List of battles fought in Oklahoma

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This is an incomplete list of military and other armed confrontations that have occurred within the boundaries of the modern US State of Oklahoma since European contact. The region was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1535 to 1679, New France from 1679 to 1803, and part of the United States of America 1803present.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

New France Area colonized by France in North America

New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris (1763).

Contents

The Plains Indian Wars directly affected the region during westward expansion, as did the American Civil War.

American Indian Wars multiple conflicts between American and Canadian settlers or the American and Canadian governments and the native peoples of North America

The American Indian Wars is the collective name for the various armed conflicts that were fought by European governments and colonists, and later by the United States and Canadian governments and American and Canadian settlers, against various American Indian and First Nation tribes. These conflicts occurred in North America from the time of the earliest colonial settlements in the 17th century until the 1920s. The various Indian Wars resulted from a wide variety of factors, including cultural clashes, land disputes, and criminal acts committed by both sides. The European powers and their colonies also enlisted Indian tribes to help them conduct warfare against each other's colonial settlements.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy). The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Battles

NameDateLocationWarCampaignDeadBelligerents
Battle of the Twin Villages 1759uncertain [1] 114 Kingdom of New Spain vs Wichita [2]
Battle of Claremore Mound [3] October 1817modern Rogers County 38+ Cherokee vs Osage [4]
Cutthroat Gap Massacre [5] Spring of 1833modern Kiowa County 150Osage vs Kiowa [6]
Battle of Wolf Creek [7] June 1838modern Ellis County 72 Cheyenne & Arapaho vs Kiowa, Comanche, & Apache [8]
Battle of Little Robe Creek [9] May 12, 1858modern Ellis County Plains Indian Wars Antelope Hills Expedition 78Comanche vs Texas Rangers [10]
Battle of the Wichita Village October 1, 1858near modern Rush Springs Plains Indian WarsWichita Expedition75Comanche vs 2nd U.S. Cavalry [11] [12]
Battle of Round Mountain [13] November 19, 1861unknown / location disputed [14] American Civil War Trail of Blood on Ice 6+ [15] Creek & Seminole vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Chusto-Talasah [16] December 9, 1861near modern Tulsa American Civil WarTrail of Blood on Ice15+ [17] Creek & Seminole vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Chustenahlah [18] December 26, 1861near modern Skiatook American Civil WarTrail of Blood on Ice9+ [19] Creek & Seminole vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Old Fort Wayne [20] October 22, 1862 Fort Wayne [21] American Civil WarOperations North of Boston Mountains (1862)64+ United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Tonkawa Massacre October 24, 1862modern Caddo County American Civil War137-150Osage vs Tonkawa [22]
Battle of Cabin Creek [23] July 1-2, 1863modern Mayes County American Civil WarOperations to Control Indian Territory (1863)88United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Honey Springs [24] July 17, 1863modern Muskogee County & McIntosh County American Civil WarOperations to Control Indian Territory (1863)167United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Middle Boggy Depot [25] February 13, 1864near modern Allen American Civil WarOperations to Control Indian Territory (1864)47United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Ambush of the steamboat J. R. Williams June 15, 1864near modern Tamaha [26] American Civil WarOperations to Control Indian Territory (1864)4United States of America vs. Confederate States of America
Battle of Washita River [27] November 27, 1868near modern Cheyenne Plains Indian Wars Comanche Campaign 171+United States of America vs Cheyenne
Battle of Soldier SpringDecember 25, 1868modern Greer County & modern Kiowa County Plains Indian Wars Canadian River Expedition26Comanche & Kiowa vs 6th U.S. Cavalry & 37th U.S. Infantry [28] [29]
Goingsnake Massacre April 15, 1872modern Adair County 11 U.S. Marshals vs. Cherokee [30]
Sand Hill FightApril 6, 1875modern Canadian County Plains Indian WarsCheyenne vs U.S. Cavalry [31]
Enid-Pond Creek Railroad War 1893-1894modern Grant and Garfield Counties Railroad Wars 0Citizens vs. Rock Island Railroad [32]
Crazy Snake Rebellion March 1909 Okmulgee County 3 Creek Indians Snake Government vs. Local Citizens, 8th Cavalry Regiment U.S. Army, 1st Regiment Oklahoma National Guard. [33] [34]
Green Corn Rebellion August 2-3, 1917 Pontotoc County World War I 3 Tenant farmers vs. Local authorities [35]
Tulsa race riot May 31 – June 1, 1921 Tulsa County 39White citizens vs. Black citizens [36]
Red River Bridge War July 3 - September 7, 1931 Bryan County, Oklahoma and Grayson County, Texas 0 Oklahoma Army National Guard vs. Texas Ranger Division [37] [38]

Notes

  1. Modern and historical sources are unclear whether the battle occurred in modern Montague County, Texas or modern Jefferson County, Oklahoma, although the former is the most likely. Archaeological surveys of the village on the Oklahoma side of the Red River have not produced any conclusive evidence of the battle's location there.
  2. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/T/TW005.html
  3. Also known as Battle of the Strawberry Moon and Claremore Mound Massacre.
  4. http://www.claremoremuseum.com/battle-of-claremore-mound/
  5. Also known as the Battle of Cutthroat Gap.
  6. http://rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/massacregap.html
  7. Also known as the Wolf Creek Massacre.
  8. http://forttours.com/pages/wolfcreek.asp
  9. Also known as the Battle of Antelope Hills.
  10. http://westernamericana2.blogspot.com/2009/12/battle-of-antelope-hills.html
  11. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/W/WI004.html
  12. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/chronicles/v015/v015p226.html
  13. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Round Mountain". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  14. One location is cited as being near modern Keystone, yet another location given is near modern Yale.
  15. No accurate count of Native American casualties survives. Opothleyahola, commander of the Native American force, estimated his losses as 110 killed and wounded.
  16. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Chusto-Talasah". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  17. No accurate count of Native American casualties survives. Confederate Col Douglas H. Cooper estimated the Native Americans' losses at 500 killed and wounded, although some accounts are as low as 412.
  18. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Chustenahlah". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  19. No accurate count of Native American casualties survives. Confederate Col James M. McIntosh estimated the Native Americans' losses at 250 killed and wounded.
  20. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Old Fort Wayne". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  21. An Oklahoma State Historical site marker is placed on U.S. Hwy 59 north of Watts. However, the exact location of Fort Wayne has not been determined.
  22. http://okcivilwar.org/sites/tonkawa-massacre
  23. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Cabin Creek". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  24. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Honey Springs". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  25. "CWSAC Battle Summary: Middle Boggy Depot". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  26. The exact location on the river is known as Pleasant Bluff.
  27. Hoig, Stan. The Battle of the Washita: The Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign of 1867-69 (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press), 1979.
  28. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/S/SO021.html
  29. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/chronicles/v016/v016p275.html
  30. http://www.historynet.com/blood-bath-at-going-snake-the-cherokee-courtroom-shootout.htm
  31. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/S/SA016.html
  32. http://www.historynet.com/hell-on-rails-oklahoma-towns-at-war-with-the-rock-island-railroad.htm
  33. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v008/v008p189.html
  34. http://www.okgenweb.org/~okmcinto/Pics/harjo_chitto.htm
  35. http://libcom.org/library/us-green-corn-rebellion-1917
  36. http://www.tulsahistory.org/learn/online-exhibits/the-tulsa-race-riot/
  37. http://www.okladot.state.ok.us/hqdiv/p-r-div/spansoftime/strains.htm
  38. https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mgr02

See also

History of Oklahoma history of the U.S. state of Oklahoma

The history of Oklahoma refers to the history of the state of Oklahoma and the land that the state now occupies. Areas of Oklahoma east of its panhandle were acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, while the Panhandle was not acquired until the U.S. land acquisitions following the Mexican–American War.

Indian Territory in the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, most of what is now the U.S. state of Oklahoma was designated as the Indian Territory. It served as an unorganized region that had been set aside specifically for Native American tribes and was occupied mostly by tribes which had been removed from their ancestral lands in the Southeastern United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. As part of the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the Indian Territory was the scene of numerous skirmishes and seven officially recognized battles involving both Native American units allied with the Confederate States of America and Native Americans loyal to the United States government, as well as other Union and Confederate troops.

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