Asteroideae

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Asteroideae
Aster amellus Sturm6-cropped.jpg
Illustration of Aster amellus from tribe Astereae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Lindl.
Tribes

Asteroideae is a subfamily of the plant family Asteraceae. It contains about 70% of the species of the family. [1] It is made of several tribes, including Astereae, Calenduleae, Eupatorieae, Gnaphalieae, Heliantheae, Senecioneae and Tageteae. Asteroideae contains plants found all over the world, many of which are shrubby. There are about 1,135 genera and 17,200 species within this subfamily; the largest genera by number of species are Helichrysum (500–600) and Artemisia (550).

Contents

Asteroideae is said to date back to approximately 46–36.5 million years ago. [2]

Common characteristics

This family will often have radiate style heads but some could have discoid or disciform. They contain ray florets that are three lobed and are also considered perfect flower implying that it is bisexual. Many contain stigmatic surfaces that are separated by two marginal bands and terminal sterile appendages with sweeping hairs. [3]

Taxonomy

This subfamily is composed of 21 tribes that are broken into 3 supertribes: Senecionodae, Asterodae, and Helianthodae. Senecioneae contains about 120 genera and more than 3,200 species that are found in more temperate areas. [4] Asterodae contains many economically important plants such as the chrysanthemums, common daisy, and the asters. The third super tribe is the Helianthodae, which is the largest of the three, containing 16 of the 21 tribes. [5]

Since 2004, the 21 tribes have been grouped into three supertribes: [1] [6] [7]

Uses

The subfamily Asteroideae has many genera within the tribes that have economic uses. Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and Guizotia abyssinica (niger seed) are all used as oil seed crops. Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon) is used as a culinary herb and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) is a rubber source. Some of the other genera are used as ornamentals; those are Dendranthema spp. (chrysanthemum), Callistephus, Cosmos, Tagetes (marigold), and many others. [10]

Related Research Articles

Asteraceae Large family of flowering plants

The family Asteraceae, alternatively Compositae, consists of over 32,000 known species of flowering plants in over 1,900 genera within the order Asterales. Commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family, Compositae were first described in the year 1740. The number of species in Asteraceae is rivaled only by the Orchidaceae, and which is the larger family is unclear as the quantity of extant species in each family is unknown.

<i>Aster</i> (genus) Genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae

Aster is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Its circumscription has been narrowed, and it now encompasses around 170 species, all but one of which are restricted to Eurasia; many species formerly in Aster are now in other genera of the tribe Astereae. Aster amellus is the type species of the genus and the family Asteraceae.

<i>Helichrysum</i> Genus of flowering plants

The genus Helichrysum consists of an estimated 600 species of flowering plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). The type species is Helichrysum orientale. They often go by the names everlasting, immortelle, and strawflower. The name is derived from the Greek words ἑλίσσω and χρῡσός.

Senecioneae Tribe of flowering plants

Senecioneae is the largest tribe of the Asteraceae, or the sunflower family, comprising about 150 genera and 3,000 species. Almost one-third of the species in this tribe are placed in the genus Senecio. Its members exhibit probably the widest possible range of form to be found in the entire plant kingdom, and include annuals, minute creeping alpines, herbaceous and evergreen perennials, shrubs, climbers, succulents, trees, and semiaquatic plants.

Harold Ernest Robinson was an American botanist and an entomologist.

Heliantheae Tribe of sunflower plants

The Heliantheae are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). With some 190 genera and nearly 2500 recognized species, only the tribes Senecioneae and Astereae are larger. The name is derived from the genus Helianthus, which is Greek for sun flower. Most genera and species are found in North America and South America. A few genera are pantropical.

Gnaphalieae A tribe of flowering plants belonging to the aster, daisy, and sunflower family

The Gnaphalieae are a tribe of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. It is most closely related to the tribes Anthemideae, Astereae, and Calenduleae.

Eupatorieae Tribe of plants

Eupatorieae is a tribe of over 2000 species of plants in the aster family. Most of the species are native to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas of the Americas, but some are found elsewhere. Well-known members are Stevia rebaudiana, a number of medicinal plants (Eupatorium), and a variety of late summer to autumn blooming garden flowers, including Ageratum (flossflower), Conoclinium (mistflower), and Liatris.

<i>Doronicum</i> Genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae

Doronicum is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, known as leopard's bane. They are all herbaceous perennials native to Europe, southwest Asia and Siberia. They produce yellow, daisy-like flowerheads in spring and summer.

Tageteae Tribe of flowering plants

Tageteae is a tribe of the plant family Asteraceae. It consists of approximately 216 species divided among 28 genera. All are found in the New World, with a center of diversity in the Mexican highlands. The type genus is Tagetes (marigolds).

Astereae Tribe of plants

Astereae is a tribe of plants in the family Asteraceae that includes annuals, biennials, perennials, subshrubs, shrubs, and trees. Plants within the tribe are present nearly worldwide divided into 170 genera and more than 2,800 species, making it the second-largest tribe in the family behind Senecioneae. They are found primarily in temperate regions of the world.

Pappobolus is a genus of flowering plant in the sunflower family native to the Andes Mountains of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

<i>Viguiera</i> Genus of flowering plants

Viguiera is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. The name honours French physician L. G. Alexandre Viguier (1790–1867). It contains around 150 species, which are commonly known as goldeneyes and are native to the New World. These are herbs to bushy shrubs that bear yellow or orange daisy-like flowers.

Carduoideae Subfamily of plants in the family Asteraceae

Carduoideae is the thistle subfamily of the Asteraceae, or sunflower family, of flowering plants. It comprises a number of tribes in various circumscriptions of the family, in addition to the Cynareae.

Anthemideae Tribe of flowering plants

Anthemideae is a tribe of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae, and the subfamily Asteroideae. They are distributed worldwide with concentrations in central Asia, the Mediterranean Basin, and southern Africa. Most species of plant known as chamomile belong to genera of this tribe.

Inuleae Tribe of flowering plants

Inuleae is a tribe of flowering plants in the subfamily Asteroideae.

Plucheeae Tribe of flowering plants

Plucheeae, sometimes also spelt as Plucheae, is a tribe of flowering plants in the subfamily Asteroideae.

<i>Simsia</i>

Simsia is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family. It includes annuals, herbaceous perennials, and shrubs. They range from the western United States south through Central and South America to Argentina, with the center of diversity occurring in Mexico. The genus is named for British physician and botanist John Sims (1749–1831). Although some species are relatively rare, others have become common weeds that line the roadsides and fields of Mexico, often forming dense stands mixed with Tithonia and other Asteraceae. Some species are known by the common name bushsunflower.

Tagetes foetidissima is a Mesoamerican species of marigolds in the sunflower family. It is widespread across much of Mexico and Central America from Tamaulipas to Costa Rica. Common name is "flor de muerto," Spanish for "death flower."

Gymnarrhenoideae Subfamily of flowering plants

Gymnarrhenoideae is a subfamily with in the daisy family, with only one tribe, the Gymnarrheneae. Two very different species have been assigned to it, Gymnarrhena micrantha, a winter annual from the deserts of North-Africa and the Middle-East, and Cavea tanguensis, a perennial herb that grows on scree near streams and glaciers in the Eastern Himalayas. These species have very little in common, other than having two types of flower heads and sharing a tendency towards dioecism. Both also have basal leaf rosettes, stretched leaves, with few spaced teeth on the margin, and both lack spines and latex.

References

  1. 1 2 Asteraceae, Tree of Life Web Project
  2. Huang, C. -H; Zhang, C; Liu, M; Hu, Y; Gao, T; Qi, J; Ma, H (2016). "Multiple polyploidization events across Asteraceae with two nested events in the early history revealed by nuclear phylogenomics". Mol. Biol. Evol. 33 (11): 2820–2835. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw157. PMC   5062320 . PMID   27604225.
  3. Lindley, J. "The Vegetable Kingdom".{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. Barkley, Theodore M.; Brouillet, Luc; Strother, John L. "Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 19, 20, and 21. New York and Oxford via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. Panero, J.L; Crozier, B.S. "Asteraceae: Sunflowers, daisies". Tree of Life. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  6. Robinson (2004). "New supertribes, Helianthodae and Senecionodae, for the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae)". Phytologia. 86 (86): 116–120. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.28428. ISSN   0031-9430 . Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  7. Harold Robinson, Edward Schilling and José L. Panero. "Eupatorieae" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 20 October 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. Fernandez, I (2001), "A Phylogenetic Analysis of Doronicum (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) Based on Morphological, Nuclear Ribosomal (ITS), and Chloroplast (trnL-F) Evidence", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 20 (1): 41–64, CiteSeerX   10.1.1.331.4339 , doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.0954, PMID   11421647
  9. Anderberg, A (2005), "Evolutionary relationships in the Asteraceae tribe Inuleae (incl. Plucheeae) evidenced by DNA sequences of F; with notes on the systematic positions of some aberrant genera", Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 5 (2): 135–146, doi:10.1016/j.ode.2004.10.015
  10. Murrell, Z.E (2010). Vascular Plant Taxonomy. Kendall Hunt Publishing Compant.