Seoul has been known in the past by the successive names Wiryeseong (Korean : 위례성; Hanja : 慰禮城, Baekje era), Namgyeong (남경;南京, Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성;漢城, Joseon era) or Hanyang (한양;漢陽). During the period of Japanese occupation (1910–1945), Seoul was referred to by the Japanese exonym Keijō (けいじょう or 京城), or Gyeongseong (경성;京城) in Korean. After World War II and Korea's liberation, the city took its present name, Seoul, which had been in use since at least 1882, at times concurrently with other names.
Seoul is a rendering of the Korean word “seo'ul” (서울), pronounced [səˈul]. An etymological hypothesis presumes that the origin of the native word “seo'ul” derives from the native name Seorabeol (Korean : 서라벌; Hanja : 徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla, then called Geumseong (금성;金城).
Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language), although its name is presumed to derive from 徐羅伐 (Seorabeol), so Chinese-speaking countries for decades have referred to the city by its former name: 漢城 ("Hànchéng" in Mandarin, "Hon Sìhng" in Cantonese and "Hoe Zen" in Shanghainese). On a 1751 map of China and Korea prepared in France, Seoul was marked as "King-Ki-Tao, Capitale de la Corée", using an approximation of the Chinese pronunciation of Gyeonggi Province (京畿道). The use of "King-Ki-Tao" to refer to Seoul was repeated again on the 1851 Tallis/Rapkin map of both Japan and Korea. For a time during the late 1940s and early 1950s, the transliterated name Sūwū (蘇烏), which closely resembles the English pronunciation for Seoul, was used.
This often caused problems in translation, as in Korean, the terms "Seoul" and "Hanseong" are considered different. There exist many institutions and entities, most of them having no connections whatsoever, which use either name. When the names of these institutions and entities are translated into Chinese, both "Seoul" and "Hanseong" were automatically translated to 漢城 (Hànchéng). Typical examples of such errors in translation included Seoul National University versus Hansung University, which both would be translated to 漢城大學 (Hànchéng Dàxué), as well as Seoul Science High School versus Hansung Science High School.
The problem, along with the confusion it caused for years, was solved in January 2005, when the Seoul City Government under then mayor Lee Myung Bak publicly requested that the Chinese name of the city be changed to 首爾 (pinyin :Shǒu'ěr), written as 首尔 in simplified Chinese in mainland China. The name was chosen by a select committee out of two names, the other being 首午爾 (pinyin:Shǒuwu'ěr).
The chosen name is a close transliteration of Seoul in Mandarin Chinese; 首 (shǒu) can also mean "first" or "capital". For a some time after the name change, Chinese-language news media have used both names interchangeably during their publications or broadcasts (首爾 [漢城] in print, 首爾, 以前的漢城 [literally: Shouer, formerly Hancheng] in television and radio). Despite the adoption of Shǒu'ěr (首爾) in Chinese media, the name Hànchéng (漢城) is still widely used by some Chinese people. This change was intended for Chinese speakers only, and has no effect on the Korean language name. The new name would be written and pronounced 수이 (Su-i) in Korean. Some linguists have criticized the selection of the new name, claiming that its pronunciation in Korean bears no resemblance to the native name at all, and that its intended representation of the Korean pronunciation, while effective in Mandarin, is lost in other regional dialects, such as in Cantonese, where the name is pronounced "sau2 yi5", or in Shanghainese, in which the new name (首爾) is pronounced "sew2 el3". These critics have said that the names "西蔚" or "徐蔚" (the latter being the ancient name of Seoul) would have been much more effective in representing the city's Korean name.
"Gyeongseong" is a Sino-Korean word for "capital city" (Gyeong (경; 京 ) means "capital" and seong (성; 城 ) means "walled city"). It was in occasional use to refer to Seoul throughout the Joseon dynasty, having earlier referred to the capitals of Goryeo and Silla. The term came into much wider use during the period of Japanese rule, because it is also the Korean form of Keijō (京城), the former Japanese name used for Seoul during the colonial rule.
Seoul was called Hanseong (漢城) or Hanyang (漢陽) during the Joseon dynasty, but the city's main railway station, Seoul Station, opened with the name "Gyeongseong Station" (京城驛) in 1900, which it retained until 1905. It was called Gyeongseong Station again from 1923 to 1947, when it assumed its current name.
Gyeong is still used to refer to Seoul in the names of various railway lines and freeways, including:
Hanja is the Korean name for a traditional writing system consisting mainly of Chinese characters that was incorporated and used since the Gojoseon period (400 BC). More specifically, it refers to the Chinese characters incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation.
Gyeonggi Province is the most populous province in South Korea. Its name, Gyeonggi, means "the area surrounding the capital". Thus Gyeonggi-do can be translated as "province surrounding Seoul". Seoul, the nation's largest city and capital, is in the heart of the province but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946. Incheon, the nation's third-largest city, is on the coast of the province and has been similarly administered as a provincial-level metropolitan city since 1981. The three jurisdictions are collectively referred to as Sudogwon and cover 11,730 km2 (4,530 sq mi), with a combined population of 25.5 million—amounting to over half of the entire population of South Korea.
The name Gyeongbu refers to the Seoul-Busan corridor in South Korea. It is used as the name of the Gyeongbu railway line and Gyeongbu Expressway, both of which connect Seoul—the South Korean capital and largest city—to Busan—the largest port and second-largest city. The name "Gyeongbu" is formed from the first characters in the names "Gyeongseong" 경성 and "Busan" 부산.
Seoul Station is a major railway station in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. The station is served by the Korail Intercity Lines and the commuter trains of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway.
The history of Seoul can be traced back as far as 18 BC, although humans have occupied the area now known as Seoul since Paleolithic Age. It has been the capital of numerous kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula since it was established.
This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with G. For Korean words starting with ㄱ, see also under K.
The Yeongeunmun was a historical gate located in present Hyeonjeo-dong, Seodaemun-gu, in the northwestern part of Seoul, South Korea. It was built in front of Mohwagwan during the Joseon dynasty where envoys dispatched from Ming and Qing China were received as diplomatic guests.
Seoul, officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. Seoul has a population of 9.7 million people, and forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area with the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province. Considered to be a global city, Seoul was the world's 4th largest metropolitan economy in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. In 2017, the cost of living in Seoul was ranked the 6th highest globally.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885, also known as the Treaty of Hanseong with Hanseong being a historical name for Seoul, was negotiated between Japan and Korea following an unsuccessful coup d'état in the Korean capital in December 1884.
The King of Legend is a 2010 South Korean historical drama based on King Geunchogo of Baekje. Besides historical information from Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, it was also inspired by a novel written by Lee Munyeol, a renowned Korean writer. The drama aired on KBS1 in Korea, and internationally through KBS World.
Lee Young-min was a South Korean versatile sportsman who played in football, baseball and athletics.
The Seoul Capital Area (SCA), Sudogwon or Gyeonggi region is the metropolitan area of Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi Province, located in north-west South Korea. Its population of 25 million ranked as the fifth largest metropolitan area in the world. Its area is about 11,704 km2 (4,519 sq mi). It forms the cultural, commercial, financial, industrial, and residential center of South Korea. The largest city is Seoul, with a population of approximately 10 million people, followed by Incheon, with 3 million inhabitants.
The Chōsen Government Railway was a state-owned railway company in Chōsen. It was also colloquially known by the abbreviated name Sentetsu (鮮鐵). It was the operational division of the Railway Bureau of the Government-General of Chōsen, which managed and operated railways in Chōsen, as well as supervised privately owned railway companies.
Seoul Overseas Chinese High School or Hanseong Chinese Middle and High School is a Republic of China (Taiwan)-oriented Chinese international junior and senior high school in Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It follows the curriculum of the ROC, and accordingly uses textbooks from Taiwan.
The Keijin Railway LP, was a privately owned railway company in the Korean Empire.
The Gyeongui Line was a railway line of the Chosen Government Railway running from Gyeongseong to Sinuiju in Korea. After the partition of Korea in 1945, the line was divided between North and South Korea.
The modern history of newspapers in Korea dates back to at least the 19th century. Historically, newspapers were a reflection of their times and sometimes included conflicting values.