Authorised Neutral Athlete (ANA) is a capacity under which athletes can compete at international sporting competitions without representing their nations, as is standard convention under the Olympic Charter.As of August 2022, only Russian and Belarusian athletes of some sports have competed or are competing within the ANA capacity.
Originally introduced in athletics in 2017 following the Russian doping scandal which first came to light in December 2014,the term was introduced to other sports following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. Quoting a breach of the Olympic Truce by the Russian government in which Belarus was complicit, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) recommended banning all teams, officials and competitors from Russia and Belarus from being involved in sport, but where this was not possible, to allow individuals to compete in a neutral capacity.
The idea of competing as "neutral athletes" was first proposed in 2016 by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the governing body of athletics, International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) at the conclusion of an investigation into Russian state manipulation of doping controls.Around the same time, Russian track and field athlete Yuliya Stepanova requested to compete as a neutral instead of representing her country at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games. The IOC ruled against the proposal stating that it ran contrary to the Olympic Charter, also announcing they would continue to permit Russian competitors at the games subject to approval by the international federation concerned of the sports composing the games, and doping clearance approved outside of Russia.
The IAAF had already imposed an outright ban on track and field athletes competing but following an appeal at the Court of Arbitration for Sport by Darya Klishina, a Russian Long Jumper based in the United States, the IAAF was forced to allow athletes who passed anti-doping test outside of Russia. Klishina was the only track and field athlete to represent Russia at the 2016 Olympic Games.
In April 2017 at IAAF World Championships in Athletics of London 2017, with the IAAF free to apply their own rules, approved the participation of a group of 19 Russians competing as neutral athletes, the first time the Authorised Neutral Athlete term was used.A total of eight athletes competed as neutrals at the 2018 IAAF World Indoor Championships. A total of nine athletes competed as neutrals at the 2018 IAAF World U20 Championships. A total of 30 athletes competed as neutrals at the 2018 European Athletics Championships. A total of 29 athletes competed as neutrals at the 2019 World Championships in Doha.
In response to the invasion, many sports' governing bodies immediately banned Russians and Belarusians from competing altogether, including in athletics whose Russians were already competing as authorised neutrals.
In tennis, the International Tennis Federation allowed Russians and Belarusians to continue playing as individuals without any national representation, but did not implement any designated group or category name.
In motorsport, the Federation Internationale d'Automobile, a recognised International Sports Federation by the IOC,followed the recommendation to allow drivers, competitors and officials to continue competing in a neutral capacity. Although the FIA press release used the terms Authorised Neutral Competitor (ANC), Authorised Neutral Driver (AND) and Authorised Neutral Official (ANO), it was widely accepted that the term Authorised Neutral Athlete could also be used. Indeed, in the FIA World Rally Championship, Russians including Nikolay Gryazin and Konstantin Aleksandrov began competing under the Authorised Neutral Athlete flag immediately following the ruling. Whilst it is not confirmed as the intended reason, this helps to avoid confusion with the country code AND for Andorra. In FIA Formula Three circuit racing, Russian driver Alexander Smolyar is included on entry lists as having an 'AND' license, meanwhile in the GT World Challenge Europe, Russian drivers appear on entry lists as having ND license and nationality on profiles and no flag is ever presented in either championship.
In cycling, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) also permitted athletes to continue competing in a neutral capacity whilst banning all Russian and Belarusian teams, officials and events. The UCI requested event organisers to replace the names, emblems and colours of the two countries with a "neutral reference or denomination".So far, affected cyclists have not raced under any form of neutral name in events such as the Tour de France.
World Athletics, formerly known as the International Amateur Athletic Federation and International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics, covering track and field, cross country running, road running, race walking, mountain running, and ultra running. Included in its charge are the standardization of rules and regulations for the sports, certification of athletic facilities, recognition and management of world records, and the organisation and sanctioning of athletics competitions, including the World Athletics Championships. The organisation's president is Sebastian Coe of the United Kingdom, who was elected in 2015 and re-elected unopposed in 2019 for a further four years.
The Court of Arbitration for Sport is an international body established in 1984 to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration. Its headquarters are in Lausanne, Switzerland and its courts are located in New York City, Sydney, and Lausanne. Temporary courts are established in current Olympic host cities.
Yelena Vladimirovna Slesarenko, née Sivushenko is a Russian high jumper.
Darya Igorevna Klishina is a Russian long jumper.
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Athletes have competed as independent Olympians at the Olympic Games for various reasons, including political transition, international sanctions, suspensions of National Olympic Committees, and compassion. Independent athletes have come from North Macedonia, East Timor, South Sudan and Curaçao following geopolitical changes in the years before the Olympics, from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a result of international sanctions, from India and Kuwait due to the suspensions of their National Olympic Committees, and from Russia for mass violations of anti-doping rules.
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics were held during the last 10 days of the games, from 12 to 21 August 2016, at the Olympic Stadium. The sport of athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics was made into three distinct sets of events: track and field events, road running events, and racewalking events.
The Russian Athletics Federation (RAF), previously named the All-Russia Athletic Federation, is the governing body for the sport of athletics in Russia. Its president is Dmitry Shlyakhtin.
For the athletics competitions at the 2016 Summer Olympics, the following qualification systems were in place. Qualification ended on 11 July 2016.
Athletics is a sport in Russia. Russian athletes competed in international athletics competitions such as Olympic Games or World athletics championships. Athletics was governed in Russia by the All-Russia Athletic Federation. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) found widespread doping and large-scale cover ups by the Russian authorities, the All-Russia Athletic Federation (ARAF) was declared non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code, and in 2015 the IAAF council overwhelmingly voted in favour of prohibiting Russia from world sports events with immediate effect. ARAF accepted the indefinite IAAF suspension. As of 2022, due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, World Athletics has banned all Russian athletes, support personnel, and officials from all World Athletics Series events for the foreseeable future, including those with ANA status. Beginning in March 2022, after the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Diamond League excluded Russian and Belarusian athletes from all of its track and field meetings.
The Authorised Neutral Athletes are Russian athletes who are permitted to compete in the 2017 World Championships in Athletics by special permission, despite the IAAF's suspension of the Russian Athletic Federation. In order to compete, Russian athletes must demonstrate that they were not involved in the doping scandal that precipitated Russia's suspension from international athletics.
Systematic doping of Russian athletes has resulted in 46 Olympic medals stripped from Russia, four times the number of the next highest, and more than 30% of the total. Russia has the most competitors who have been caught doping at the Olympic Games in the world, with more than 150.
Nikolay Stanislavovich Gryazin is a Russian rally driver currently competing under a neutral flag representing the Russian Automobile Federation. He is the son of former rally driver Stanislav Gryazin and the younger brother of rally driver Vasiliy Gryazin.
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...e l’ANA (Authorised Neutral Athlete) di Mariya Kuchina maritata Lasitskene e di Sergey Shubenkov, la caucasica e il siberiano che, senza bandiera, riportano in scena una Russia ancora in via di espiazione.