Murchison, Victoria

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Murchison
Victoria
MurchisonMainStreet.JPG
Main street
Australia Victoria Greater Shepparton City location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Murchison
Coordinates 36°37′S145°13′E / 36.617°S 145.217°E / -36.617; 145.217 Coordinates: 36°37′S145°13′E / 36.617°S 145.217°E / -36.617; 145.217
Population925 (2016 census) [1]
Postcode(s) 3610
Elevation125 m (410 ft)
Location
LGA(s) City of Greater Shepparton
State electorate(s) Euroa
Federal Division(s) Nicholls

Murchison is a small riverside rural village located on the Goulburn River in Victoria, Australia. Murchison is located 167 kilometres from Melbourne and is just to the west of the Goulburn Valley Highway between Shepparton and Nagambie. The surrounding countryside contains orchards, vineyards and dairy farms and also HM Prison Dhurringile. At the 2016 census, Murchison had a population of 925. [1]

Contents

History

Pre-twentieth century

The Ngooraialum tribe were the Aboriginal inhabitants of the area. The first explorer to enter the Goulburn Valley was Thomas Mitchell who crossed the Goulburn River at Mitchellstown. The first Europeans to visit what would become the site where the drovers Joseph Hawdon and Charles Bonney who drove cattle between Mitchellstown and Adelaide.

Squatters started settling the area in 1840 with a school being established that year and a police station in 1841. The aboriginal protectorate was also transferred from Mitchellstown to Murchison in 1840 and closed in 1850.

French vigneron Ludovic Marie settled in Murchison in 1850 and established vineyards. He also set up a hotel and punt service over the Goulburn for gold miners travelling between Bendigo and Beechworth. A township was established in 1854 with the town being named after Captain John Murchison, an early settler. [2]

The town grew rapidly, with a post office opening on 19 January 1855 (replacing an earlier office at Warranga), [3] a flour mill in 1858 and a Presbyterian church and school in 1859. Small selectors started settling the area after 1870. A bridge was built over the Goulburn to replace the punt service in 1871, with a newspaper, courthouse and mechanics' institute being established in 1870.

The town grew further in 1875 with the arrival of the first paddle steamer. At that time, Murchison had six hotels, a number of general stores, two flour mills including the highly intact Days Mill and Farm at Murchison South, and numerous stores and services. In 1878, Murchison became the base for operations against Ned Kelly and his gang. The railway reached Murchison East in 1880 and a second station named Murchison was opened on the line to Rushworth in 1890. [4]

The building of the Goulburn Weir for irrigation in 1887-90 meant that the Goulburn River was no longer navigable by paddle steamer, which led to Murchison declining in importance. The development of irrigation led to the growth of nearby towns, notably Shepparton. The Waranga Basin was developed in the early part of the twentieth century approximately 15 kilometres from the town.

Twentieth century

Muchison East station Murchison East passenger shelter.jpg
Muchison East station

Approximately 4,000 Italian, Japanese and German prisoners of war (POWs) were interned near the town between 1941 and 1947. Dhurringile Homestead, 11 kilometres to the north, was used as a POW camp for German officers while the Italians and Japanese were kept at an internment camp in the town. The prisoner of war camp employed 675 people with the Italians and Japanese prisoners working as fruitpickers. The German POWs were not used. After the camps closed in 1947, the internment camp became an Italian war memorial while Dhurringhile Homestead became a minimum security prison, HM Prison Dhurringile.

The Italian National Ossario is located at Murchison cemetery and holds the remains of 130 Italian soldiers and civilians who died while interned in Australia. [5]

Murchison meteorite

On 28 September 1969 a meteorite shower fell 2 kilometres south of Murchison. Many local residents collected samples of these meteorites reducing the chance of contamination. [6] The rocks were analysed at the NASA Ames Research Center where they were discovered to contain the first convincing evidence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin, supporting the Miller–Urey experiment. The Murchison meteorite samples contained 90 different amino acids, only 19 of which are found on earth. The meteorite has been found to contain the oldest materials known to have reached earth. The Meteorite Park in the centre of Murchison celebrates this discovery.

Transport

Murchison East station is serviced by V/Line passenger trains on the Shepparton Line.

Sport

The town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Kyabram & District Football League. [7] The first grade team won the 2013 league premiership.

Golfers play at the course of the Murchison Golf Club on Goulburn Valley Highway, Murchison East. [8]

World Headbutting Champion Gianni Vazzoler resides in Murchison since winning his title in nearby Shepparton in 2013. [9]

Related Research Articles

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City of Greater Shepparton Local government area in Victoria, Australia

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HM Prison Dhurringile is a minimum security prison located in Dhurringile, Victoria, Australia. Situated 160 km north of Melbourne near Murchison, it is based around the historic Dhurringile estate.

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Tatura Town in Victoria, Australia

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Nagambie Town in Victoria, Australia

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Tallygaroopna Town in Victoria, Australia

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Shire of Waranga Local government area in Victoria, Australia

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Merrigum Town in Victoria, Australia

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Hay Internment and POW camps prisoner-of-war camp in New South Wales, Australia during World War II

The Hay Internment and POW camps at Hay, New South Wales, Australia were established during World War II as prisoner-of-war and internment centres, due in no small measure to the isolated location of the town. Three high-security camps were constructed in 1940. The first arrivals were over two thousand refugees from Nazi Germany and Austria, most of whom were Jewish; they had been interned in the United Kingdom when fears of an armed invasion of Britain were at their peak. The British government then made the decision to forcibly transport these refugees to Australia on the HMT Dunera. The internees were kept in conditions on board the Dunera that were cruel and inhumane, and after the war the Dunera story became quite infamous, leading the British government to apologise for their egregious mistreatment of innocent civilian refugees. The internees arrived at Hay on 7 September 1940 by four trains from Sydney. They were interned in Camps 7 and 8 under the guard of the 16th Garrison Battalion of the Australian Army. In November 1940 the other compound at Hay, Camp 6, was occupied by Italian civilian internees. Camps 7 and 8 were vacated in May 1941 when the Dunera internees left Hay; some were sent to Orange (NSW), others to Tatura in Victoria, and others to join the Pioneer Corps of the Australian Army. Upon their departure Italian prisoners-of-war were placed in Camps 7 and 8. In December 1941 Japanese internees were conveyed to Hay and placed in Camp 6. In April 1942 the River Farm began operating on the eastern edge of the township, enabling market-gardening and other farm activities to be carried out by the Italian internees and POWs. In February 1945, in the wake of the Cowra POW break-out, a large number of Japanese POWs were transferred to Hay and placed in the three high-security compounds. On 1 March 1946 the Japanese POWs departed from Hay in five trains, transferred to Tatura. During 1946 the Italians who remained at Hay were progressively released or transferred to other camps, and the Hay camps were dismantled and building materials and fittings sold off by June the following year.

George Kenner German artist

George Kenner was a German artist. He made 110 paintings and drawings during the First World War while interned as a German civilian prisoner of war in Great Britain and the Isle of Man.

Days Mill and Farm

Days Mill and Farm comprises an historic steam-driven flour mill, farm and homestead at Murchison South, Victoria, Australia constructed in 1865 by William and Anne Day. The mill is the best preserved 19th century flour mill in Victoria and a remarkably intact heritage site.

Ngooraialum

Ngooraialum were an indigenous Australian tribal subgroup, one of 3 comprising the Ngurai-illam-wurrung, though Norman Tindale placed them among the Taungurong. They inhabited land along the Goulburn River in central Victoria, north of Mitchellstown, at Murchison, above Toolamba, within 40 miles (64 km) of the Murray-Goldburn junction. The heart of their land was Noorillim, which they called Waaring.

Italian prisoners of war in Australia were Italian soldiers captured by the British and Allied Forces in World War II and taken to Australia.

Dhurringile Australian heritage listed property

Dhurringile is a heritage-listed mansion and former rural estate in northern Victoria, Australia. It is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register for its architectural significance as "one of Victoria's grandest homesteads", for its associations with the Winter-Irving pastoral family, and for its later uses as an internment and prisoner of war camp, boys' training home and most recently, as part of HM Prison Dhurringile.

References

  1. 1 2 "2016 Census QuickStats Murchison". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. Blake, Les (1977) Place Names of Victoria, Melbourne, Vic: Rigby Limited, ISBN   0-7270-0250-3
  3. Premier Postal History, Post Office List , retrieved 11 April 2008
  4. Sid Brown (March 1990), "Tracks Across the State", Newsrail, Australian Railway Historical Society (Victorian Division), pp. 71–76.
  5. Egan, Laura (11 November 2016). "In memory of those who never walked free from World War II". Il Globo. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  6. Pepper, F. When a space visitor came to country Victoria ABC News , 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  7. Full Points Footy, Murchison, archived from the original on 31 July 2008, retrieved 25 July 2008
  8. Golf Select, Murchison , retrieved 11 May 2009
  9. Vazzoler, Gianni (2014). The Speeding Guido: From the Beginning (Part I). Rome: Collins. p. 2. ISBN   9781939734914.

Further reference