and 2008, [191] and in China smoking cessation rates declined between 1998 and 2003. [192]

Nevertheless, in a growing number of countries there are now more ex-smokers than smokers [22] For example, in the U.S. as of 2010, there were 47 million ex-smokers and 46 million smokers. [193] In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the number of adult smokers, 18 years and older, in the U.S. has fallen to 40 million current smokers. [194]

See also


  1. 1 2 "Guide to quitting smoking". American Cancer Society. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  2. 1 2 Mooney ME, Johnson EO, Breslau N, Bierut LJ, Hatsukami DK (2011). "Cigarette smoking reduction and changes in nicotine dependence". Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 13 (6): 426–430. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr019. PMC   3103717 . PMID   21367813.
  3. Sudeep C B (2017). "TOBACCO CESSATION COUNSELING – THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A DENTIST". International Journal of Advanced Research. 5 (3): 326–331. doi:10.21474/IJAR01/3518.
  4. Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (Nov 11, 2011). "Quitting smoking among adults--United States, 2001-2010". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 60 (44): 1513–1519. ISSN   1545-861X. PMID   22071589 . Retrieved 2015-05-09.
  5. Orisasami, Isimat Temitayo; Ojo, Omorogieva (2016). "Evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation in the management of COPD". British Journal of Nursing. 25 (14): 786–790. doi:10.12968/bjon.2016.25.14.786. PMID   27467642.
  6. World Health Organization. WHO Report on the global tobacco epidemic. 2015.
  7. Rigotti, Nancy A. (Oct 17, 2012). "Strategies to help a smoker who is struggling to quit". JAMA. 308 (15): 1573–1580. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.13043. ISSN   1538-3598. PMC   4562427 . PMID   23073954.
  8. Stead, Lindsay F.; Lancaster, Tim (2016). "Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD008286. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008286.pub3. PMID   27009521.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rosen, Laura J.; Galili, Tal; Kott, Jeffrey; Goodman, Mark; Freedman, Laurence S. (2018). "Diminishing benefit of smoking cessation medications during the first year: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Addiction. 113 (5): 805–816. doi:10.1111/add.14134. ISSN   0965-2140. PMC   5947828 . PMID   29377409.
  10. Benowitz NL; Benowitz, Neal L. (2010). "Nicotine addiction". N Engl J Med. 362 (24): 2295–303. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0809890. PMC   2928221 . PMID   20554984.
  11. 1 2 Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (2016). "Cochrane Tobacco Addiction" . Retrieved 2016-07-06.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Fiore MC, et al. (2008). Clinical practice guideline: treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update (PDF). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-27. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
  13. Fiore MC, et al. (1996). Smoking cessation. Clinical practice guideline no. 18. AHCPR publication no. 96-0692. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
  14. Fiore MC, et al. (2000). Clinical practice guideline: treating tobacco use and dependence (PDF). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  15. 1 2 Chaiton M, Diemert L, Cohen JE, Bondy SJ, Selby P, Philipneri A, Schwartz R (2016). "Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers". BMJ Open. 6 (6): e011045. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011045. PMC   4908897 . PMID   27288378.
  16. Caraballo, Ralph S.; Shafer, Paul R.; Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin C.; McAfee, Timothy A. (13 April 2017). "Quit Methods Used by US Adult Cigarette Smokers, 2014–2016". Preventing Chronic Disease. 14: E32. doi:10.5888/pcd14.160600. PMC   5392446 . PMID   28409740.
  17. Hughes JR, Keely J, Naud S (2004). "Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers". Addiction. 99 (1): 29–38. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00540.x. PMID   14678060.
  18. 1 2 Edwards SA, Bondy SJ, Callaghan RC, Mann RE (2014). "Prevalence of unassisted quit attempts in population-based studies: a systematic review of the literature". Addictive Behaviors. 39 (3): 512–9. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.036. PMID   24333037.
  19. 1 2 3 Lee CW, Kahende J (2007). "Factors associated with successful smoking cessation in the United States, 2000". Am J Public Health. 97 (8): 1503–9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.083527. PMC   1931453 . PMID   17600268.
  20. Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Pierce JP, Giovino GA, Hatziandreu EJ, Newcomb PA, Surawicz TS, Davis RM (1990). "Methods used to quit smoking in the United States. Do cessation programs help?". JAMA. 263 (20): 2760–5. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440200064024. PMID   2271019.
  21. Doran CM, Valenti L, Robinson M, Britt H, Mattick RP (2006). "Smoking status of Australian general practice patients and their attempts to quit". Addict Behav. 31 (5): 758–66. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.05.054. PMID   16137834.
  22. 1 2 Chapman S, MacKenzie R (2010-02-09). "The global research neglect of unassisted smoking cessation: causes and consequences". PLoS Medicine. 7 (2): e1000216. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000216. PMC   2817714 . PMID   20161722.
  23. Hung WT, Dunlop SM, Perez D, Cotter T (2011). "Use and perceived helpfulness of smoking cessation methods: results from a population survey of recent quitters". BMC Public Health. 11: 592. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-592. PMC   3160379 . PMID   21791111.
  24. "Guide to quitting smoking. What do I need to know about quitting" (PDF). American Cancer Society. 2014. Retrieved 2016- 7.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  25. 1 2 3 Hartmann-Boyce, J; Chepkin, SC; Ye, W; Bullen, C; Lancaster, T (31 May 2018). "Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5: CD000146. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub5. PMID   29852054.
  26. Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Chepkin, Samantha C.; Ye, Weiyu; Bullen, Chris; Lancaster, Tim (2018). "Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (5): CD000146. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub5. ISSN   1465-1858. PMID   29852054.
  27. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Lancaster T (2008). Stead, Lindsay F, ed. "Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD000146. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3. PMID   18253970.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. Millstone K (2007-02-13). "Nixing the patch: Smokers quit cold turkey". News Service. Retrieved 2011-02-21.
  29. Lancaster, T; Stead, LF (2000). "Mecamylamine (a nicotine antagonist) for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD001009. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001009. PMID   10796584.
  30. 1 2 John R Hughes; et al. (2014). "Antidepressants for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1 (1): CD000031. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000031.pub4. PMID   24402784.
  31. Pfizer (2015). "Product monograph Champix" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-16. Retrieved 2016-07.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 Cahill, Kate; Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Thomas, Kyla H.; Fanshawe, Thomas R.; Lancaster, Tim (2016-05-09). "Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD006103. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006103.pub7. hdl:1983/0cbd99fb-032e-4547-95cc-e314a8d042d7. ISSN   1469-493X. PMID   27158893.
  33. Singh S, Loke Y, Spangler J, Furberg C (July 4, 2011). "Risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with varenicline: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 183 (12): 1359–66. doi:10.1503/cmaj.110218. PMC   3168618 . PMID   21727225.
  34. Anthenelli, RM; Benowitz, NL; West, R; St Aubin, L; McRae, T; Lawrence, D; Ascher, J; Russ, C; Krishen, A; Evins, AE (18 June 2016). "Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Lancet. 387 (10037): 2507–20. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)30272-0. PMID   27116918.
  35. Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL (2004). Stead, Lindsay F, ed. "Clonidine for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD000058. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000058.pub2. PMID   15266422.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  36. Hughes, JR; Stead, LF; Lancaster, T (2000). "Anxiolytics for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD002849. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002849. PMID   11034774.
  37. 1 2 Cahill, K; Ussher, MH (16 March 2011). "Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD005353. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005353.pub4. PMID   21412887.
  38. Phend C (2009-04-03). "Gradual cutback with nicotine replacement boosts quit rates". MedPage Today. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
  39. Moore D, Aveyard P, Connock M, Wang D, Fry-Smith A, Barton P (2009). "Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 338: b1024. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1024. PMC   2664870 . PMID   19342408.
  40. Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P, Hughes JR (2012). Lindson-Hawley, Nicola, ed. "Reduction versus abrupt cessation in smokers who want to quit" (PDF). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD008033. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008033.pub3. PMID   23152252.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  41. "Making a Quit Plan". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  42. "Preparing for Quit Day". Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  43. Smit, Eline; Hoving, Ciska; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; West, Robert; de Vries, Hein (September 2014). "Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit" (PDF). Addictive Behaviors. 39 (9): 1318–1324. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.04.017. PMID   24837754.
  44. de Vries, Hein; Eggers, Sander; Bolman, Catherine (April 2013). "The role of action planning and plan enactment for smoking cessation". BMC Public Health. 13: 393. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-393. PMC   3644281 . PMID   23622256.
  45. Bolmana, Catherine; Matthijs Eggersb, Sander; van Oschb, Liesbeth; Te Poelc, Fam; Candeld, Math; de Vries, Hein (Oct 2015). "Is Action Planning Helpful for Smoking Cessation? Assessing the Effects of Action Planning in a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention". Substance Use & Misuse. 50 (10): 1249–1260. doi:10.3109/10826084.2014.977397. PMID   26440754.
  46. Ayers, John; Althouse, Benjamin; Johnson, Morgan; Cohen, Joanna (January 2014). "Circaseptan (weekly) rhythms in smoking cessation considerations". JAMA Internal Medicine. 1 (174): 146–148. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11933. PMC   4670616 . PMID   24166181.
  47. Erbas, Bircan; Bui, Quang; Huggins, Richard; Harper, Todd; White, Victoria (Feb 2006). "Investigating the relation between placement of Quit antismoking advertisements and number of telephone calls to Quitline: a semiparametric modelling approach". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 60 (1): 180–182. doi:10.1136/jech.2005.038109. PMC   2566152 . PMID   16415271.
  48. Secker-Walker RH, Gnich W, Platt S, Lancaster T (2002). Stead, Lindsay F, ed. "Community interventions for reducing smoking among adults". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD001745. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001745. PMID   12137631.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. 1 2 Lemmens V, Oenema A, Knut IK, Brug J (2008). "Effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions among adults: a systematic review of reviews" (PDF). Eur J Cancer Prev. 17 (6): 535–44. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3282f75e48. PMID   18941375. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-06.
  50. "State-Mandated Tobacco Ban, Integration of Cessation Services, and Other Policies Reduce Smoking Among Patients and Staff at Substance Abuse Treatment Centers". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-02-27. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
  51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (May 2007). "State-specific prevalence of smoke-free home rules--United States, 1992-2003". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56 (20): 501–4. PMID   17522588.
  52. King, BA; Dube, SR; Homa, DM (16 May 2013). "Smoke-free rules and secondhand smoke exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults, 2009-2010". Preventing Chronic Disease. 10: E79. doi:10.5888/pcd10.120218. PMC   3666976 . PMID   23680508.
  53. King, BA; Babb, SD; Tynan, MA; Gerzoff, RB (July 2013). "National and state estimates of secondhand smoke infiltration among U.S. multiunit housing residents". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 15 (7): 1316–21. doi:10.1093/ntr/nts254. PMC   4571449 . PMID   23248030.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 Hopkins DP, Briss PA, Ricard CJ, Husten CG, Carande-Kulis VG, Fielding JE, Alao MO, McKenna JW, Sharp DJ, Harris JR, Woollery TA, Harris KW; Task Force on Community Preventive Services (2001). "Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke" (PDF). Am J Prev Med. 20 (2 Suppl): 16–66. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(00)00297-X. PMID   11173215.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  55. Bala, MM; Strzeszynski, L; Topor-Madry, R (21 November 2017). "Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 11: CD004704. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004704.pub4. PMID   29159862.
  56. Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E.; Kelleher, Cecily (2016-05-27). "Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD011856. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011856.pub2. ISSN   1469-493X. PMID   27230795.
  57. Zhu SH, Anderson CM, Tedeschi GJ, Rosbrook B, Johnson CE, Byrd M, Gutiérrez-Terrell E (2002). "Evidence of real-world effectiveness of a telephone quitline for smokers" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 347 (14): 1087–93. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa020660. PMID   12362011.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  58. Helgason AR, Tomson T, Lund KE, Galanti R, Ahnve S, Gilljam H (2004). "Factors related to abstinence in a telephone helpline for smoking cessation". Eur J Public Health. 14 (3): 306–10. doi:10.1093/eurpub/14.3.306. PMID   15369039.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  59. Stead, LF; Hartmann-Boyce, J; Perera, R; Lancaster, T (12 August 2013). "Telephone counselling for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD002850. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002850.pub3. PMID   23934971.
  60. Lancaster, T; Stead, LF (31 March 2017). "Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD001292. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001292.pub3. PMID   28361496.
  61. Stead, LF; Koilpillai, P; Lancaster, T (12 October 2015). "Additional behavioural support as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD009670. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009670.pub3. PMID   26457723.
  62. "Quitza - The Ex Smokers Social Network". Quitza. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
  63. Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Norman, Cameron; McKeown, Kyle; Brown, K. Stephen (2015-06-04). "Effect of a Digital Social Media Campaign on Young Adult Smoking Cessation". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 18 (3): 351–60. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv119. ISSN   1462-2203. PMID   26045252.
  64. Stead, LF; Carroll, AJ; Lancaster, T (31 March 2017). "Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD001007. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001007.pub3. PMID   28361497.
  65. Stead LF, Lancaster T (2005). Stead, Lindsay F, ed. "Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD001007. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001007.pub2. PMID   15846610.
  66. Lancaster T, Stead LF (2005). Lancaster, Tim, ed. "Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD001292. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001292.pub2. PMID   15846616.
  67. Lindson-Hawley, N; Thompson, TP; Begh, R (2 March 2015). "Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD006936. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006936.pub3. PMID   25726920.
  68. Hettema, JE; Hendricks, PS (December 2010). "Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation: a meta-analytic review". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 78 (6): 868–84. doi:10.1037/a0021498. PMID   21114344.
  69. Heckman, CJ; Egleston, BL; Hofmann, MT (October 2010). "Efficacy of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Tobacco Control. 19 (5): 410–6. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.033175. PMC   2947553 . PMID   20675688.
  70. Perkins KA, Conklin CA, Levine MD (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation: a practical guidebook to the most effective treatment. New York: Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-95463-1.
  71. Ruiz, F. J. (2010). "A review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) empirical evidence: Correlational, experimental psychopathology, component and outcome studies". International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 10 (1): 125–62.
  72. "The CBQ Method". Smoking Cessation Formula. 2017-03-28. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  73. "About Freedom From Smoking". American Lung Association.
  74. Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, DiClemente CC, Fava J (1988). "Measuring processes of change: applications to the cessation of smoking". J Consult Clin Psychol. 56 (4): 520–8. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.56.4.520. PMID   3198809.
  75. DiClemente CC, Prochaska JO, Fairhurst SK, Velicer WF, Velasquez MM, Rossi JS (1991). "The process of smoking cessation: an analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change" (PDF). J Consult Clin Psychol. 59 (2): 295–304. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.59.2.295. PMID   2030191. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
  76. Velicer WF, Prochaska JO, Rossi JS, Snow MG (1992). "Assessing outcome in smoking cessation studies". Psychol Bull. 111 (1): 23–41. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.111.1.23. PMID   1539088.
  77. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Velicer WF, Rossi JS (1993). "Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation" (PDF). Health Psychol. 12 (5): 399–405. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.12.5.399. PMID   8223364. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
  78. Cahill K, Lancaster T, Green N (2010). Cahill, Kate, ed. "Stage-based interventions for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (11): CD004492. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004492.pub4. PMID   21069681.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  79. Livingstone-Banks, J; Ordóñez-Mena, JM; Hartmann-Boyce, J (9 January 2019). "Print-based self-help interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 1: CD001118. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001118.pub4. PMID   30623970.
  80. "Nicotine Anonymous offers help for those who desire to live free from nicotine".
  81. Glasser, I (February 2010). "Nicotine anonymous may benefit nicotine-dependent individuals". American Journal of Public Health. 100 (2): 196, author reply 196–7. doi:10.2105/ajph.2009.181545. PMC   2804638 . PMID   20019295.
  82. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "MySmokeFree: Your personalized quit experience".
  83. "Slideshow: 13 Best Quit-Smoking Tips Ever". WebMD.
  84. Hendrick, B. [. "Computer is an ally in quit-smoking fight"] Check |url= value (help). WebMD.
  85. Myung SK, McDonnell DD, Kazinets G, Seo HG, Moskowitz JM (2009). "Effects of Web- and computer-based smoking cessation programs: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Arch Intern Med. 169 (10): 929–37. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.109. PMID   19468084.
  86. Civljak, M; Stead, LF; Hartmann-Boyce, J; Sheikh, A; Car, J (10 July 2013). "Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD007078. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007078.pub4. PMID   23839868.
  87. Hutton HE, Wilson LM, Apelberg BJ, Avila Tang E, Odelola O, Bass EB, Chander G (Feb 2011). "A systematic review of randomized controlled trials: web-based interventions for smoking cessation among adolescents, college students, and adults". Nicotine Tob Res. 13 (4): 227–38. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq252. PMID   21350042.
  88. Whittaker, R; McRobbie, H; Bullen, C; Rodgers, A; Gu, Y (10 April 2016). "Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD006611. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006611.pub4. PMID   27060875.
  89. Free, C; Knight, R; Robertson, S; Whittaker, R; Edwards, P; Zhou, W; Rodgers, A; Cairns, J; Kenward, MG; Roberts, I (2 July 2011). "Smoking cessation support delivered via mobile phone text messaging (txt2stop): a single-blind, randomised trial". Lancet. 378 (9785): 49–55. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60701-0. PMC   3143315 . PMID   21722952.
  90. Free, C; Phillips, G; Watson, L; Galli, L; Felix, L; Edwards, P; Patel, V; Haines, A (2013). "The effectiveness of mobile-health technologies to improve health care service delivery processes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". PLOS Medicine. 10 (1): e1001363. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001363. PMC   3566926 . PMID   23458994.
  91. Brendryen H.; Kraft P. (2008). "Happy ending: a randomized controlled trial of a digital multi-media smoking cessation intervention". Addiction. 103 (3): 478–84. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02119.x. PMID   18269367.
  92. Brendryen H.; Drozd F.; Kraft P. (2008). "A digital smoking cessation program delivered through internet and cell phone without nicotine replacement (happy ending): randomized controlled trial". J Med Internet Res. 10 (5): 555. doi:10.2196/jmir.1005. PMC   2630841 . PMID   19087949.
  93. Carr A (2004). The easy way to stop smoking. New York: Sterling. ISBN   978-1-4027-7163-7.
  94. Gonzales D, Redtomahawk D, Pizacani B, Bjornson WG, Spradley J, Allen E, Lees P (2007). "Support for spirituality in smoking cessation: results of pilot survey". Nicotine Tob Res. 9 (2): 299–303. doi:10.1080/14622200601078582. PMID   17365761.
  95. Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I. (2016). "Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 163: S13–S18. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.11.041. PMID   27306725.
  96. Ussher, MH; Taylor, AH; Faulkner, GE (29 August 2014). "Exercise interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD002295. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002295.pub5. PMID   25170798.
  97. 1 2 Bittoun R (2008). "Carbon monoxide meter: The essential clinical tool- the 'stethoscope"-of smoking cessation". Journal of Smoking Cessation. 3 (2): 69–70. doi:10.1375/jsc.3.2.69.
  98. Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Nicholas W, Parker G, van Vunakis H (1984). "Controlled trial of three different anti-smoking interventions in general practice". British Medical Journal. 288 (6429): 1499–1503. doi:10.1136/bmj.288.6429.1499.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  99. Bize, R; Burnand, B; Mueller, Y; Rège-Walther, M; Camain, JY; Cornuz, J (12 December 2012). "Biomedical risk assessment as an aid for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD004705. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004705.pub4. PMID   23235615.
  100. Irving, JM; Clark, EC; Crombie, IK; Smith, WC (January 1988). "Evaluation of a portable measure of expired-air carbon monoxide". Preventive Medicine. 17 (1): 109–15. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(88)90076-x. PMID   3362796.
  101. Florescu A, Ferrence R, Einarson T, Selby P, Soldin O, Koren G (2009). "Methods for quantification of exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke: focus on developmental toxicology". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 31 (1): 14–30. doi:10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181957a3b. PMC   3644554 . PMID   19125149.
  102. McClure, JB (2001). "Are biomarkers a useful aid in smoking cessation? A review and analysis of the literature". Behavioral Medicine. 27 (1): 37–47. doi:10.1080/08964280109595770. PMID   11575171.
  103. 1 2 3 Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael (2015-05-18). "Incentives for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD004307. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004307.pub5. ISSN   1469-493X. PMID   25983287.
  104. Halpern, S.D.; French, B.; Small, D.S.; Saulsgiver, K. (2015-05-13). "Randomized Trial of Four Financial-Incentive Programs for Smoking Cessation". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (22): 2108–2117. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1414293. ISSN   1533-4406. PMC   4471993 . PMID   25970009.
  105. Cahill K, Perera R (2008). Cahill, Kate, ed. "Quit and Win contests for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004986. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004986.pub3. PMID   18843674.
  106. Stead, LF; Buitrago, D; Preciado, N; Sanchez, G; Hartmann-Boyce, J; Lancaster, T (31 May 2013). "Physician advice for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD000165. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000165.pub4. PMID   23728631.
  107. Maguire CP, Ryan J, Kelly A, O'Neill D, Coakley D, Walsh JB (2000). "Do patient age and medical condition influence medical advice to stop smoking?". Age Ageing. 29 (3): 264–6. doi:10.1093/ageing/29.3.264. PMID   10855911.
  108. Ossip-Klein DJ, McIntosh S, Utman C, Burton K, Spada J, Guido J (2000). "Smokers ages 50+: who gets physician advice to quit?" (PDF). Prev Med. 31 (4): 364–9. doi:10.1006/pmed.2000.0721. PMID   11006061.[ permanent dead link ]
  109. Rice, VH; Hartmann-Boyce, J; Stead, LF (12 August 2013). "Nursing interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD001188. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001188.pub4. PMID   23939719.
  110. Sinclair, HK; Bond, CM; Stead, LF (2004). "Community pharmacy personnel interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD003698. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003698.pub2. PMID   14974031.
  111. Carr AB, Ebbert J. interventions for tobacco cessation in the dental setting. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD005084. doi : 10.1002/14651858.CD005084.pub3
  112. Carson KV, Verbiest ME, Crone MR, et al. (2012). Carson KV, ed. "Training health professionals in smoking cessation" (PDF). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 5 (5): CD000214. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000214.pub2. PMID   22592671.
  113. Reda AA, Kaper J, Fikrelter H, Severens JL, van Schayck CP (2009). Van Schayck, Constant Paul, ed. "Healthcare financing systems for increasing the use of tobacco dependence treatment". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD004305. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004305.pub3. PMID   19370599.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  114. Papadakis S, McDonald P, Mullen KA, Reid R, Skulsky K, Pipe A (2010). "Strategies to increase the delivery of smoking cessation treatments in primary care settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Prev Med. 51 (3–4): 199–213. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.06.007. PMID   20600264.
  115. McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden (2014). "Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction". The Cochrane Library. 12 (12): CD010216. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub2. PMID   25515689.
  116. Camenga, Deepa R.; Tindle, Hilary A. (2018). "Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use in High-Risk Populations". Medical Clinics of North America. 102 (4): 765–779. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2018.03.002. ISSN   0025-7125. PMID   29933828.
  117. Formanek, Perry; Salisbury-Afshar, Elizabeth; Afshar, Majid (2018). "Helping Patients With ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD to Quit Smoking". American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 72 (2): 255–266. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.01.057. ISSN   0272-6386. PMC   6057817 . PMID   29661542.
  118. Royal College of Physicians (25 June 2014). "RCP statement on e-cigarettes". RCP London.
  119. McNeill, A; Brose, LS; Calder, R; Hitchman, SC; Hajek, P; McRobbie, H (August 2015). "E-cigarettes: an evidence update" (PDF). UK: Public Health England. p. 6.
  120. He, Dong; Berg, John E.; Høstmark, Arne T. (March 1997). "Effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation or reduction for motivated smokers". Preventive Medicine. 26 (2): 208–214. doi:10.1006/pmed.1996.0125. PMID   9085389.
  121. White, AR; Rampes, H; Liu, JP; Stead, LF; Campbell, J (23 January 2014). "Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1 (1): CD000009. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000009.pub4. PMID   24459016.
  122. US National Library of Medicine. "Smoking - tips on how to quit: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia".
  123. "Hypnosis for Quitting Smoking". WebMD. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  124. Barnes J, Dong CY, McRobbie H, Walker N, Mehta M, Stead LF (2010). Barnes, Jo, ed. "Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (10): CD001008. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001008.pub2. PMID   20927723.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  125. Johnson, D.L.; Karkut, R.T. (October 1994). "Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion". Psychological Reports. 75 (2): 851–7. doi:10.2466/pr0.1994.75.2.851. PMID   7862796.
  126. Law, Malcolm; Tang, Jin Ling (1995). "An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking". Arch Intern Med. 155 (18): 1933–1941. doi:10.1001/archinte.1995.00430180025004. PMID   7575046.
  127. Carmody TP, Duncan C, Simon JA, Solkowitz S, Huggins J, Lee S, Delucchi K (2008). "Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a randomized trial". Nicotine Tob Res. 10 (5): 811–8. doi:10.1080/14622200802023833. PMID   18569754.
  128. Mayo Clinic. "St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) Evidence - Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic.
  129. Sood, A; Ebbert, JO; Prasad, K; Croghan, IT; Bauer, B; Schroeder, DR (July 2010). "A randomized clinical trial of St. John's wort for smoking cessation". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine . 16 (7): 761–7. doi:10.1089/acm.2009.0445. PMC   3110810 . PMID   20590478.
  130. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "FDA Poisonous Plant Database".
  131. SCENIHR. Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products (PDF) (Report). p. 103.
  132. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). "Health effects of smokeless tobacco products" (PDF).
  133. Popova, L; Ling, PM (May 2013). "Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study". American Journal of Public Health. 103 (5): 923–30. doi:10.2105/ajph.2012.301070. PMC   3661190 . PMID   23488521.
  134. Besson, Morgane; Forget, Benoît (2016). "Cognitive Dysfunction, Affective States, and Vulnerability to Nicotine Addiction: A Multifactorial Perspective". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 160. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00160. ISSN   1664-0640. PMC   5030478 . PMID   27708591. CC-BY-icon-80x15.png  This article incorporates text by Morgane Besson and Benoît Forget available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  135. 1 2 3 Stanton, A; Grimshaw, G (23 August 2013). "Tobacco cessation interventions for young people". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD003289. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003289.pub5. PMID   23975659.
  136. Phert, L. "Intensive Counseling of Students by School Nurses Does Not Have Larger Impact on Long-Term Smoking Rates Than Briefer Sessions | AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange". Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  137. Davis, KC; Farrelly, MC; Messeri, P; Duke, J (February 2009). "The impact of national smoking prevention campaigns on tobacco-related beliefs, intentions to smoke and smoking initiation: results from a longitudinal survey of youth in the United States". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 6 (2): 722–40. doi:10.3390/ijerph6020722. PMC   2672353 . PMID   19440412.
  138. Allen, JA; Duke, JC; Davis, KC; Kim, AE; Nonnemaker, JM; Farrelly, MC (Nov–Dec 2015). "Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review". American Journal of Health Promotion : AJHP. 30 (2): e71–82. doi:10.4278/ajhp.130510-lit-237. PMID   25372236.
  139. Chamberlain, Catherine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Porter, Jessie; Coleman, Tim; Perlen, Susan M.; Thomas, James; McKenzie, Joanne E. (2017-02-14). "Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2: CD001055. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001055.pub5. ISSN   1469-493X. PMC   4022453 . PMID   28196405.
  140. Bowen, M (25 February 2013). "Pregnancy and smoking". Netdoctor. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  141. de Leon, Jose; Diaz, Francisco J. (July 2005). "A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors". Schizophrenia Research. 76 (2–3): 135–157. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.010. PMID   15949648.
  142. Keltner, Norman L.; Grant, Joan S. (November 2006). "Smoke, Smoke, Smoke That Cigarette". Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 42 (4): 256–261. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2006.00085.x. PMID   17107571.
  143. Cahill, K; Lancaster, T (26 February 2014). "Workplace interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003440. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003440.pub4. PMID   24570145.
  144. Leeks KD, Hopkins DP, Soler RE, Aten A, Chattopadhyay SK; Task Force on Community Preventive Services (2010). "Worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use. A systematic review" (PDF). Am J Prev Med. 38 (2 Suppl): S263–74. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.034. PMID   20117611.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  145. 1 2 West R, Shiffman S (2007). Fast facts: smoking cessation (2nd ed.). Abingdon, England: Health Press Ltd. ISBN   978-1-903734-98-8.
  146. 1 2 Rigotti, NA; Clair, C; Munafò, MR; Stead, LF (16 May 2012). "Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD001837. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001837.pub3. PMC   4498489 . PMID   22592676.
  147. 1 2 Thomsen, T; Villebro, N; Møller, AM (27 March 2014). "Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD002294. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002294.pub4. PMID   24671929.
  148. Caponnetto P; Russo C; Bruno CM; Alamo A; Amaradio MD; Polosa R. (March 2013). "Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence". Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease. 79 (1): 12–19. doi:10.4081/monaldi.2013.104. PMID   23741941.
  149. 1 2 3 4 Baggett, Travis P.; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Rigotti, Nancy A. (November 2013). "Homelessness, Cigarette Smoking, and Desire to Quit: Results from a U.S. National Study". Addiction. 108 (11): 2009–2018. doi:10.1111/add.12292. ISSN   0965-2140. PMC   3797258 . PMID   23834157.
  150. 1 2 "Other Vulnerable Populations | Smoking Cessation Leadership Center". Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  151. 1 2 3 "National Coalition for the Homeless". Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  152. Health, CDC's Office on Smoking and. "CDC - Fact Sheet - Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States - Smoking & Tobacco Use". Smoking and Tobacco Use. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  153. Baggett, Travis P.; Tobey, Matthew L.; Rigotti, Nancy A. (2013-07-18). "Tobacco Use among Homeless People — Addressing the Neglected Addiction". New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (3): 201–204. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1301935. ISSN   0028-4793. PMID   23863048.
  154. Lemmens, V; Oenema, A; Knut, IK; Brug, J (November 2008). "Effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions among adults: a systematic review of reviews". European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 17 (6): 535–44. doi:10.1097/cej.0b013e3282f75e48. PMID   18941375.
  155. Naqvi NH, Rudrauf D, Damasio H, Bechara A (2007). "Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking". Science. 315 (5811): 531–4. Bibcode:2007Sci...315..531N. doi:10.1126/science.1135926. PMC   3698854 . PMID   17255515.
  156. King G, Yerger VB, Whembolua GL, Bendel RB, Kittles R, Moolchan ET (2009). "Link between facultative melanin and tobacco use among African Americans" (PDF). Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 92 (4): 589–96. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2009.02.011. PMID   19268687. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  157. Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2008). "The collective dynamics of smoking in a large social network". N Engl J Med. 358 (21): 2249–58. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa0706154. PMC   2822344 . PMID   18499567.
  158. Park, EW; Tudiver, FG; Campbell, T (11 July 2012). "Enhancing partner support to improve smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD002928. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002928.pub3. PMID   22786483.
  159. Peoples, Clayton D.; Sigillo, Alexandra E.; Green, Morgan; Miller, Monica K. (2012). "Friendship and Conformity in Group Opinions: Juror Verdict Change in Mock Juries". Sociological Spectrum. 32 (2): 178–193. doi:10.1080/02732173.2012.646163.
  160. Hitchman, SC; Fong, GT; Zanna, MP; Thrasher, JF; Laux, FL (December 2014). "The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors. 28 (4): 1144–52. doi:10.1037/a0036483. PMC   4266625 . PMID   24841185.
  161. American Cancer Society. "Guide to Quitting Smoking". Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  162. 1 2 Glassman AH, Helzer JE, Covey LS, Cottler LB, Stetner F, Tipp JE, Johnson J (1990). "Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression". JAMA. 264 (12): 1546–9. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03450120058029. PMID   2395194.
  163. Condiotte MM, Lichtenstein E (1981). "Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation programs". J Consult Clin Psychol. 49 (5): 648–58. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.49.5.648. PMID   7287974.
  164. Elfeddali, I; Bolman, C; Candel, MJ; Wiers, RW; De Vries, H (February 2012). "The role of self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and preparatory planning in predicting short-term smoking relapse". British Journal of Health Psychology. 17 (1): 185–201. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8287.2011.02032.x. PMID   22107073.
  165. Shiffman S (1982). "Relapse following smoking cessation: a situational analysis". J Consult Clin Psychol. 50 (1): 71–86. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.50.1.71. PMID   7056922.
  166. 1 2 Livingstone-Banks, J; Norris, E; Hartmann-Boyce, J; West, R; Jarvis, M; Hajek, P (13 February 2019). "Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2: CD003999. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003999.pub5. PMID   30758045.
  167. Agboola, SA; Coleman, T; McNeill, A; Leonardi-Bee, J (July 2015). "Abstinence and relapse among smokers who use varenicline in a quit attempt-a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials". Addiction. 110 (7): 1182–93. doi:10.1111/add.12941. PMID   25846123.
  168. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of the Northwest (2008). Cultivating Health: Freedom From Tobacco Kit. Kaiser Permanente. ISBN   978-0-9744864-8-2.[ page needed ]
  169. 1 2 Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T (2007). Hughes, John R, ed. "Antidepressants for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD000031. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000031.pub3. PMID   17253443.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  170. H.-J. Aubin; A. Farley; D. Lycett; P. Lahmek; P. Aveyard. (2012). "Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 345 (345): e4439. doi:10.1136/bmj.e4439. PMC   3393785 . PMID   22782848.
  171. Vanni H, Kazeros A, Wang R, Harvey BG, Ferris B, De BP, Carolan BJ, Hübner RH, O'Connor TP, Crystal RG (2009). "Cigarette smoking induces overexpression of a fat-depleting gene AZGP1 in the human". Chest. 135 (5): 1197–208. doi:10.1378/chest.08-1024. PMC   2679098 . PMID   19188554.
  172. 1 2 Jo YH, Talmage DA, Role LW (2002). "Nicotinic receptor-mediated effects on appetite and food intake". J Neurobiol. 53 (4): 618–32. doi:10.1002/neu.10147. PMC   2367209 . PMID   12436425.
  173. Klag MJ (1999). Johns Hopkins family health book. New York: HarperCollins. p. 86. ISBN   978-0-06-270149-7.
  174. Farley, Amanda C.; Hajek, Peter; Lycett, Deborah; Aveyard, Paul (2012-01-18). "Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD006219. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006219.pub3. ISSN   1469-493X. PMID   22258966.
  175. Covey LS, Glassman AH, Stetner F (1997). "Major depression following smoking cessation". Am J Psychiatry. 154 (2): 263–5. doi:10.1176/ajp.154.2.263. PMID   9016279.
  176. Shahab, L; Andrew, S; West, R (January 2014). "Changes in prevalence of depression and anxiety following smoking cessation: results from an international cohort study (ATTEMPT)" (PDF). Psychological Medicine. 44 (1): 127–41. doi:10.1017/s0033291713000391. PMID   23507203.
  177. Borrelli B, Bock B, King T, Pinto B, Marcus BH (1996). "The impact of depression on smoking cessation in women". Am J Prev Med. 12 (5): 378–87. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(18)30295-2. PMID   8909649.
  178. Máirtín S. McDermott; Theresa M. Marteau; Gareth J. Hollands; Matthew Hankins; Paul Aveyard. "Change in anxiety following successful and unsuccessful attempts at smoking cessation: cohort study". BJP.
  179. American Cancer Society. "Benefits of Quitting Smoking Over Time". Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  180. Peto R, Darby S, Deo H, Silcocks P, Whitley E, Doll R (2000). "Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies". BMJ. 321 (7257): 323–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7257.323. PMC   27446 . PMID   10926586.
  181. 1 2 Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I (2004). "Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors". BMJ. 328 (7455): 1519. doi:10.1136/bmj.38142.554479.AE. PMC   437139 . PMID   15213107.
  182. Anthonisen NR, Skeans MA, Wise RA, Manfreda J, Kanner RE, Connett JE; Lung Health Study Research Group (2005). "The effects of a smoking cessation intervention on 14.5-year mortality: a randomized clinical trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. 142 (4): 233–9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-142-4-200502150-00005. PMID   15710956.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  183. Taghizadeh, N; Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM (7 April 2016). "Lifetime Smoking History and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Cohort Study with 43 Years of Follow-Up". PLOS ONE. 11 (4): e0153310. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1153310T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153310. PMC   4824471 . PMID   27055053.
  184. Mills, E; Eyawo, O; Lockhart, I; Kelly, S; Wu, P; Ebbert, JO (February 2011). "Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The American Journal of Medicine. 124 (2): 144–154.e8. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.09.013. PMID   21295194.
  185. Cromwell J, Bartosch WJ, Fiore MC, Hasselblad V, Baker T (1997). "Cost-effectiveness of the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline for smoking cessation". JAMA. 278 (21): 1759–66. doi:10.1001/jama.278.21.1759. PMID   9388153.
  186. Hoogendoorn M, Feenstra TL, Hoogenveen RT, Rutten-van Mölken MP (2010). "Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD". Thorax. 65 (8): 711–8. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.131631. PMID   20685746.
  187. Bauld L, Boyd KA, Briggs AH, Chesterman J, Ferguson J, Judge K, Hiscock R (2011). "One-year outcomes and a cost-effectiveness analysis for smokers accessing group-based and pharmacy-led cessation services". Nicotine Tob Res. 13 (2): 135–45. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq222. PMID   21196451.
  188. Schiaffino A, Fernández E, Kunst A, Borrell C, García M, Borràs JM, Mackenbach JP (2007). "Time trends and educational differences in the incidence of quitting smoking in Spain (1965–2000)". Prev Med. 45 (2–3): 226–32. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.05.009. PMID   17604832.
  189. Fowkes FJ, Stewart MC, Fowkes FG, Amos A, Price JF (2008). "Scottish smoke-free legislation and trends in smoking cessation". Addiction. 103 (11): 1888–95. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02350.x. PMID   19032538.
  190. Federico B, Costa G, Ricciardi W, Kunst AE (2009). "Educational inequalities in smoking cessation trends in Italy, 1982–2002". Tob Control. 18 (5): 393–8. doi:10.1136/tc.2008.029280. PMID   19617220.
  191. Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Guo, Yirui; Yun, Jianying; Wang, Shaokun; Miyasaka, Takafumi (2009). "Cigarette smoking among adults and trends in smoking cessation - United States, 2008". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 58 (44): 1227–32. PMID   19910909.
  192. Qian J, Cai M, Gao J, Tang S, Xu L, Critchley JA (2010). "Trends in smoking and quitting in China from 1993 to 2003: National Health Service Survey data". Bull World Health Organ. 88 (10): 769–76. doi:10.2471/BLT.09.064709. PMC   2947036 . PMID   20931062.
  193. Martin, Anya (May 13, 2010). "What it takes to quit smoking". MarketWatch. Dow Jones. p. 2. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  194. Health, CDC's Office on Smoking and. "CDC - Fact Sheet - Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States - Smoking & Tobacco Use". Smoking and Tobacco Use. Retrieved 21 July 2016.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Cigarette small roll of cut tobacco designed to be smoked

A cigarette, also known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material, usually tobacco, that is rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled [tobacco] stems, stalks, scraps, collected dust, and floor sweepings", to which are added glue, chemicals and fillers; the product is then sprayed with nicotine that was extracted from the tobacco scraps, and shaped into curls. The cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, which is held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered, although this does not make them safer. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, and other health problems.

Nicotine replacement therapy

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco. It is used to help with quitting smoking or stopping chewing tobacco. It increases the chance of quitting smoking by about 50% to 70%. Often it is used along with other behavioral techniques. NRT has also been used to treat ulcerative colitis. Types of NRT include the adhesive patch, chewing gum, lozenges, nose spray, and inhaler. The use of more than one type of NRT at a time may increase effectiveness.

Health effects of tobacco circumstances, mechanisms, and factors of tobacco consumption on human health

Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history. Research has focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking.

Varenicline pharmaceutical drug

Varenicline is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction. It reduces both craving for and decreases the pleasurable effects of cigarettes and other tobacco products.

NicVAX is an experimental conjugate vaccine intended to reduce or eliminate physical dependence to nicotine. According to the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, NicVAX can potentially be used to inoculate against nicotine addiction. This proprietary vaccine is being developed by Nabi Biopharmaceuticals of Rockville, MD. with the support from the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. NicVAX consists of the hapten 3'-aminomethylnicotine which has been conjugated (attached) to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A.

Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks to individuals and wider society associated with using tobacco products. It is an example of the concept of harm reduction, a strategy for dealing with the abuse of other drugs. Tobacco smoking is widely acknowledged as a leading cause of illness and death, and preventing smoking is vital to public health.

Electronic cigarette electronic cigarette

An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the experience of smoking a cigarette. It works by heating a liquid which generates an aerosol, or "vapor", that is inhaled by the user. Using e-cigarettes is commonly referred to as vaping. The liquid in the e-cigarette, called e-liquid, or e-juice, is usually made of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings. Not all e-liquids contain nicotine.

Nicotine dependence state of dependence upon nicotine

Nicotine dependence is a state of dependence upon nicotine. Nicotine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disease defined as a compulsive craving to use the drug, despite harmful social consequences. Tolerance is another component of drug dependence. Nicotine dependence develops over time as a person continues to use nicotine. Nicotine dependence is a serious public health concern due to it being one of the leading causes of avoidable deaths worldwide.

Nicotine Anonymous (NicA) is a twelve-step program for people desiring to quit smoking and live free of nicotine. As of July 2017, there are over 700 face-to-face meetings in 32 countries worldwide with the majority of these meetings occurring in the United States, Iran, India, Canada, Brazil, the United Kingdom, Australia, Russia and in various online community and social media platforms.. NicA maintains that total abstinence from nicotine is necessary for recovery. NicA defines abstinence as “a state that begins when all use of nicotine ceases.

Bronchitis type of lower respiratory disease

Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi in the lungs. Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort. Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.

Ventilated cigarette type of cigarette

Ventilated cigarettes are considered to have a milder flavor than regular cigarettes. These cigarette brands may be listed as having lower levels of tar ("low-tar"), nicotine, or other chemicals as "inhaled" by a "smoking machine". However, the scientific evidence is that switching from regular to light or low-tar cigarettes does not reduce the health risks of smoking or lower the smoker's exposure to the nicotine, tar, and carcinogens present in cigarette smoke.

Studies across 20 countries show a strong association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking, whereby people with schizophrenia are much more likely to smoke than those without the disease. For example, in the United States, 80% or more of people with schizophrenia smoke, compared to 20% of the general population in 2006.

The scientific community in United States and Europe are primarily concerned with the possible effect of electronic cigarette use on public health. There is concern among public health experts that e-cigarettes could renormalize smoking, weaken measures to control tobacco, and serve as a gateway for smoking among youth. The public health community is divided over whether to support e-cigarettes, because their safety and efficacy for quitting smoking is unclear. Many in the public health community acknowledge the potential for their quitting smoking and decreasing harm benefits, but there remains a concern over their long-term safety and potential for a new era of users to get addicted to nicotine and then tobacco. There is concern among tobacco control academics and advocates that prevalent universal vaping "will bring its own distinct but as yet unknown health risks in the same way tobacco smoking did, as a result of chronic exposure", among other things.

Jed Eugene Rose, Ph.D. is an American academic professor, inventor and researcher in the field of nicotine and smoking cessation. Rose is presently the President and CEO of the Rose Research Center, LLC in Raleigh, North Carolina. Additionally, he is the Director of the Duke Center for Smoking Cessation at Duke University Medical Center.

An electrically-heated smoking system, also known as a heated tobacco product (HTP) or heat-not-burn tobacco product (HnB), uses an electric heating element to produce a smoke that contains nicotine, tar, other chemicals, and particulates. These products may match some of the behavioral aspects of conventional smoking. Tobacco companies claim these products are less harmful to consumers than other types of cigarettes, but "there is no evidence to demonstrate that HTPs are less harmful than conventional tobacco products", according to the World Health Organization.