Asteroideae

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Asteroideae
Aster amellus Sturm6-cropped.jpg
Illustration of Aster amellus from tribe Astereae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Lindl.
Tribes

Asteroideae is a subfamily of the plant family Asteraceae. It contains about 70% of the species of the family. [1] It is made of several tribes, including Astereae, Calenduleae, Eupatorieae, Gnaphalieae, Heliantheae, Senecioneae and Tageteae. Asteroideae contains plants found all over the world, many of which are shrubby. There are about 1,135 genera and 17,200 species within this subfamily; the largest genera by number of species are Helichrysum (500-600) and Artemisia (550). Asteroideae is said to have begun approximately 46-36.5 million years ago. [2]

Contents

Tribes

This subfamily is composed of 21 tribes that are broken into 3 supertribes: Senecionodae, Asterodae, and Helianthodae. Senecioneae contains about 120 genera and more than 3200 species that are found in more temperate areas. [3] Asterodae contains many economically important plants such as the chrysanthemums, common daisy, and the asters. The third super tribe is the Helianthodae, which is the largest of the three, containing 16 of the 21 tribes. [4]

Common characteristics

This family will often have radiate style heads but some could have discoid or disciform. They contain ray florets that are three lobed and are also considered perfect flower implying that it is bisexual. Many contain stigmatic surfaces that are separated by two marginal bands and terminal sterile appendages with sweeping hairs. [5]

Uses

The subfamily Asteroideae has many genera within the tribes that have economic uses. The Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Guizotia abyssinica (niger seed) are all used as oil seed crops. Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon) is used for culinary herb and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) is a rubber source. Some of the other genera are used as ornamentals; those are Dendranthema spp. (chrysanthemum), Callistephus, Cosmos, Tagetes (marigold), and many others. [6]

Classification

Since 2004, the 21 tribes have been grouped into three supertribes: [1]

Related Research Articles

Asteraceae Family of flowering plants

Asteraceae or Compositae, is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

<i>Aster</i> (genus) Genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae

Aster is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Its circumscription has been narrowed, and it now encompasses around 180 species, all but one of which are restricted to Eurasia; many species formerly in Aster are now in other genera of the tribe Astereae. Aster amellus is the type species of the genus and the family Asteraceae.

Senecioneae Tribe of flowering plants

Senecioneae is the largest tribe of the Asteraceae, or the sunflower family, comprising about 150 genera and 3,000 species. Almost one-third of the species in this tribe are placed in the genus Senecio. Its members exhibit probably the widest possible range of form to be found in the entire plant kingdom, and include annuals, minute creeping alpines, perennial herbs, shrubs, climbers, succulents, trees, and semiaquatic plants.

Harold Ernest Robinson is an American botanist and an entomologist.

Heliantheae Tribe of sunflower plants

The Heliantheae are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). With some 190 genera and nearly 2500 recognized species, only the tribes Senecioneae and Astereae are larger. The name is derived from the genus Helianthus, which is Greek for sun flower. Most genera and species are found in North America and South America, particularly in Mexico. A few genera are pantropical.

Gnaphalieae A tribe of flowering plants belonging to the aster, daisy, and sunflower family

The Gnaphalieae are a tribe of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. It is most closely related to the tribes Anthemideae, Astereae, and Calenduleae.

Eupatorieae Tribe of plants

Eupatorieae is a tribe of over 2000 species of plants in the aster family. Most of the species are native to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas of the Americas, but some are found elsewhere. Well-known members are Stevia rebaudiana, a number of medicinal plants (Eupatorium), and a variety of late summer to autumn blooming garden flowers, including Ageratum (flossflower), Conoclinium (mistflower), and Liatris.

Tageteae

Tageteae is a tribe of the plant family Asteraceae. It consists of approximately 216 species divided among 28 genera. All are found in the New World, with a center of diversity in the Mexican highlands. The type genus is Tagetes (marigolds).

Astereae Tribe of plants

Astereae is a tribe of plants in the family Asteraceae that includes annuals, biennials, perennials, subshrubs, shrubs, and trees. Plants within the tribe are present nearly worldwide divided into 170 genera and more than 2,800 species, making it the second-largest tribe in the family behind Senecioneae. They are found primarily in temperate regions of the world.

<i>Brachyscome</i>

Brachyscome is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae. Most are endemic to Australia, and a few occur in New Zealand and New Guinea.

Calenduleae

Calenduleae is a flowering plant tribe of the family Asteraceae. Calenduleae has been widely recognized since Alexandre de Cassini in the early 19th century. There are eight genera and over 110 species, mostly found in South Africa.

Anthemideae

Anthemideae is a tribe of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae, and the subfamily Asteroideae. They are distributed worldwide with concentrations in central Asia, the Mediterranean Basin, and southern Africa.

Coreopsideae

Coreopsideae is a tribe of flowering plants belonging to the Asteroideae subfamily. It includes widely cultivated genera such as Cosmos and Dahlia.

<i>Simsia</i>

Simsia is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family. It includes annuals, herbaceous perennials, and shrubs. They range from the western United States south through Central and South America to Argentina, with the center of diversity occurring in Mexico. The genus is named for British physician and botanist John Sims (1749–1831). Although some species are relatively rare, others have become common weeds that line the roadsides and fields of Mexico, often forming dense stands mixed with Tithonia and other Asteraceae. Some species are known by the common name bushsunflower.

<i>Sphaeromeria</i>

Sphaeromeria is a genus of flowering plants in the chamomile tribe within the sunflower family.

Cymbolaena is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae, containing the single species Cymbolaena griffithii. It is native to Asia, where it is distributed from Turkey to Pakistan. It is one of several genera in "the Filago group," and some authors include it within the genus Filago.

Helianthodae Supertribe of flowering plants

Helianthodae is a supertribe in the family Asteraceae, the aster family, containing the tribes Anthroismeae, Coreopsideae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Heliantheae, Inuleae, and Tageteae. This supertribe was discovered in 2004 after studying the DNA of plants in the family Asteraceae. The authors used a broad definition of Heliantheae including Bahieae, Chaenactideae, Madieae, Millerieae, Perityleae, and Polymnieae.

<i>Helianthus strumosus</i> Species of sunflower

Helianthus strumosus, the pale-leaf woodland sunflower, is a species of sunflower native to North America east of the Great Plains and is in the family Asteraceae. It is a native perennial sunflower that resembles other members of this family including the Pale Sunflower, Woodland Sunflower, Hispid Sunflower, and Jerusalem Artichoke. Pale-leaf sunflowers can be found in a diverse range of habitats including woodland areas, prairies, and meadows, providing that these habitats have access to partial sun.

Tagetes foetidissima is a Mesoamerican species of marigolds in the sunflower family. It is widespread across much of Mexico and Central America from Tamaulipas to Costa Rica. Common name is "flor de muerto," Spanish for "death flower."

Tagetes microglossa is a Mesoamerican species of marigolds in the sunflower family. It grows in Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador, as well as in central and southern Mexico, from Jalisco to Chiapas.

References

  1. 1 2 Asteraceae, Tree of Life Web Project
  2. Huang, C. -H; Zhang, C; Liu, M; Hu, Y; Gao, T; Qi, J; Ma, H (2016). "Multiple polyploidization events across Asteraceae with two nested events in the early history revealed by nuclear phylogenomics". Mol. Biol. Evol. 33 (11): 2820–2835. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw157. PMC   5062320 . PMID   27604225.
  3. Barkley, Theodore M.; Brouillet, Luc; Strother, John L. "Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 19, 20, and 21. New York and Oxford via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. Panero, J.L; Crozier, B.S. "Asteraceae: Sunflowers, daisies". Tree of Life. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  5. Lindley, J. "The Vegetable Kingdom".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. Murrell, Z.E (2010). Vascular Plant Taxonomy. Kendall Hunt Publishing Compant.
  7. Fernandez, I (2001), "A Phylogenetic Analysis of Doronicum (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) Based on Morphological, Nuclear Ribosomal (ITS), and Chloroplast (trnL-F) Evidence", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 20 (1): 41–64, CiteSeerX   10.1.1.331.4339 , doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.0954, PMID   11421647
  8. Anderberg, A (2005), "Evolutionary relationships in the Asteraceae tribe Inuleae (incl. Plucheeae) evidenced by DNA sequences of F; with notes on the systematic positions of some aberrant genera", Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 5 (2): 135–146, doi:10.1016/j.ode.2004.10.015