Pedicularis

Last updated

Pedicularis
Pedicularis bracteosa 7613.JPG
Pedicularis bracteosa
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Orobanchaceae
Tribe: Pedicularideae
Genus: Pedicularis
L.
Species

500+, see text

Pedicularis is a genus of perennial green root parasite plants currently placed in the family Orobanchaceae (the genus previously having been placed in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato [1] ).

Contents

Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum (Moor-king Lousewort) Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum - Inflorescence - Niitvalja bog.jpg
Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum (Moor-king Lousewort)
Pedicularis semibarbata ssp charlestonensis (pinewoods lousewort) Pedicularis semibarbata ssp charlestonensis 7.jpg
Pedicularis semibarbata ssp charlestonensis (pinewoods lousewort)
Pollination Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum - Bombus schrencki - Niitvalja bog.jpg
Pollination
Pedicularis zeylanica Pedicularis zeylanica-Silent Valley-2016-08-13-001.jpg
Pedicularis zeylanica

Description

Between 350 and 600 species are accepted by different authorities, mostly from the wetter northern temperate zones, as well as from South America. The highest diversity is in eastern Asia, with 352 species accepted in China alone. [2] [3]

Taxonomy

The common name lousewort, applied to several species, derives from an old belief that these plants, when ingested, were responsible for lice infestations in livestock. [4] [5] The genus name Pedicularis is from the Latin pediculus meaning louse. [6]

Selected species

Pollination

Bombus polaris has an essential role in the pollination of the large zygomorphic flowers of Pedicularis. [8] B. polaris has a special adaption that allows it to work the spikes of Pedicularis from the bottom towards the top. [8]

Related Research Articles

Hazel Genus of trees

The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is usually placed in the birch family Betulaceae, though some botanists split the hazels into a separate family Corylaceae. The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut.

<i>Pedicularis canadensis</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis canadensis, commonly called Canadian lousewort or wood betony, is a flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae. It is native to North America, where it is found in southeastern Canada, the eastern United States, and eastern Mexico. It has a wide-ranging natural habitat, being found in mesic to dry, forests, woodlands, and prairies.

<i>Jeffersonia</i> A genus of flowering plants belonging to the barberry family

Jeffersonia, also known as twinleaf or rheumatism root, is a small genus of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Berberidaceae. They are uncommon spring wildflowers and grow in limestone soils of rich deciduous forests. Jeffersonia was named for United States President Thomas Jefferson by his contemporary Benjamin Smith Barton. This genus was formerly grouped in genus Podophyllum. Twinleaf is protected by state laws as a threatened or endangered plant in Georgia, Iowa, New York, and New Jersey.

<i>Pedicularis furbishiae</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis furbishiae, or Furbish's lousewort, is a perennial herb found only on the shores of the upper Saint John River in Maine and New Brunswick. Furbish's lousewort was first recognized as a new species by Maine naturalist and botanical artist Kate Furbish in 1880. It is considered an endangered species in the United States and Canada, and is threatened by habitat destruction, as well as riverside development, forestry, littering and recreational use of the riverbank. It was formerly in the family Scrophulariaceae, but is now placed in the family Orobanchaceae.

<i>Pedicularis groenlandica</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis groenlandica is a showy flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae which is known by the common names elephant's head and elephanthead lousewort. This erect plant can grow to a height of 80 centimetres (31 in). Its sharply-toothed fernlike leaves are located low on the stout stem. The stem is topped with a large inflorescence of bright pink to purple or white flowers. Each flower has a long, pointed beak which curves upward, superficially resembling the trunk of an elephant, and the lateral lobes of the flower resemble an elephant's ears. Like other louseworts and related broomrape genera, this is a root parasite which obtains nutrients from the roots of other plants by piercing them with haustoria. This plant is found in the high mountain ranges of western North America, particularly the Cascades and High Sierra, much of Canada and Greenland. It grows in wet environments such as riverbanks.

Bombus polaris is a common Arctic bumblebee species. B. polaris is one of two bumblebees that live above the Arctic Circle. The other is its social parasite Bombus hyperboreus. B. polaris is a social bee that can survive at near freezing temperatures. It has developed multiple adaptations to live in such cold temperatures. B. polaris has a thicker coat of hair than most bees, utilizes thermoregulation, and makes insulated nests.

<i>Chloropyron palmatum</i> Species of flowering plant

Chloropyron palmatum is an endangered species of salt-tolerant, flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae. It is a low, highly branched herbaceous annual with each flower enclosed by a single, characteristically palmate bract. It is known by the common names of palmate salty bird's-beak and palmate-bract bird's-beak.

<i>Pedicularis contorta</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis contorta is a species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae known by the common names coiled lousewort and curved-beak lousewort. It is native to western North America, including southwestern Canada and the northwestern United States, where it grows in moist mountainous habitat, such as bogs, shady forests, and meadows. It is a perennial herb producing one or more stems up to 40 centimetres (16 in) tall from a caudex. The leaves are up to 18 centimetres (7.1 in) long, lance-shaped to oblong, and divided into many linear lobes which may be toothed or smooth-edged. The inflorescence is a raceme of flowers occupying the top of the stem. Each flower is a centimeter long or slightly longer, white to yellowish in color, and divided into a coiled or curved beak-like upper lip and a flat, three-lobed lower lip. The fruit is a capsule up to a centimeter long containing seeds with netted surfaces.

<i>Pedicularis dudleyi</i> Species of tree

Pedicularis dudleyi is a rare species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae known by the common name Dudley's lousewort. It is endemic to central California, where it is known from about ten scattered occurrences along the coast and in the coastal mountain ranges. It has been found in three locations along the Central California coast. The species was named for 19th-century Stanford University botanist William Dudley.

Pedicularis howellii is an uncommon species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae known by the common name Howell's lousewort. It is endemic to the Siskiyou Mountains of the Klamath Range in southern Oregon and northern California, where it grows on the edges of coniferous forests. This is a perennial herb producing one or more stems up to 45 centimetres (18 in) tall from a long caudex. The leaves are up to 20 centimetres (8 in) long, lance-shaped, and divided into many toothed oval lobes; those higher on the stem may be unlobed. The basal leaves fall away early. The inflorescence is a small raceme of flowers occupying the top of the stem. Each white to light purple flower is up to one centimetre long and is sickle-shaped, with a curved beak-like upper lip and a three-lobed lower lip which may be tucked into the hairy mass of sepals. The plant is pollinated by bumblebees including Bombus mixtus. Between the flowers are hairy to woolly triangular bracts. The fruit is a capsule just under a centimeter long containing seeds with netted surfaces.

<i>Pedicularis racemosa</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis racemosa is a species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae known by the common names sickletop lousewort and leafy lousewort. It is native to western North America, where it grows in coniferous forests. This is a perennial herb producing several stems up to 80 centimetres (31 in) tall, greenish to dark red in color. The leaves are up to 10 centimetres (4 in) long, linear in shape and lined with teeth. The inflorescence is a small raceme of flowers occupying the top of the stem. Each white to light purple or yellow flower is up to 1.6 centimetres long and is divided into a curved or coiled beak-like upper lip and a wide three-lobed lower lip. The fruit is a capsule over a centimeter in length containing smooth seeds.

<i>Pedicularis semibarbata</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis semibarbata, known by the common name pinewoods lousewort, is a species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae.

<i>Lomatium greenmanii</i> Species of flowering plant

Lomatium greenmanii is a rare species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by the common names Greenman's desertparsley and Greenman's biscuitroot. It is endemic to Oregon in the United States, where it is found only in the Wallowa Mountains of Wallowa County.

<i>Pedicularis verticillata</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis verticillata, the whorled lousewort, is a species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae which can be found in Alaska, North-Western Canada, and everywhere in China at the elevation of 2,100–4,400 metres (6,900–14,400 ft).

<i>Pedicularis lanata</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis lanata is a species of flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae. It is native to Canada and Alaska. Its common names include woolly lousewort and bumble-bee flower.

<i>Mabrya</i> Genus of flowering plants

Mabrya is a genus of flowering plants in the plantain family, Plantaginaceae. It consists of herbaceous perennials with brittle upright or drooping stems, found in dry areas of Mexico and the southern United States.

<i>Pedicularis palustris</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis palustris, commonly known as marsh lousewort, is a plant species in the family Orobanchaceae. It is native to central and northern Europe and Asia where it grows in wetlands and boggy habitats. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being of least concern.

<i>Pedicularis sylvatica</i> Species of flowering plant

Pedicularis sylvatica, commonly known as common lousewort, is a plant species in the genus Pedicularis. It is native to central and northern Europe where it grows on moist acidic soils, moorland, grassy heathland and the drier parts of marshes.

References

  1. IPNI (Pedicularis assigned to Scrophulariaceae)
  2. Species accepted by the Flora of China (not detailed here; see external links for details).
  3. O'Neill, A. R.; Rana, S. K. (2019). "An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal Himalaya". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 12 (14): 14. doi: 10.1186/s13002-016-0086-y . PMC   4765049 . PMID   26912113.
  4. Jepson Manual Treatment: Pedicularis
  5. "Online Virtual Flora of Wisconsin - Pedicularis canadensis". wisflora.herbarium.wisc.edu. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  6. Horn, compiled and edited by Dennis Horn and Tavia Cathcart ; technical editor, Thomas E. Hemmerly ; photo editors, David Duhl and Dennis (2005). Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley, and the Southern Appalachians: the official field guide of the Tennessee Native Plant Society. [Edmonton]: Lone Pine Pub. p. 288. ISBN   978-1-55105-428-5.
  7. The Status of Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Animals and Plants of California (PDF), California Department of Fish and Game, Rare Plant Program, 2000, p. 181, retrieved 2007-11-16
  8. 1 2 Kevan, Peter G. (1972-11-01). "Insect Pollination of High Arctic Flowers". Journal of Ecology. 60 (3): 831–847. doi:10.2307/2258569. JSTOR   2258569.