Historical mystery

Last updated

Melville Davisson Post's Uncle Abner: Master of Mysteries collection (1918) Uncle Abner Master of Mysteries 1918.jpeg
Melville Davisson Post's Uncle Abner: Master of Mysteries collection (1918)

The historical mystery or historical whodunit is a subgenre of two literary genres, historical fiction and mystery fiction. These works are set in a time period considered historical from the author's perspective, and the central plot involves the solving of a mystery or crime (usually murder). Though works combining these genres have existed since at least the early 20th century, many credit Ellis Peters's Cadfael Chronicles (1977–1994) for popularizing what would become known as the historical mystery. [1] [2] The increasing popularity and prevalence of this type of fiction in subsequent decades has spawned a distinct subgenre recognized by the publishing industry and libraries. [2] [3] [4] [5] Publishers Weekly noted in 2010 of the genre, "The past decade has seen an explosion in both quantity and quality. Never before have so many historical mysteries been published, by so many gifted writers, and covering such a wide range of times and places." [1] Editor Keith Kahla concurs, "From a small group of writers with a very specialized audience, the historical mystery has become a critically acclaimed, award-winning genre with a toehold on the New York Times bestseller list." [1]


Since 1999, the British Crime Writers' Association has awarded the CWA Historical Dagger award to novels in the genre. [6] The Left Coast Crime conference has presented its Bruce Alexander Memorial Historical Mystery award (for mysteries set prior to 1950) since 2004. [7]


Though the term "whodunit" was coined sometime in the early 1930s, [8] [9] [10] it has been argued that the detective story itself has its origins as early as the 429 BC Sophocles play Oedipus Rex [11] and the 10th century tale "The Three Apples" from One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights). [12] [13] During China's Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), gong'an ("crime-case") folk novels were written in which government magistrates—primarily the historical Di Renjie of the Tang Dynasty (618–907) and Bao Zheng of the Song Dynasty (960–1279)—investigate cases and then as judges determine guilt and punishment. The stories were set in the past but contained many anachronisms. Robert van Gulik came across the 18th century anonymously-written Chinese manuscript Di Gong An , in his view closer to the Western tradition of detective fiction than other gong'an tales and so more likely to appeal to non-Chinese readers, and in 1949 published it in English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee . He subsequently wrote his own Judge Dee stories (1951–1968) in the same style and time period. [2] [14] [15]

Perhaps the first modern English work that can be classified as both historical fiction and a mystery however is the 1911 Melville Davisson Post story "The Angel of the Lord", which features amateur detective Uncle Abner in pre-American Civil War West Virginia. [1] [16] Barry Zeman of the Mystery Writers of America calls the Uncle Abner short stories "the starting point for true historical mysteries." [1] In the 22 Uncle Abner tales Post wrote between 1911 and 1928, the character puzzles out local mysteries with his keen observation and knowledge of the Bible. [16] It was not until 1943 that American mystery writer Lillian de la Torre did something similar in the story "The Great Seal of England", casting 18th century literary figures Samuel Johnson and James Boswell into Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson roles in what would become the first of her Dr. Sam: Johnson, Detector series of stories. [17] [18] [19] In 1944 Agatha Christie published Death Comes as the End , a mystery novel set in ancient Egypt and the first full-length historical whodunit. [1] [19] [20] [21] In 1950, John Dickson Carr published the second full-length historical mystery novel called The Bride of Newgate , set at the close of the Napoleonic Wars. [19]


In 1970 Peter Lovesey began a series of novels featuring Sergeant Cribb, a Victorian-era police detective, and Elizabeth Peters's Amelia Peabody series (1975–2010) followed the adventures of the titular Victorian lady/archaeologist as she solved mysteries surrounding her excavations in early 20th century Egypt. [1] But historical mystery stories remained an oddity until the late 1970s, with the success of Ellis Peters and her Cadfael Chronicles (1977–1994), featuring Benedictine monk Brother Cadfael and set in 12th century Shrewsbury. [1] [2] [22] Umberto Eco's one-off The Name of the Rose (1980) also helped popularize the concept, and starting in 1979, author Anne Perry wrote two series of Victorian era mysteries featuring Thomas Pitt (1979–2013) and William Monk (1990–2013). However it was not until about 1990 that the genre's popularity expanded significantly with works such as Lindsey Davis's Falco novels (1989–2010), set in the Roman Empire of Vespasian; [1] [2] John Maddox Roberts's SPQR series (1990–2010) and Steven Saylor's Roma Sub Rosa novels (1991–2010), both set in the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC; [1] and Paul Doherty's various series, including the Hugh Corbett medieval mysteries (1986–2010), the Sorrowful Mysteries of Brother Athelstan (1991–2012), and the Canterbury Tales of Mystery and Murder (1994–2012). For Mike Ashley'sThe Mammoth Book of Historical Detectives (1995), F. Gwynplaine MacIntyre wrote "Death in the Dawntime", a locked room mystery (or rather, sealed cave mystery) set in Australia around 35,000 BC, which Ashley suggests is the furthest in the past a historical mystery has been set to date. [23] Diana Gabaldon began the Lord John series in 1998, casting a recurring secondary character from her Outlander series, Lord John Grey, as a nobleman-military officer-amateur detective in 18th century England. [24] [25] [26] Using the pen name Ariana Franklin, Diana Norman wrote four Mistress of the Art of Death novels between 2007 and 2010, featuring 12th-century English medical examiner Adelia Aguilar. [27]

Publishers Weekly noted in 2010 of the genre, "The past decade has seen an explosion in both quantity and quality. Never before have so many historical mysteries been published, by so many gifted writers, and covering such a wide range of times and places." [1] Editor Keith Kahla concurs, "From a small group of writers with a very specialized audience, the historical mystery has become a critically acclaimed, award-winning genre with a toehold on the New York Times bestseller list." [1]


In 1999, the British Crime Writers' Association awarded the first CWA Historical Dagger award to a novel in the genre. [6] The award was called the Ellis Peters Historical Dagger through 2012. In 2014, Endeavour Press supported the award, which is called the Endeavour Historical Dagger for the 2014 and 2015 awards. [28] The Left Coast Crime conference has presented its Bruce Alexander Memorial Historical Mystery award (for mysteries set prior to 1950) since 2004. [7]


In an early twist of the genre, Josephine Tey's The Daughter of Time (1951) features a modern police detective who alleviates an extended hospital stay by investigating the 15th century case of Richard III of England and the Princes in the Tower. [29] Georgette Heyer's The Talisman Ring (1936), set in 1793 England, is a Regency romance with elements of mystery that Jane Aiken Hodge called "very nearly a detective story in period costume". [30] Many of Heyer's other historical romances have thriller elements but to a much lesser extent. [30]

Other variations include mystery novels set in alternate history timelines or even fantasy worlds. These would include The Ultimate Solution (1973) by Eric Norden and Fatherland (1992) by Robert Harris, both being police procedurals set in alternate timelines where the Nazis won World War II; Randall Garrett's Lord Darcy series, taking place in a 20th-century in which magic is possible; and Phyllis Ann Karr's The Idylls of the Queen (1982), set in King Arthur's court as depicted in Arthurian myth and with no attempt at historical accuracy.

The genre would not include fiction which was contemporary at the time of writing, such as Arthur Conan Doyle's canonical Sherlock Holmes works set in Victorian England, or the Lord Peter Wimsey books by Dorothy L. Sayers set in the Interwar period. However, subsequent Holmes and Wimsey books written by other authors decades later could arguably be classified as historical mysteries. [31] [32] [33] [34]

List of fictional historical detectives

The following list consists of fictional historical detectives in chronological order of their time period setting:

DetectiveSettingPeriodCreatorDebut TitleDebut Year
Lieutenant Bak Ancient Egypt 15th century BCE Lauren Haney The Right Hand of Amon 1997
Amerokte Ancient Egypt15th century BCE Paul Doherty The Mask of Ra 1998
Lord Meren [2] Ancient Egypt14th century BCE Lynda S. Robinson Murder in the Place of Anubis 1994
Rahotep [1] Ancient Egypt14th century BCE Nick Drake Nefertiti: The Book of the Dead 2006
Heracles Pontor Classical Athens Late 5th century BCE José Carlos Somoza The Athenian Murders 2000
Nicolaos Classical Athens5th century BCE Gary Corby The Pericles Commission 2010
Alexander the Great Ancient Greece 4th century BCE Paul Doherty A Murder in Macedon 1997
Senator Decius Metellus Roman Republic 1st century BCE John Maddox Roberts SPQR 1990 [1]
Gordianus the Finder Roman Republic1st century BCE Steven Saylor Roman Blood 1991 [1]
Marcus Corvinus Rome 1st century CEDavid WishartOvid1995
Marcus Didius Falco Roman Empire 70 to 77 CE Lindsey Davis The Silver Pigs 1989 [1] [2]
Flavia Gemina Roman Empire79 to 81 CE Caroline Lawrence The Thieves of Ostia 2001
Libertus [1] Roman EmpireLate 2nd century CE Rosemary Rowe The Germanicus Mosaic 1999
John, the Lord Chamberlain [1] Constantinople 6th century Mary Reed/Eric Mayer One for Sorrow 1999 [35]
Judge Dee China 7th century Robert van Gulik Di Gong An 1949 [14] [15]
Li Kao China7th century Barry Hughart Bridge of Birds 1984
Sister Fidelma Ireland 7th century Peter Tremayne Absolution by Murder 1994
Father George Byzantine Empire 8th century Harry Turtledove Farmers' Law2000
Sugawara Akitada [1] Japan 11th century I. J. Parker "Instruments of Murder"1997
Lassair England 11th century Alys Clare Out of the Dawn Light 2009
Brother Cadfael Wales and England1120, 1137–1145 Ellis Peters A Morbid Taste for Bones 1977 [1] [2] [22]
Justin de QuincyEngland12th century Sharon Kay Penman The Queen's Man 1996
Josse d'Acquin/Abbess of Hawkenlye England12th century Alys Clare Fortune Like the Moon 1999
Magdalene la a Bâtarde London 12th century Roberta Gellis A Mortal Bane1999
Adelia Aguilar England12th century Ariana Franklin Mistress of the Art of Death 2007 [27]
Hugh Corbett England13th century Paul Doherty Satan in St Mary's 1986
Theophilos (Feste) Illyria, Constantinople,
Tyre, Denmark, etc.
13th century Alan Gordon Thirteenth Night1999
Edwin WeaverEngland13th century Catherine Hanley The Sins of the Father2009
Oldřich of Chlum Bohemia and Moravia 13th century Vlastimil Vondruška Dýka s hadem (Dagger with a snake)2002
Brother William of Baskerville Italy 1327 Umberto Eco The Name of the Rose 1980
Baldwin de FurnshillDevon14th century Michael Jecks The Last Templar1995
Matthew Bartholomew [1] England14th century Susanna Gregory A Plague on Both Your Houses 1996
Mathilde of Westminster England14th century Paul Doherty The Cup of Ghosts2005
Brother Athelstan LondonLate 14th century Paul Doherty The Nightingale Gallery 1991
Owen Archer YorkLate 14th century Candace Robb The Apothecary Rose 1993
Roger the Chapman England15th century Kate Sedley Death and the Chapman 1991
Dame Frevisse [1] Oxfordshire 15th century Margaret Frazer The Novice's Tale1992
Kathryn Swinbrooke England15th century Paul Doherty A Shrine of Murders 1993
Acatl, High Priest of Mictlantecuhtli Tenochtitlan 1480 Aliette de Bodard "Obsidian Shards" (novella)2007
Sir Roger Shallot England16th century Paul Doherty The White Rose Murders 1991
Nicholas Segalla
  • 1558
  • 1567
  • 1793
  • 1889
Paul Doherty A Time for the Death of a King 1994
Matthew Shardlake London16th century C. J. Sansom Dissolution 2003
Bianca Goddard London16th century Mary Lawrence The Alchemist's Daughter 2015
Giordano BrunoLondon16th century S. J. Parris Heresy 2010
Sir Robert Carey Carlisle, then LondonLate 16th century Patricia Finney (writing as P F Chisholm) A Famine of Horses 1994
Sano Ichirō [2] Genroku-era Japan17th century Laura Joh Rowland Shinjū 1994
Thomas Chaloner England17th century Susanna Gregory A Conspiracy of Violence 2006
Benjamin Weaver England1720 David Liss A Conspiracy of Paper 2000
Canaletto England18th century Janet Laurence Canaletto and the Case of Westminster Bridge1997
John Fielding England18th century Bruce Alexander Cook Blind Justice 1994
Lord John Grey England, Prussia,
Scotland and Jamaica
1756–1761 Diana Gabaldon Lord John and the Hellfire Club 1998 [24] [25] [26]
Samuel Johnson/James Boswell England18th century Lillian de la Torre "The Great Seal of England"1943 [17] [18]
Dick Darwent England1815 John Dickson Carr The Bride of Newgate 1950 [19]
Matthew Hawkwood England18th century James McGee Trigger Men 1985
Sergeant Cribb England19th century Peter Lovesey Wobble to Death 1970
Thomas Pitt [1] England19th century Anne Perry The Cater Street Hangman 1979
William Monk [1] England19th century Anne Perry The Face of a Stranger 1990
Mrs. Jeffries England19th century Emily Brightwell The Inspector and Mrs. Jeffries 1993
Edmund Blackstone England1820s Richard Falkirk Blackstone 1972
Benjamin January New Orleans 1833 Barbara Hambly A Free Man of Color 1997
Yashim the Eunuch Ottoman Empire 1836 Jason Goodwin The Janissary Tree 2006
Uncle Abner West Virginia Mid-19th century Melville Davisson Post "The Angel of the Lord"1911 [16]
Erast Fandorin Russia, Japan, etc.1876–1914 Boris Akunin The Winter Queen 1998
Ambrose Bierce San Francisco Late 19th century Oakley Hall Ambrose Bierce and the Queen of Spades1998
William Murdoch Toronto 1890s Maureen Jennings Except the Dying 1997
Sister Pelagia Russia1890s or Early 20th century Boris Akunin Pelagia and the White Bulldog2000 (Russian)
2006 (English)
Amelia Peabody [1] Egypt 1884–1923 Elizabeth Peters Crocodile on the Sandbank 1975
Alexander von Reisden Boston Early 20th century Sarah Smith The Vanished Child 1992
Simon Ziele New York City Early 20th century Stefanie Pintoff In the Shadow of Gotham 2009
Mary Russell WorldwideEarly 20th century Laurie R. King The Beekeeper's Apprentice 1994
Joe Sandilands Colonial India, Europe 1920s/1930s Barbara Cleverly The Last Kashmiri Rose 2001
Bernie Günther [1] Berlin 1934–1954 Philip Kerr March Violets 1989
Laetitia Talbot Crete, Burgundy, Athens 1920s Barbara Cleverly The Tomb of Zeus 2007
Phryne Fisher Melbourne 1920s Kerry Greenwood Cocaine Blues 1989
Professor John StablefordEngland1930s de:Rob Reef Stableford on Golf2013
Lady GeorgianaEngland/Scotland1930s Rhys Bowen Her Royal Spyness2007
Alexei KorolevMoscow1936William RyanThe Holy Thief2010
Kasper MeierBerlin1946 Ben Fergusson The Spring of Kasper Meier2014 [36] [37]

Related Research Articles

Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime, often murder. The detective genre began around the same time as speculative fiction and other genre fiction in the mid-nineteenth century and has remained extremely popular, particularly in novels. Some of the most famous heroes of detective fiction include C. Auguste Dupin, Sherlock Holmes, and Hercule Poirot. Juvenile stories featuring The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, and The Boxcar Children have also remained in print for several decades.

Whodunit complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the audience is given the opportunity to engage in the same process of deduction as the protagonist throughout the investigation of a crime

A whodunit or whodunnit is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the puzzle regarding who committed the crime is the main focus. The reader or viewer is provided with the clues from which the identity of the perpetrator may be deduced before the story provides the revelation itself at its climax. The investigation is usually conducted by an eccentric, amateur, or semi-professional detective. This narrative development has been seen as a form of comedy in which order is restored to a threatened social calm.

Edith Pargeter British writer

Edith Mary Pargeter, also known by her nom de plumeEllis Peters, was an English author of works in many categories, especially history and historical fiction, and was also honoured for her translations of Czech classics. She is probably best known for her murder mysteries, both historical and modern, and especially for her medieval detective series The Cadfael Chronicles.

Crime fiction genre of fiction focusing on crime

Crime fiction, detective story, murder mystery, mystery novel, and police novel: These terms all describe narratives that centre on criminal acts and especially on the investigation, either by an amateur or a professional detective, of a serious crime, generally a murder. It is usually distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as historical fiction or science fiction, but the boundaries are indistinct. Crime fiction has multiple sub-genres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction and legal thrillers. Most crime drama focuses on crime investigation and does not feature the court room. Suspense and mystery are key elements that are nearly ubiquitous to the genre.

P. D. James English crime writer

Phyllis Dorothy James, Baroness James of Holland Park,, known professionally as P. D. James, was an English crime writer. She rose to fame for her series of detective novels starring police commander and poet Adam Dalgliesh.

Mystery fiction genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved

Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. Often with a closed circle of suspects, each suspect is usually provided with a credible motive and a reasonable opportunity for committing the crime. The central character will often be a detective who eventually solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts presented to the reader. Sometimes mystery books are nonfictional. "Mystery fiction" can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle or suspense element and its logical solution such as a whodunit. Mystery fiction can be contrasted with hardboiled detective stories, which focus on action and gritty realism.

Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is a term used in the book-trade for fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre.

Mystery film Sub-genre of crime film

A mystery film is a genre of film that revolves around the solution of a problem or a crime. It focuses on the efforts of the detective, private investigator or amateur sleuth to solve the mysterious circumstances of an issue by means of clues, investigation, and clever deduction.

Ross Macdonald novelist

Ross Macdonald is the main pseudonym that was used by the American-Canadian writer of crime fiction Kenneth Millar. He is best known for his series of hardboiled novels set in Southern California and featuring private detective Lew Archer.

Minette Walters British crime writer

Minette Walters is an English crime writer.

Diana Gabaldon American author

Diana J. Gabaldon is an American author, known for the Outlander series of novels. Her books merge multiple genres, featuring elements of historical fiction, romance, mystery, adventure and science fiction/fantasy. A television adaptation of the Outlander novels premiered on Starz in 2014.

John Maddox Roberts is an American author of science fiction and fantasy novels, including historical fiction, such as the SPQR series and Hannibal's Children.

The Golden Age of Detective Fiction was an era of classic murder mystery novels of similar patterns and styles, predominantly in the 1920s and 1930s.

The Crime Writers' Association (CWA) is a specialist authors’ group in the United Kingdom, most notable for its Gold Dagger award for the best crime novel of the year. The Association also promotes the crime fiction genre by publicising literary festivals and other writing events, establishing links with libraries, booksellers and other writer organisations, both in the UK such as the Society of Authors, and overseas, and enabling members to network at its annual conference and through its regional chapters as well as through dedicated social media channels and private website. Members' events and general news items are published on the CWA website which also features Find An Author where CWA members are listed and information provided about themselves, their books and their awards.

Martin Edwards, whose full name is Kenneth Martin Edwards, is a British crime novelist, critic and solicitor. He is a recipient of the CWA Diamond Dagger, the highest honour in British crime writing.

Louise Penny Canadian writer

Louise Penny is a Canadian author of mystery novels set in the Canadian province of Quebec centred on the work of francophone Chief Inspector Armand Gamache of the Sûreté du Québec. Penny's first career was as a radio broadcaster for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). After she turned to writing, she won numerous awards for her work, including the Agatha Award for best mystery novel of the year five times, including four consecutive years (2007–2010), and the Anthony Award for best novel of the year five times, including four consecutive years (2010–2013). Her novels have been published in 23 languages.

Lillian de la Torre Bueno McCue, who published under the name Lillian de la Torre, was an American novelist and a prolific writer of historical mysteries.

<i>Lord John</i> series sequence of historical mystery novels and shorter works

The Lord John series is a sequence of historical mystery novels and shorter works written by Diana Gabaldon that center on Lord John Grey, a recurring secondary character in the author's Outlander series. Secretly homosexual "in a time when that particular predilection could get one hanged," the character has been called "one of the most complex and interesting" of the hundreds of characters in Gabaldon's Outlander novels. Starting with the 1998 novella Lord John and the Hellfire Club, the Lord John spin-off series currently consists of six novellas and three novels.

The CWA Historical Dagger is an annual award given by the British Crime Writers' Association to the author of the best historical crime novel of the year. Established in 1999, it is presented to a novel "with a crime theme and a historical background of any period up to 35 years before the current year".

<i>Past Poisons</i>

Past Poisons: An Ellis Peters Memorial Anthology of Historical Crime is a 1998 British anthology of historical mystery short stories and novellas, edited by Maxim Jakubowski. The collection is named for novelist Ellis Peters, whose Cadfael Chronicles (1977-1994) are generally credited for popularizing the combined genre of historical fiction and mystery fiction that would become known as historical mystery.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Picker, Lenny (3 March 2010). "Mysteries of History". Publishers Weekly . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Rivkin Jr., David B. (27 February 2010). "Five Best Historical Mystery Novels". The Wall Street Journal . Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  3. Magar, Guy. "The Mystery Defined". Writers Store. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  4. "A Guide for Historical Fiction Lovers". Providence Public Library . Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  5. "Popular Culture: Mysteries". Akron-Summit County Public Library . Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  6. 1 2 "The Dagger Awards winners archive". Crime Writers' Association . Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  7. 1 2 "The Bruce Alexander Memorial Historical Mystery Award". Awards.OmniMystery.com. Left Coast Crime conference. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  8. Kaufman, Wolfe (10 June 1946). "Bits of Literary Slang". The Milwaukee Journal . Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  9. Morris, William & Mary (3 June 1985). "Words... Wit... Wisdom". Toledo Blade . Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  10. "U's Whodunit: Universal is shooting 'Recipe for Murder,' Arnold Ridley's play". Variety . 28 August 1934. p. 19.
  11. Scaggs, John (2005). Crime Fiction (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge. pp. 9–11. ISBN   978-0415318259.
  12. Pinault, David (1992). Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights. Brill Publishers. pp. 86–97. ISBN   90-04-09530-6.
  13. Marzolph, Ulrich (2006). The Arabian Nights Reader. Wayne State University Press. pp. 239–246. ISBN   0-8143-3259-5.
  14. 1 2 Herbert, Rosemary (1999). The Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing. Oxford University Press. pp.  38–39. ISBN   0-19-507239-1.
  15. 1 2 Hegel, Robert (1998). Reading Illustrated Fiction in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. pp.  32–33. ISBN   978-0-8047-3002-0.
  16. 1 2 3 Bottum, Joseph (1 May 2007). "America's Greatest Mystery Writer". First Things . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  17. 1 2 Lambert, Bruce (19 September 1993). "Obituary: Lillian de la Torre, 91, an Author of Mysteries From British History". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 23 January 2013.
  18. 1 2 "Lillian de la Torre Biography (Critical Survey of Mystery & Detective Fiction, Revised Edition)" . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Donsbach, Margaret. "The Bride of Newgate by John Dickson Carr". HistoricalNovels.info. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  20. Donsbach, Margaret. "Death Comes as the End by Agatha Christie". HistoricalNovels.info. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  21. "Biography: Agatha Christie". PBS . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  22. 1 2 "Obituaries: Edith Pargeter, 82; Author of Mysteries". The New York Times. 16 October 1995. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  23. Ashley, Mike (1995). The Mammoth Book of Historical Detectives. London: Robinson Publishing. p. 3. ISBN   1-85487-406-3.
  24. 1 2 Lord John first appears in Gabaldon's Dragonfly in Amber (1992), but the 1998 novella Lord John and the Hellfire Club is the character's first appearance as a detective.
  25. 1 2 "Official site: Lord John Grey Series". DianaGabaldon.com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  26. 1 2 Reese, Jennifer (27 November 2007). "Book Review: Lord John and the Hand of Devils (2007)". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  27. 1 2 Wilson, Laura (4 February 2011). "Diana Norman obituary". The Guardian . Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  28. "Endeavour Press sponsors the CWA Historical Dagger Award". Endeavour Press. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  29. Butler, Pamela J. "The Mystery of Josephine Tey". R3.org. Richard III Society. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  30. 1 2 Hodge, Jane Aiken (2004) [1st pub. 1984]. The Private World of Georgette Heyer (Reprint ed.). Arrow Books. p. 40.
  31. Nicholson, Geoff (22 May 2005). "The Italian Secretary: The Kaiser Is a Suspect". The New York Times . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  32. Greenland, Colin (29 July 2005). "Holmes's ghost". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  33. Forshaw, Barry (17 September 2010). "Review: The Attenbury Emeralds by Jill Paton Walsh". Daily Express . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  34. "The Attenbury Emeralds". Macmillan Publishers . Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  35. "Fiction Book Review: One for Sorrow". Publishers Weekly. 15 November 1999. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  36. Wyatt, Beth (17 July 2014). "Book review: The Spring of Kasper Meier by Ben Fergusson". London24.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  37. "The Spring Of Kasper Meier by Ben Fergusson". BBC Radio 2. 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2015.