List of governors of Portuguese India

Last updated

Viceroy of Portuguese India
Portuguese: Vice-rei da Índia Portuguesa
Lesser coat of arms of Portuguese India.svg
Coat of arms of Portuguese India
Residence Viceroy's House
Nominator Prime Minister of Portugal
Appointer Monarch of Portugal (1505–1910)
President of Portugal (1910–1961)
PrecursorNone
Formation12 September 1505
First holder Tristão da Cunha
Final holder Manuel António Vassalo e Silva
Abolished19 December 1961
Succession Governor of Goa
Map of Portuguese India, 1923. Portuguese India 1923.jpg
Map of Portuguese India, 1923.

The government of Portuguese India (Portuguese : Índia Portuguesa) started on 12 September 1505, seven years after the Portuguese discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Cochin. Until 1752, the name "India" included all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from Southern Africa to Southeast Asia, governed – either by a Viceroy or Governor – from its headquarters, established in Old Goa since 1510. In 1752 Portuguese Mozambique got its own government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Portuguese Macau, Solor and Portuguese Timor, seeing itself thus confined to a reduced territorial possessions along the Konkan, Canara and Malabar Coasts, which would further be reduced to the present-day state of Goa and the Union territory of Damaon. Portuguese control ceased in Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, and finally ceased in Goa in 1961, when the area was occupied by the Republic of India (although Portugal only recognized the occupation after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, by a treaty signed on 31 December 1974 [1] [2] ). This ended four and a half centuries of Portuguese rule in parts—though tiny—of India.

Contents

It may be noted that during the term of the monarchy, the title of the head of the Portuguese government in India ranged from "Governor" to "Viceroy". The title of viceroy would only be assigned to members of the nobility; It was formally terminated in 1774, although it has later been given sporadically to be decisively ended after 1835, as shown below.

List

The following is a list of rulers during the history of Portuguese India as a viceroyalty or governorship. [3]

Official TitleOffice-HolderMandate BeginMandate EndNotes
Viceroy
(nom.)
D. Tristão da Cunha --First to be nominated viceroy, but was unable to assume office
ViceroyD. Francisco de Almeida 12 September 1505November 1509First governor and first viceroy of Portuguese India, appointed by King Manuel I of Portugal (r.1495-1521), conquered Kilwa, erected forts in Anjediva, Cochin, Cannanore, refused to cede office until after Battle of Diu, died at Table Bay, on return voyage, March 1510
Governor and
Captain-General(*)
Afonso de Albuquerque 4 November 1509September 1515Appointment disputed and delayed by predecessor, conquered Goa, Malacca, Muscat and Hormuz, died off Goa, December 1515
Governor Lopo Soares de Albergaria 8 September 1515September 1518Erected forts in Colombo (Ceylon) and Kollam, returned to Portugal
Governor Diogo Lopes de Sequeira 8 September 1518January 1522Old explorer and former designated captain of Malacca (1509, aborted), erected forts in Chaul, Maldives and Pacem, sent embassies to Ethiopia, Pegu and China, returned to Portugal
GovernorD. Duarte de Menezes 22 January 1522September 1524Former captain of Tangier, grandson (via Tarouca line) of the famous Duarte de Menezes (Count of Viana), dismissed and returned to Portugal
ViceroyD. Vasco da Gama 5 September 1524December 1524old discoverer of Indies route, now Count of Vidigueira,
second Viceroy,
first appointee of new King John III of Portugal (r.1521-1557),
died at Cochin, December 1524
GovernorD. Henrique de Menezes (o Roxo)17 January 1525February 1526succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
died at Cannanore, February 1526
Governor Lopo Vaz de Sampaio February 1526November 1529succeeded in India by death of predecessor (third in line),
refused to yield government to designated successor Pedro Mascarenhas, captain of Malacca),
arrested, returned to Portugal as prisoner
Governor Nuno da Cunha 18 November 1529September 1538son of Tristão da Cunha,
arrival delayed by shipwreck in Madagascar,
conquered northern province (Bassein, Bombay, Diu, Daman)
died at sea on return to Portugal, March 1539
ViceroyD. Garcia de Noronha 14 September 1538April 1540Third Viceroy, nephew of Afonso de Albuquerque,
died in Cochin, April 1540
GovernorD. Estêvão da Gama 3 April 1540May 1542son of Vasco da Gama,
captain of Portuguese Malacca (f.1538),
succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
Governor Martim Afonso de Sousa 8 May 15421545donatary-captain of São Vicente (Brazil, f. 1534),
returned to Portugal
GovernorD. João de Castro 10 September 15451548Nephew of D. Garcia de Noronha,
promoted to Viceroy in early 1548
ViceroyD. João de Castro1548June 1548Fourth viceroy.
Died at Goa, June 1548
Governor Garcia de Sá 6 June 1548June 1549succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
first governor married in India,
acquired Bardez and Salcette,
died at Goa, June 1549
Governor Jorge Cabral 13 June 1549November 1550succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
ViceroyD. Afonso de Noronha November 1550September 1554Fifth Viceroy (henceforth all Governors appointed in Lisbon will have rank of 'Viceroy'),
former governor of Ceuta, 1540–49,
son of Fernando de Menezes (Marquis of Vila Real),
returned to Portugal
ViceroyD. Pedro Mascarenhas 23 September 1554June 1555old discoverer of Indian Ocean islands,
former captain of Malacca (1525–26),
died at Goa, June 1555
Governor Francisco Barreto 16 June 1555September 1558succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal.
Later (1570) returned as governor of East Africa(**),
led expedition to Monomatapa and died in Tete.
ViceroyD. Constantino de Braganza 8 September 1558September 1561Son of James (Duke of Braganza),
first appointee of Catherine of Austria, (regent of new King Sebastian of Portugal),
returned to Portugal
ViceroyD. Francisco Coutinho (Count of Redondo)7 September 156119 February 1564Died at Goa, February 1564
Governor João de Mendonça 19 February 1564September 1564former captain of Malacca,
succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
ViceroyD. António de Noronha (Antão)3 September 1564September 1568former captain of Ceuta (1549), and Hormuz (c.1560)
nephew of earlier India governor D. Afonso de Noronha,
died at sea on return to Portugal
ViceroyD. Luís de Ataíde 10 September 1568September 1571future Count of Atouguia (f.1577),
first appointee of King Sebastian of Portugal in his own right
returned to Portugal
Viceroy(**)D. António de Noronha (o Catarraz)6 September 1571December 1573Not to be confused with earlier namesake,
governor in Goa of a reduced India (**),
co-equal with António Moniz Barreto (in Malacca) and Francisco Barreto (in Sofala),
dismissed and returned to Portugal
Governor António Moniz Barreto 9 December 1573September 1576Governor of Malacca, succeeded in India after dismissal of predecessor,
returned to Portugal
GovernorD. Diogo de Menezes September 1576August 1578Son of Tangier captain João de Menezes ("o Craveiro")
Succeeded in India after appointed viceroy, Rui Lourenço de Távora, died en route (off Mozambique),
returned to Portugal.
ViceroyD. Luís de Ataíde (second time)31 August 1578March 1581Second appointment, now Count of Atouguia,
already in India when news of the king's death at Alcazarquivir arrived,
managed India through the early stages of 1580 succession crisis,
died in Goa, March 1581
Governor Fernão Teles de Menezes March 1581September 1581Succeeded in India by death of predecessor (as per prior instructions of the late Cardinal-King Henry),
considered the last governor of the House of Avis,
received news of ascension of Habsburg king Philip I of Portugal,
administered oaths of loyalty of Portuguese India colonies to new monarchy,
returned to Portugal.
Viceroy Francisco de Mascarenhas 15811584Donatary-captain in the Azores
First appointee of Philip I of Portugal (r.1581-1598),
returned to Portugal.
ViceroyD. Duarte de Menezes 15844 May 1588Former governor of Tangier (1474–78), Algarve (1580),
grandson of earlier India governor Duarte de Menezes,
Died in Goa, May 1588.
GovernorD. Manuel de Sousa Coutinho May 15881591Former governor of Ceylon, current governor of Malacca
Succeeded in India by death of predecessor,
Died in shipwreck while returning to Portugal.
Viceroy Matias de Albuquerque 15911597
ViceroyD. Francisco da Gama,
conde da Vidigueira
15971600
Viceroy Aires de Saldanha 16001605
Viceroy Martim Afonso de Castro 1605June 1607Died at Malacca in June 1607
GovernorFr. Aleixo de Meneses,
Archbishop of Goa
June 16071609
Governor André Furtado de Mendonça 1609
Viceroy Rui Lourenço de Távora 16091612
ViceroyD. Jerónimo de Azevedo 16121617
ViceroyD. João Coutinho 16171619
Governor Fernão de Albuquerque 16191622
ViceroyD. Francisco da Gama (second time)16221628
ViceroyFr. Luís de Brito e Meneses,
Bishop of Meliapore
1628July 1629Died at Cochim in July 1629
Governing Council1. Nuno Álvares Botelho
2. D. Lourenço da Cunha
3. Gonçalo Pinto da Fonseca
1629
Viceroy Miguel de Noronha, conde de Linhares 16291635
Viceroy Pero da Silva 1635June 1639Died at Goa in June 1639
Governor António Teles de Meneses 16391640
Viceroy João da Silva Telo e Meneses, conde de Aveiras 16401644Returned to Portugal
Viceroy Filipe Mascarenhas 16441651
ViceroyJoão da Silva Telo e Meneses, conde de Aveiras
(second time)
1651Died at Mozambique, en route to India
Governing Council1. Fr. Francisco dos Mártires (Archbp of Goa)
2. Francisco de Melo e Castro
3. António de Sousa Coutinho
16511652
Viceroy Vasco Mascarenhas, 1st Count of Óbedos 16521655Expelled in internal coup
Usurper Brás de Castro 1655Arrested by successor
Governor Rodrigo Lobo da Silveira, Count of Sarzedas23 Aug 165514 January 1656Died at Goa in January 1656
Governor Manuel Mascarenhas Homem 14 January 165622 May 1656
Governing Council1. Manuel Mascarenhas Homem
2. Francisco de Melo e Castro
3. António de Sousa Coutinho
January 16561661
Governing Council1. Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque
2. Manuel Mascarenhas Homem
3. D. Pedro de Lencastre
1661
Governing Council1. Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque,
2. António de Melo e Castro
3. D. Pedro de Lencastre
16611662
Viceroy António de Melo e Castro 16 December 16621666
Viceroy João Nunes da Cunha, Count of São Vicente1666November 1668Died at Goa in November 1668
Governing Council1. António de Melo e Castro,
2. Manuel Corte-Real de Sampaio
3. Luís de Miranda Henriques
November 16681671
Viceroy Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque 16711676Died off Lisbon on return voyage
ViceroyD. Pedro de Almeida, Conde de Assumar 16761678Died at Goa in 1678
Interim Governor António Brandão, Archbishop of Goa
(sometime with António Pais de Sande)
16781681
Viceroy Francisco de Távora, conde de Alvor 16811686
GovernorD. Rodrigo da Costa16861690
GovernorD. Miguel de Almeida 1690January 1691Died at Goa in January 1691
Governing Council1. Fernando Martins Mascarenhas Lencastre
2. Fr. Agostinho da Anunciação (Archbp of Goa)
January 16911692
Viceroy Pedro António de Meneses Noronha de Albuquerque 16921697Returned to Portugal
Viceroy António Luís Gonçalves da Câmara Coutinho 16971701
Governing Council1. Fr. Agostinho da Anunciação (Archp of Goa)
2. D. Vasco Lima Coutinho
17011702
Viceroy Caetano de Melo e Castro 17021707
ViceroyD. Rodrigo da Costa
(second time, as Viceroy now)
17071712
Viceroy Vasco Fernandes César de Meneses, Count of Sabugosa17121717Returned to Portugal
GovernorFr. Sebastião de Andrade Pessanha, Archbishop of GoaJanuary 1717October 1717
Viceroy Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier de Meneses, Count of EriceiraOctober 17171720
Viceroy Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro 1720July 1723Died at Goa in July 1723
Interim Governor Cristóvão de Melo July 1723
Governing Council1. Cristóvão de Melo
2. Fr. Inácio de Santa Teresa (Archbp of Goa)
3. Cristóvão Luís de Andrade
17231725
Viceroy João de Saldanha da Gama 17251732Returned to Portugal
Governing Council1. Cristóvão de Melo
2. Fr. Inácio de Santa Teresa (Archbp of Goa)
3. Tomé Gomes Moreira
1732
Viceroy Pedro de Mascarenhas, Count of Sandomil17321740Returned to Portugal
Viceroy Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier de Meneses, Count of Ericeira
(second time)
17401742Died at Goa in 1742
Governing Council1. Francisco de Vasconcelos
2. Lourenço de Noronha
3. Luís Caetano de Almeida
17421744
Viceroy Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal e Vasconcelos,
Count of Assumar, marquis of Alorna
17441750
Viceroy Francisco de Assis de Távora,
marquis of Távora
September 17501754Returned to Portugal,
executed in 1759
Viceroy Luís Mascarenhas, Count of Alva1754June 1756Died in combat at Goa in June 1756
Governing Council1. António Taveira da Neiva Brum da Silveira
(Archbp of Goa)
2. João de Mesquista Matos Teixeira
3. Filipe de Valadares
17561757
Viceroy Manuel de Saldanha e Albuquerque, Count of Ega17581765Returned to Portugal
Council1. António Taveira da Neiva Brum da Silveira
(Archbp of Goa)
2. João Baptista Vaz Pereira
3. D. João José de Melo
17651768
Governor João José de Melo 17681771Promoted to Captain-General in 1771 (***)
Governor and
Captain-General
João José de Melo 1771January 1774Died at Goa in January 1774
Interim Governor Filipe de Valadares Sotomaior 1774
Governor and Captain-General of India D. José Pedro da Câmara 17741779
Governor and Captain-General of India D. Frederico Guilherme de Sousa Holstein 17791786
Governor and Captain-General of India Francisco da Cunha e Meneses 17861794
Governor and Captain-General of India Francisco António da Veiga Cabral da Câmara,
Viscount of Mirandela
17941806
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Bernardo José Maria da Silveira e Lorena,
Count of Sarzedas
18061816
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Diogo de Sousa,
Count of Rio Pardo
18161821
Provisional Junta of Government of the State of India Manuel José Gomes Loureiro,
Manuel Godinho Mira,
Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama,
Gonçalo de Magalhães Teixeira Pinto
Manuel Duarte Leitão
1821
Provisional Junta of Government of the State of India D. Manuel da Câmara,
D. Frei de São Tomás de Aquino,
António José de Melo Sotomaior Teles,
João Carlos Leal
António José de Lima Leitão
18211822
Provisional Junta of Government of the State of India D. Manuel da Câmara,
D. Frei de São Tomás de Aquino,
António José de Melo Sotomaior Teles,
João Carlos Leal,
Joaquim Mourão Garcez Palha
18221823
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Manuel da Câmara 18231825Dissolved Junta and assumed de facto title of Governor of Portuguese India
Government Council of the State of India D. Frei Manuel de São Galdino,
Cândido José Mourão Garcez Palha,
António Ribeiro de Carvalho
18251826
Governor and Captain-General of India D. Manuel Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro 18261830
Viceroy and Captain-General of India D. Manuel Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro 18261835
Governor Bernardo Peres da Silva 1835
Governor D. Manuel Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro 1835
Governor Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama 1835
Government Council of the State of India João Casimiro Pereira da Rocha de Vasconcelos,
Manuel José Ribeiro,
Frei Constantino de Santa Rita,
João Cabral de Estefique,
António Maria de Melo,
Joaquim António de Morais Carneiro,
António Mariano de Azevedo,
José António de Lemos
18351837After 1836 confined to Goa
Governor Bernardo Peres da Silva 18361837Governor of Daman and Diu, provisional governor of Goa
Governor Simão Infante de Lacerda de Sousa Tavares,
Baron of Sabroso
18371839(restored unity to Portuguese India)
Governor José António Vieira da Fonseca 1839
Governor Manuel José Mendes,
Baron of Candal
18391840
Government Council of the State of India José António Vieira da Fonseca,
José Câncio Freire de Lima,
António João de Ataíde,
Domingos José Mariano Luís,
José da Costa Campos,
Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcelos
1840
Interim Governor José Joaquim Lopes Lima 18401842
Government Council of the State of India António Ramalho de Sá,
António José de Melo Sotomaior Teles,
António João de Ataíde,
José da Costa Campos
Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcelos
1842
Governor Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira,
Count of Antas
18421843
Governor Joaquim Mourão Garcez Palha 18431844
Governor José Ferreira Pestana 18441851
Governor José Joaquim Januário Lapa,
Viscount of Vila Nova de Ourém
18511855
Government Council of the State of India D. Frei Joaquim de Santa Rita Botelho,
Arcebispo de Goa e Primaz das Índias
,
Luís da Costa Campos,
Francisco Xavier Peres,
Bernardo Heitor da Silva e Lorena,
Vítor Anastácio Mourão Garcez Palha
1855
Governor António César de Vasconcelos Correia,
Count of Torres Novas
18551864
Governor José Ferreira Pestana 186418702nd term
Governor Januário Correia de Almeida,
Count of São Januário
18701871
Governor Joaquim José Macedo e Couto 18711875
Governor João Tavares de Almeida 18751877
Government Council of the State of India D. Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos,
Archbishop of Goa and Primate of the Indies
,
João Caetano da Silva Campos,
Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga
Eduardo Augusto de Sá Nogueira Pinto Balsemão
1877
Governor António Sérgio de Sousa 18771878
Government Council of the State of India D. Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos,
Archbishop of Goa and Primate of the Indies
,
João Caetano da Silva Campos,
Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga
António Sérgio de Sousa Júnior
1878
Governor Caetano Alexandre de Almeida e Albuquerque 18781882
Governor Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,
Viscount of Paço d'Arcos
18821886
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
José de Sá Coutinho,
José Inácio de Brito
José Maria Teixeira Guimarães
1886
Governor Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral 1886
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
José de Sá Coutinho,
José Inácio de Brito
José Maria Teixeira Guimarães
1886
Governor Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho 18861889
Interim Governor Joaquim Augusto Mouzinho de Albuquerque 1889
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
Joaquim Borges de Azevedo Enes,
José Inácio de Brito,
Joaquim Augusto Mouzinho de Albuquerque
1889
Governor Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses 18891891
Governor Francisco Maria da Cunha 1891
Interim Governor João Manuel Correia Taborda 189118921st term
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
Luís Fisher Berquó Falcão,
Raimundo Maria Correia Mendes,
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1892
Governor Francisco Teixeira da Silva 18921893
Government Council of the State of India Luís Poças Falcão,
Raimundo Maria Correia Mendes,
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1893
Governor Rafael Jácome de Andrade 189318941st term
Interim Governor João Manuel Correia Taborda 18942nd term
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
Francisco António Ochoa,
Luís Carneiro de Sousa e Faro,
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1894
Governor Elesbão José de Bettencourt Lapa, Viscount of Vila Nova de Ourém 18941895
Governor Rafael Jácome de Andrade 189518962nd term
Viceroy Prince D. Afonso Henriques de Bragança,
Duke of Porto
1896
Interim Governor João António de Brissac das Neves Ferreira 18961897
Interim Governor João Manuel Correia Taborda 18973rd term
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
Francisco António Ochoa,
João de Melo Sampaio,
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1897
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
Abel Augusto Correia do Pinto,
João de Melo Sampaio,
João Manuel Correia Taborda
1897
Governor Joaquim José Machado 18971900
Governor Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo 19001905
Government Council of the State of India D. António Sebastião Valente,
Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies
,
Alfredo Mendonça David,
José Emílio Santana da Cunha Castel-Branco,
Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
1905
Governor Arnaldo de Novais Guedes Rebelo 19051907
Government Council of the State of India Bernardo Nunes Garcia,
César Augusto Rancon,
Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
1907
Governor José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa 19071910
Governor-General Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa 19101917
Interim Governor-General Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira 19171st term
Government Council of the State of India Francisco Peixoto de Oliveira e Silva,
Francisco Wolfgango da Silva,
Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
1917
Governor-General José de Freitas Ribeiro 19171919
Interim Governor-General Augusto de Paiva Bobela da Mota 19191920
Governador-General Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais 19201925
Interim Governor-General Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira 19252nd term
Governor-General Mariano Martins 19251926
Interim Governor-General Tito Augusto de Morais 1926
Interim Governor-General Acúrcio Mendes da Rocha Dinis 19261927
Governor-General Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim 19271929
Interim Governor-General Acúrcio Mendes da Rocha Dinis 1929
Governor-General Alfredo Pedro de Almeida 19291930
Governor-General João Carlos Craveiro Lopes 19301936
Interim Governor-General Francisco Craveiro Lopes 19361938
Governor-General José Ricardo Pereira Cabral 19381945
Interim Governor-General Paulo Bénard Guedes 19451946
Governor-General José Ferreira Bossa 19461947
Interim Governor-General José Alves Ferreira 19471948
Governor-General Fernando de Quintanilha e Mendonça Dias 19481952
Governor-General Paulo Bénard Guedes 19521958
Governor-General Manuel António Vassalo e Silva 19581961

(*) - In 1508, King Manuel I of Portugal devised a plan to partition the Portuguese empire in Asia into three separate governments or "high captaincies" - (1) Captain-Major of the seas of Ethiopia, Arabia and Persia, centered at Socotra, was to cover the East African and Arabian-Persian coasts, from Sofala to Diu; (2) Captain-Major of the seas of India, centered at Cochin, was to cover the Indian coast from Diu down to Cape Comorin. Afonso de Albuquerque was Captain-General of the latter. Jorge de Aguiar was made Captain-General of the former. A third high captaincy, covering Asia east of Cape Comorin (yet to be explored) was assigned to Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, who was assigned that year to discover Malacca. The triarchy experiment failed - Aguiar drowned en route, while Sequeira quit the region in 1509, after his debacle at Malacca, leaving Albuquerque sole governor of the whole unpartitioned complex.

(**) - Around 1570, King Sebastian of Portugal tried to partition the Portuguese State of India into three separate governments (much like Manuel's plan of 1508) - a western state based around Sofala (covering the East African coast from Cape Correntes to Cape Guardafui), a central state ruled from Goa (covering the area between the Red Sea and Ceylon, encompassing India, reserved for the "Viceroy") and an eastern state ruled from Malacca (covering Southeast Asia, from Pegu to China). D. António de Noronha was appointed to Goa, António Moniz Barreto to Malacca, and Francisco Barreto (the former India governor) to Sofala.

(***) - Title of Viceroy of Indies extinguished by royal letter in 1771, replaced by Capitão-Geral (Captain-General) of the Indies.

See also

Related Research Articles

Afonso de Albuquerque Portuguese general and nobleman

Afonso de Albuquerque, 1st Duke of Goa was a Portuguese general, admiral, and statesman. He served as Governor of Portuguese India from 1509 to 1515, during which he expanded Portuguese influence across the Indian Ocean and built a reputation as a fierce and skilled military commander.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli District in Western India

Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a district of the Indian union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu in western India. It is composed of two separate geographical entities: Nagar Haveli, wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat and 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the northwest, the smaller enclave of Dadra, which is surrounded by Gujarat. Silvassa is the administrative headquarters of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

Daman and Diu Union Territory India

Daman and Diu is a district of the Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory in western India. It was a separate union territory until January 8, 1983, later it is merged with Dadra and Nagar Haveli union territory to form a single UT due to its small landmass. With an area of 112 km2 (43 sq mi), it was the smallest federal division of India on the mainland. The territory comprised two distinct regions—Daman and Diu—that are geographically separated by the Gulf of Khambhat. The state of Gujarat and the Arabian Sea bordered the territory. A Portuguese Indian colony since the early 1500s, the territories were annexed by India in 1961. Daman and Diu were administered as part of the union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu between 1961 and 1987, when they became a separate union territory. In 2019, legislation was passed to merge the union territory of Daman and Diu with its neighbouring union territory, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, to form the new union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu with effect from January 8 2783.

Portuguese India Former colony of Portugal

The State of India, also referred as the Portuguese State of India or simply Portuguese India, was a colonial state of the Portuguese Empire founded six years after the discovery of a sea route to the Indian Subcontinent by the Kingdom of Portugal. The capital of Portuguese India served as the governing centre of a string of Portuguese fortresses and settlements scattered along the Indian Ocean.

Battle of Diu Battle between Muslims and the Portuguese over Indian trade

The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, and the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire.

History of Goa

The history of Goa dates back to prehistoric times, though the present-day state of Goa was only established as recently as 1987. In spite of being India's smallest state by area, Goa's history is both long and diverse. It shares a lot of similarities with Indian history, especially with regard to colonial influences and a multi-cultural aesthetic.

Francisco de Almeida

Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as the Great Dom Francisco, was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer. He distinguished himself as a counsellor to King John II of Portugal and later in the wars against the Moors and in the conquest of Granada in 1492. In 1505 he was appointed as the first governor and viceroy of the Portuguese State of India. Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean with his victory at the naval Battle of Diu in 1509. Before Almeida returned to Portugal he lost his life in a conflict with indigenous people at the Cape of Good Hope in 1510. His only son Lourenço de Almeida had previously been killed in the Battle of Chaul.

Daman district, India District in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, India

Daman is one of the three districts of the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu on the western coast of India, surrounded by Valsad district of Gujarat state on the north, east and south and the Arabian Sea to the west. The district has an area of 72 square kilometres (28 sq mi), and a population of 191,173 at the 2011 census, an increase of 69.256% from the preceding 2001 Census. The district headquarters is Daman.

Diu, India City in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, India

Diu, also known as Diu Town, is a town in Diu district in the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, India. Diu District is the tenth least populated district of India.

Annexation of Goa Indian Army operation in December 1961 to annex Goa into Indian Republic

The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed Estado da India, the then Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the armed action carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961. In India, this action is referred to as the "Liberation of Goa". In Portugal, it is referred to as the "Invasion of Goa".

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman Archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Goa and Daman encompasses the state of Goa and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu in India. The ecclesiastical province of Goa and Daman includes a suffragan diocese, Sindhudurg. The Archbishop of Goa also holds the titles of Primate of the East and Patriarch of the East Indies. The diocese is under the Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.

Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli

The Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli was the conflict in which the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli passed from Portuguese rule to independent rule, with Indian allegiance, in 1954.

Capture of Malacca (1511) Portuguese military conquest

The Capture of Malacca in 1511 occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the city of Malacca in 1511.

Portuguese conquest of Goa

The Portuguese conquest of Goa occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque captured the city in 1510. Goa was not among the cities Albuquerque had received orders to conquer: he had only been ordered by the Portuguese king to capture Hormuz, Aden, and Malacca.

Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of India incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli

The Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution Act, 1961, incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli as the seventh Union territory of India, by amending the First Schedule to the Constitution. It also amended clause (1) of article 240 of the Constitution to include therein the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in order to enable the President to "make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the territory". The 10th Amendment retroactively came into effect on 11 August 1961.

The 1505 expedition of Pêro de Anaia to Sofala led to the establishment of Fort São Caetano, the first permanent Portuguese colony in East Africa. The Capitaincy of Sofala would eventually evolve into the colonial government of Portuguese Mozambique.

Fort of São Tiago of Banastarim

The Fort of São Tiago of Banastarim in India, also known as Fort St. James Banastarim or Benastari Castle, is located at on the right bank of Cumbarjua Canal, on the eastern tip of Old Goa, North Goa district in the state of Goa on the west coast of India.

Garcia de Sá

Garcia de Sá was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier, explorer, fidalgo of the Royal Household, who was the 14th ruler of Portuguese India as governor from June 1548 to 13 of June 1549.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Union territory of India

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu is a union territory in western India. It was created through the merger of the former union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. Plans for the proposed merger were announced by the Government of India in July 2019 and the necessary legislation was passed in the Parliament of India in December 2019 and came into effect on 26 January 2020. The territory is made up of four separate geographical entities Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Daman and the island of Diu. All four areas were part of Portuguese India with the capital in Velha Goa, they came under Indian administration in the mid-20th century. The capital city is Daman while Silvassa is the largest city.

References

  1. Treaty Between the Government of India and the Government of the Republic of Portugal on Recognition of Portugal of India's Sovereignty Over Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli and Related Matters 1974
  2. "India and Portugal Resume Ties After 19 Years". The New York Times. 1 January 1975. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  3. List based on: Danvers, Frederick Charles (1988) The Portuguese in India: being a history of the rise and decline of their eastern empire. Asian Educational Services; p. 487 (Appendix B); and Henry Morse Stephens (1892) Albuquerque, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Vol. 4, p.13

Further reading