Pictures at an Exhibition

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Pictures at an Exhibition
Suite by Modest Mussorgsky
Musorgsky 1874 b.jpg
Mussorgsky in 1874
Native nameKartinki s vïstavski
Based onAn exhibition of Viktor Hartmann's pictures
Composed2–22 June 1874
Dedication Vladimir Stasov
DurationAbout 35 minutes
MovementsTen, plus a recurring, varied Promenade theme
ScoringSolo piano

Pictures at an Exhibition [lower-alpha 1] is a piano suite in ten movements, plus a recurring and varied Promenade theme, written in 1874 by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky. It is a musical depiction of a tour of an exhibition of works by architect and painter Viktor Hartmann put on at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, following his sudden death in the previous year. Each movement of the suite is based on an individual work, some of which are lost.


The composition has become a showpiece for virtuoso pianists, and became widely known from orchestrations and arrangements produced by other composers and contemporary musicians, with Maurice Ravel's 1922 adaptation for orchestra being the most recorded and performed.

Composition history

Viktor Hartmann (1834-1873) Viktor Gartman.jpg
Viktor Hartmann (1834–1873)

The composition is based on pictures by the artist, architect, and designer Viktor Hartmann. It was probably in 1868 that Mussorgsky first met Hartmann, not long after the latter's return to Russia from abroad. Both men were devoted to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art and quickly became friends. They likely met in the home of the influential critic Vladimir Stasov, who followed both of their careers with interest. According to Stasov's testimony, in 1868, Hartmann gave Mussorgsky two of the pictures that later formed the basis of Pictures at an Exhibition. [1] In 1870, Mussorgsky dedicated the second song ("In the Corner") of the cycle The Nursery to Hartmann. Stasov remarked that Hartmann loved Mussorgsky's compositions, and particularly liked the "Scene by the Fountain" in his opera Boris Godunov . Mussorgsky had abandoned the scene in his original 1869 version, but at the requests of Stasov and Hartmann, he reworked it for Act 3 in his revision of 1872. [2]

The years 1873–74 are associated with the staging of Boris Godunov , the zenith of Mussorgsky's career as a composer—at least from the standpoint of public acclaim. Mussorgsky's distant relative, friend, and roommate during this period, Arseniy Golenishchev-Kutuzov, describing the January 1874 premiere of the opera, remarked: "During the winter, there were, I think, nine performances, and each time the theatre was sold out, each time the public tumultuously called for Mussorgsky." [3] The composer's victory, however, was overshadowed by the negative press he received from critics. Other circumstances conspired to dampen Mussorgsky's spirits. The disintegration of The Mighty Handful and their failure to understand his artistic goals contributed to the isolation he experienced as an outsider in Saint Petersburg's musical establishment. Golenishchev-Kutuzov wrote: "[The Mighty Handful's] banner was held by Mussorgsky alone; all the other members had left it and pursued his own path ..." [4]

Hartmann's sudden death on 4 August 1873 from an aneurysm shook Mussorgsky along with others in Russia's art world. The loss of the artist, aged only 39, plunged the composer into deep despair. Stasov helped to organize a memorial exhibition of over 400 Hartmann works in the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg in February and March 1874. Mussorgsky lent to the exhibition the two pictures Hartmann had given him, and viewed the show in person. Later in June, two-thirds of the way through composing his song cycle Sunless , Mussorgsky was inspired to compose Pictures at an Exhibition, quickly completing the score in three weeks (2–22 June 1874). [5] In a letter to Stasov (see photo), probably written on 12 June 1874, he describes his progress:

Mussorgsky's letter to Stasov, written while composing Pictures Mussorgsky letter to Stasov June 1974.jpg
Mussorgsky's letter to Stasov, written while composing Pictures

My dear généralissime, Hartmann is boiling as Boris boiled—sounds and ideas hung in the air, I am gulping and overeating, and can barely manage to scribble them on paper. I am writing the 4th No.—the transitions are good (on the 'promenade'). I want to work more quickly and steadily. My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes. So far I think it's well turned ... [6]

The music depicts his tour of the exhibition, with each of the ten numbers of the suite serving as a musical illustration of an individual work by Hartmann. [7]

Five days after finishing the composition, he wrote on the title page of the manuscript a tribute to Vladimir Stasov, to whom the work is dedicated. One month later, he added an indication that he intended to have it published. [8]

Golenishchev-Kutuzov gives the following (perhaps biased) [9] account of the work's reception among Mussorgsky's friends and colleagues and an explanation for his failure to follow through on his plans to publish it:

Soon, with the composition of the musical illustrations for Pictures from an Exhibition by the architect Hartmann, he reached the acme of that musical radicalism, to whose 'new shores' and to whose 'unfathomed depths' the admirers of his 'Peepshows' and 'Savishnas' had pushed him so diligently. In music for these illustrations, as Mussorgsky called them, he represented [chicks], children, Baba Yaga in her wooden house on chicken legs, catacombs, gates, and even rattling carts. All this was not done jokingly, but 'seriously'.

There was no end to the enthusiasm shown by his devotees; but many of Mussorgsky's friends, on the other hand, and especially the comrade composers, were seriously puzzled and, listening to the 'novelty,' shook their heads in bewilderment. Naturally, Mussorgsky noticed their bewilderment and seemed to feel that he 'had gone too far.' He set the illustrations aside without even trying to publish them. Mussorgsky devoted himself exclusively to Khovanshchina . [10]

In August, Mussorgsky completed the last two songs of Sunless and then resumed work on Khovanshchina, composing the prelude to Act 1 ("Dawn on the Moscow River") in September.

Publication history

Cover of first edition Pictures at the Exhibition 1st edition.jpg
Cover of first edition

As with most of Mussorgsky's works, Pictures at an Exhibition has a complicated publication history. Although composed very rapidly, during June 1874, the work did not appear in print until 1886, five years after the composer's death, when an edition by the composer's friend and colleague Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov was published. This edition, however, was not a completely accurate representation of Mussorgsky's score but presented a revised text that contained a number of errors and misreadings.

Only in 1931, marking the 50th anniversary of the composer's death, was Pictures at an Exhibition published in a scholarly edition in agreement with his manuscript, to be included in Volume 8 of Pavel Lamm's M. P. Mussorgsky: Complete Collected Works (1939).

In 1940, the Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola published an important critical edition of Mussorgsky's work with extensive commentary.

Mussorgsky's hand-written manuscript was published in facsimile in 1975.

1886Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov V. Bessel and Co., Saint PetersburgRevised edition
1931Pavel Lamm Muzgiz, MoscowRestoration of the composer's score
Muzïka, MoscowFacsimile of the composer's manuscript

Hartmann's pictures

Viktor Hartmann Viktor Hartmann.jpg
Viktor Hartmann

Mussorgsky based his musical material on drawings and watercolours by Hartmann produced mostly during the artist's travels abroad. Locales include Italy, France, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Today most of the pictures from the Hartmann exhibition are lost, making it impossible to be sure in many cases which Hartmann works Mussorgsky had in mind.

Arts critic Alfred Frankenstein gave an account of Hartmann, with reproductions of his pictures, in the article "Victor Hartmann and Modeste Mussorgsky" in The Musical Quarterly (July 1939). [11] Frankenstein claimed to have identified seven pictures by catalogue number, corresponding to:

The surviving works that can be shown with certainty to have been used by Mussorgsky in assembling his suite, along with their titles, are as follows: [1]

MovementTitleTitle (English)Picture
5. Ballet of the Unhatched ChicksЭскизы театральных костюмов к балету "Трильби"Sketches of theatre costumes for the ballet Trilby
Hartmann Chicks sketch for Trilby ballet.jpg
6. "Samuel" Goldenberg and "Schmuÿle"Еврей в меховой шапке. СандомирJew in a fur cap. Sandomierz
The Rich Jew.jpg
Сандомирский [еврей]Sandomierz [Jew]
The Poor Jew.jpg
8. Catacombs (Roman Tomb)Парижские катакомбы (с фигурами В. А. Гартмана, В. А. Кенеля и проводника, держащего фонарь) Paris Catacombs (with the figures of V. A. Hartmann, V. A. Kenel, and a guide holding a lantern)
Hartmann Paris Catacombs.jpg
9. The Hut on Hen's Legs ([The Hut] of Baba Yaga)Избушка Бабы-Яги на курьих ножках. Часы в русском стилеThe hut of Baba-Yaga on hen's legs. Clock in the Russian style
10. The Bogatyr Gates (In the Capital in Kyiv)Проект городских ворот в Киеве. Главный фасадProject for city gates in Kyiv. Main façade
Hartmann -- Plan for a City Gate.jpg

Note: Mussorgsky owned the two pictures that together inspired No. 6, the so-called "Two Jews". The title of No. 6b, as provided by the Soviet editors of his letters, is Сандомирский [еврей] (Sandomirskiy [yevrey] or Sandomierz [Jew]). The bracketed word yevrey (lit. "Hebrew") is the sanitized form of the actual word in the title, very likely the derogatory epithet жид ( zhid or yid ). [12]


Vladimir Stasov's program, identified below, [13] and the six known extant pictures suggest the ten pieces that make up the suite correspond to eleven pictures by Hartmann, with "Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuÿle" accounting for two. The five Promenades are not numbered with the ten pictures and consist in the composer's manuscript of two titled movements and three untitled interludes appended to the first, second, and fourth pictures. [14]

Mussorgsky links the suite's movements in a way that depicts the viewer's own progress through the exhibition. Two Promenade movements stand as portals to the suite's main sections. Their regular pace and irregular meter depicts the act of walking. Three untitled interludes present shorter statements of this theme, varying the mood, colour, and key in each to suggest reflection on a work just seen or anticipation of a new work glimpsed. A turn is taken in the work at the "Catacombae" when the Promenade theme stops functioning as merely a linking device and becomes, in "Cum mortuis", an integral element of the movement itself. The theme reaches its apotheosis in the suite's finale, "The Bogatyr Gates".

The first two movements of the suite—one grand, one grotesque—find mirrored counterparts, and apotheoses, at the end. The suite traces a journey that begins at an art exhibition, but the line between observer and observed vanishes at the Catacombs when the journey takes on a different character.

The table below shows the order of movements.

No.Title in scoreEnglish translationKeyMeterTempo
Promenade B major 5
, 6
Allegro giusto, nel modo russico; senza allegrezza, ma poco sostenuto
1 Gnomus (Latin)The Gnome E minor 3
Vivo and Meno mosso, pesante
Promenade A major 5
, 6
Moderato commodo assai e con delicatezza
2 Il vecchio castello (Italian)The Old Castle G minor 6
Andante molto cantabile e con dolore
Promenade B major 5
, 6
Moderato non tanto, pesamente
3 Tuileries (Dispute d'enfants après jeux) (French)Tuileries (Children's Quarrel after Games)B major Commontime.svg Allegretto non troppo, capriccioso
4 Bydło (Polish)CattleG minor2
Sempre moderato, pesante
Promenade D minor 5
, 6
, 7
5 Балет невылупившихся птенцов (Russian)
Balet nevylupivshikhsya ptentsov(trans.)
Ballet of Unhatched Chicks F major 2
6 "Samuel" Goldenberg und "Schmuÿle" (Yiddish)"Samuel" Goldenberg and "Schmuÿle" B minor Commontime.svg Andante. Grave energico and Andantino
Promenade B major5
, 6
, 7
Allegro giusto, nel modo russico; poco sostenuto
7 Limoges. Le marché (La grande nouvelle) (French)Limoges. The Market (The Great News) E major Commontime.svg Allegretto vivo, sempre scherzando
8 Catacombae (Sepulcrum romanum) (Latin)Catacombs (Roman Tomb) B minor 3
Cum mortuis in lingua mortua(Latin)With the Dead in a Dead LanguageB minor6
Andante non troppo con lamento
9 Избушка на курьих ножках (Баба-Яга) (Russian)
Izbushka na kuryikh nozhkakh (Baba-Yaga)(trans.)
The Hut on Hen's Legs (Baba Yaga) C minor 2
Allegro con brio, feroce and Andante mosso
10 Богатырские ворота (В стольном городе во Киеве) (Russian)
Bogatyrskiye vorota (V stolnom gorode vo Kiyeve)(trans.)
The Bogatyr Gates (In the Capital in Kiev)
(Often translated as "The Great Gate of Kiev" or "The Heroes' Gate at Kiev")
E major Allabreve.svg Allegro alla breve. Maestoso, con grandezza


Vladimir Stasov's comment: In this piece Mussorgsky depicts himself "roving through the exhibition, now leisurely, now briskly in order to come close to a picture that had attracted his attention, and at times sadly, thinking of his departed friend."

The piece has simple, strong rhythms in asymmetrical meter. The promenade theme is shown below:

Pictures at an Exhibition

1. The Gnome

Stasov's comment: "A sketch depicting a little gnome, clumsily running with crooked legs."

Hartmann's sketch, now lost, is thought to represent a design for a nutcracker displaying large teeth. The lurching music, in contrasting tempos with frequent stops and starts, suggests the movements of the gnome.

Pictures at an Exhibition

Promenade (2nd)

A placid statement of the promenade melody depicts the viewer walking from one display to the next.

Pictures at an Exhibition

2. The Old Castle

Stasov's comment: "A medieval castle before which a troubadour sings a song."

This movement is thought to be based on a watercolor depiction of an Italian castle and is portrayed in Ravel's orchestration by a bassoon and alto saxophone duet. Hartmann often placed appropriate human figures in his architectural renderings to suggest scale. [15]

Pictures at an Exhibition

Promenade (3rd)

Another brief statement of the promenade melody (8 measures) gives it more extroversion and weight than before.

Pictures at an Exhibition

3. Tuileries (Children's Quarrel after Games)

Stasov's comment: "An avenue in the garden of the Tuileries, with a swarm of children and nurses."

Hartmann's picture of the Jardin des Tuileries near the Louvre in Paris (France) is now lost. Figures of children quarrelling and playing in the garden were likely added by the artist for scale (see note on No. 2 above).

The movement is cast in through-composed ternary form (ABA).

Pictures at an Exhibition

4. Cattle

Stasov's comment: "A Polish cart on enormous wheels, drawn by oxen."

The movement is cast in through-composed ternary form (ABA) with coda. Mussorgsky's original piano version of this movement begins fortissimo (ff), suggesting that the lumbering oxcart's journey begins in the listener's foreground. After reaching a climax (con tutta forza), the dynamic marking is abruptly piano (bar 47), followed by a diminuendo to a final pianississimo (ppp), suggesting the oxcart receding into the distance. Rimsky-Korsakov's edition, and arrangements based on it such as Ravel's, begin quietly, build gradually (crescendo) to fortissimo and then undergo a diminuendo, suggesting the oxcart approaching, passing the listener, and then receding.

Pictures at an Exhibition

Promenade (4th)

A reflective 10-measure presentation of the promenade theme.

Pictures at an Exhibition

5. Ballet of Unhatched Chicks

Stasov's comment: "Hartmann's design for the décor of a picturesque scene in the ballet Trilby ."

Gerald Abraham provides the following details: "Trilby or The Demon of the Heath, a ballet with choreography by Petipa, music by Julius Gerber, and décor by Hartmann, based on Charles Nodier's Trilby, or The Elf of Argyle, was produced at the Bolshoi Theatre, Saint Petersburg, in 1871. The fledglings were canary chicks." [16]

The movement is cast in ternary form (ABA) with a literal repeat and terse extension (coda).

Pictures at an Exhibition

6. "Samuel" Goldenberg and "Schmuÿle"

Stasov's comment: "Two Jews: rich and poor" (Russian: Два еврея: богатый и бедный)

Stasov's explanatory title elucidates the personal names used in Mussorgsky's original manuscript. Published versions display various combinations, such as "Two Polish Jews, Rich and Poor (Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle)". The movement is thought to be based on two separate extant portraits.

The use of augmented second intervals approximates Jewish modes such as the Phrygian dominant scale. The movement is in ternary form A – B – A+B:

Pictures at an Exhibition

Promenade (5th)

A nearly bar-for-bar restatement of the opening promenade. Differences are slight: condensed second half, block chords voiced more fully. Structurally, the movement acts as a reprise, giving listeners another hearing of the opening material before these are developed in the second half of the suite.

Many arrangements, including Ravel's orchestral version, omit this movement.

Pictures at an Exhibition

7. Limoges. The Market (The Great News)

Stasov's comment: "French women quarrelling violently in the market."

Limoges is a city in central France. Mussorgsky originally provided two paragraphs in French that described a marketplace discussion (the 'great news'), but subsequently crossed them out in the manuscript.

The movement is a scherzo in through-composed ternary form (ABA). A scurrying coda leads without a break into the next movement.

Pictures at an Exhibition

8. Catacombs (Roman Tomb) – With the Dead in a Dead Language

"Catacombae" and "Cum mortuis in lingua mortua" from Mussorgsky's manuscript Catacombae.PNG
"Catacombae" and "Cum mortuis in lingua mortua" from Mussorgsky's manuscript

Stasov's comment: "Hartmann represented himself examining the Paris catacombs by the light of a lantern."

The movement is in two distinct parts. Its two sections consist of a nearly static Largo consisting of a sequence of block chords with elegiac lines adding a touch of melancholy and a more flowing, gloomy Andante that introduces the Promenade theme into the scene.

The first section's alternating loud and soft chords evoke the grandeur, stillness, and echo of the catacombs. The second section suggests a merging of observer and scene as the observer descends into the catacombs. Mussorgsky's manuscript of "Catacombs" (shown right) displays two pencilled notes, in Russian: "NB – Latin text: With the dead in a dead language" and, along the right margin, "Well may it be in Latin! The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me towards the skulls, invokes them; the skulls begin to glow softly."

Pictures at an Exhibition

9. The Hut on Fowl's Legs (Baba Yaga)

Stasov's comment: "Hartmann's drawing depicted a clock in the form of Baba Yaga's hut on fowl's legs. Mussorgsky added the witch's flight in a mortar."

A scherzo marked Feroce with a slower middle section. Motives in this movement evoke the bells of a large clock and the whirlwind sounds of a chase. Structurally, the movement mirrors the grotesque qualities of "Gnomus" on a grand scale.

The movement is cast in ternary form (ABA):

The coda leads without a break into the final movement of the suite.

Pictures at an Exhibition

10. The Bogatyr Gates (In the Capital in Kiev)

Stasov's comment: "Hartmann's sketch was his design for city gates at Kiev in the ancient Russian massive style with a cupola shaped like a slavonic helmet."

Bogatyrs are heroes that appear in Russian epics called bylinas . Hartmann designed a monumental gate for Tsar Alexander II to commemorate the monarch's narrow escape from an assassination attempt on April 4, 1866. Hartmann regarded his design as the best work he had done. His design won the national competition but plans to build the structure were later cancelled.

The movement's grand main theme exalts the opening Promenade much as "Baba Yaga" amplified "Gnomus"; also like that movement, it evens out the meter of its earlier counterpart. The solemn secondary theme is based on a baptismal hymn from the repertory of Russian Orthodox chant.

The movement is cast as a broad rondo in two main sections: ABAB–CADA. The first half of the movement sets up the expectation of an ABABA pattern. The interruption of this pattern with new music just before its expected conclusion gives the rest of the movement the feeling of a vast extension. This extended leave-taking acts as a coda for the suite as a whole.

Recording of the original manuscript

In 2009 the German pianist Lars David Kellner  [ de ] published the original version of Gnomus on his Mussorgsky album (Enharmonic) as a premiere. In 2014 the Russian pianist Andrej Hoteev presented (in a CD recording) a performance of "Pictures at an Exhibition" based on original manuscripts [17] he consulted in the Russian National Library at Saint Petersburg. [18] Hoteev found numerous discrepancies with conventional sheet music editions. [19] He believes his recorded version expresses the composer's original intent. [20] The most important deviations are documented with illustrations from the manuscripts in the accompanying CD booklet. [21]

Arrangements and interpretations

The opening bars of Tushmalov's orchestration of Pictures at an Exhibition Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition (Touschmaloff orchestration), page 1.jpg
The opening bars of Tushmalov's orchestration of Pictures at an Exhibition

The first musician to arrange Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition for orchestra was the Russian composer and conductor Mikhail Tushmalov. However, his version (first performed in 1891 and possibly produced as early as 1886 when he was a student of Rimsky-Korsakov) [22] does not include the entire suite: Only seven of the ten "pictures" are present, leaving out "Gnomus", "Tuileries", and "Cattle", and all the Promenades are omitted except for the last one, which is used in place of the first.

The next orchestration was undertaken by the British conductor Henry Wood in 1915. He recorded a few sections of his arrangement on a pair of acoustic Columbia 78rpm discs in 1920. However, he withdrew his version when Maurice Ravel's orchestration was published, and banned every public performance in the 1930s in deference to Ravel's work. Wood's arrangement has also been recorded by the London Philharmonic Orchestra under Nicholas Braithwaite and issued on the Lyrita label. All but the first of the Promenade movements were omitted and other passages extensively re-composed. Wood's orchestration was once described by Gordon Jacob as "superior to Ravel's in picturesqueness and vividness", [23] with its off-stage camel-bells in "Cattle" and grand organ in "The Great Gate of Kyiv".

The first person to orchestrate the piece in its entirety was the Slovenian-born conductor and violinist Leo Funtek, who finished his version in 1922 while living and working in Finland.

Stage adaptations

Staging by Kandinsky

In 1928, the Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky created a stage show by combining his own designs for the pictures with a performance of the piano score. [36] Since it was put on at Dessau, elements of the staging have been lost. However, it has proved possible to animate the surviving art work using video technology.

Staging by Gen Atem and S213

In a hall on Attisholz-Areal, Switzerland, Gen Atem and S213 had a premiere performance on the basis of Ravel's orchestration of Mussorgsky's piano cycle in August 2021. Kaspar Zehnder and the Theatre Orchester Biel Solothurn provided the acoustical background in its entirety. [37] [38]

Ballet by Alexei Ratmansky

In 2014, choreographer Alexei Ratmansky created the ballet Pictures at an Exhibition , based on the orchestral score, for the New York City Ballet. The set featured a 1913 painting by Wassily Kandinsky, unrelated to Kandinsky’s 1928 staging. [39]


  1. Russian: Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, romanized: Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, lit.'Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann ', French: Tableaux d'une exposition

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Nadezhda Nikolayevna Rimskaya-Korsakova (Russian: Надежда Николаевна Римская-Корсакова listen  née Purgold was a Russian pianist and composer as well as the wife of composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. She was also the mother of Russian musicologist Andrey Rimsky-Korsakov.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Symphony No. 2 (Borodin)</span>

Symphony No. 2 in B minor by Alexander Borodin was composed intermittently between 1869 and 1876. It consists of four movements and is considered the most important large-scale work completed by the composer himself. It has many melodic resemblances to both Prince Igor and Mlada, two theatre works that diverted Borodin's attention on and off during the six years of composition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mikhail Tushmalov</span>

Mikhail Tushmalov was a Russian Georgian opera conductor who held posts in Warsaw and Tiflis (Tbilisi). He died in what is now the nation of Georgia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leo Funtek</span>

Leo Funtek was a Slovenian violinist, conductor and arranger. He is best known for work as a music professor and for his 1922 arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition.

Musical tributes or homages from one composer to another can take many forms. Following are examples of the major types of tributes occurring in classical music. A particular work may fit into more than one of these types.


  1. 1 2 Mussorgsky 1984, p. 339.
  2. Orlova 1991, p. 13.
  3. Orlova 1991, p. 90.
  4. Orlova 1991, p. 93.
  5. Orlova, Aleksandra A. (1983). Musorgsky's Days and Works: A Biography in Documents. UMI Research Press. p. 24. ISBN   978-0835713245.
  6. Mussorgsky 1984, p. 185.
  7. Mussorgsky 1931, Preface.
  8. Mussorgsky 1975, Title page.
  9. Orlova 1991, p. xi.
  10. Orlova 1991, p. 92.
  11. Frankenstein 1939.
  12. Taruskin 1993, pp. 379–383.
  13. Calvocoressi & Abraham 1974, pp. 172–173.
  14. See Pavel Lamm's 1931 edition.
  15. Frankenstein 1939, p. 282.
  16. Calvocoressi & Abraham 1974, p. 172.
  17. Discographie Archived 2014-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  18. Pure Mussorgsky Presto Classical 20 Oct 2014
  19. Remy Franck:Mussorgsky of the original manuscript, Pizzikato 24.09.2014
  20. Heinz Gelking:"Pure Mussorgsky"
  21. Dorothea Bossert:Diese CD hat Folgen SWR2 16.9.2014
  22. 1 2 Russ 1992, p. 76.
  23. Gordon Jacob Orchestral Technique. A manual for students; Oxford University Press, 2nd edition 1940/1973, p 103
  24. Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition, orchestrated by Maurice Ravel
  25. Parrott & Ashkenazy 1984, p. 164.
  26. 1 2 3 "Amadeus Orchestra plays music of Tolibkhon Shakhidi". Tolibkhon Shakhidi. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  27. "Amon Tobin's Back From Space sample of Modest Mussorgsky and Maurice Ravel's Gnomus".
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 von Rhein, John (November 2, 1980). "Slatkin's Departure with 'Pictures' has its Gains and Losses". Chicago Tribune . Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  29. "Ensaio Aberto: Mechetti Rege Tchaikovsky e Mussorgsky por Mignone" (in Portuguese). Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo. May 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2019. A rara versão de Quadros de Uma Exposição ... foi orquestrada pelo compositor brasileiro Francisco Mignone (1897–1986). Segundo sua mulher, a pianista Maria Josephina, a grade orquestral, até então desconhecida, foi encontrada em uma gaveta após a morte do marido em 1986. [A rare version of Pictures at an Exhibition ... was orchestrated by the Brazilian composer Francisco Mignone (1897–1986). According to his wife, the pianist Maria Josephina, the hitherto unknown orchestral arrangement was found in a drawer after her husband's death in 1986.])
  30. "Pictures at an exhibition; arr. for sixteen players or chamber orchestra; a moderately modern rendition by immodest Julian Yu". Australian Music Centre. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  31. "Program Notes: Pictures at an Exhibition". Portland Chamber Orchestra. May 9–11, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  32. Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (2015). The Anime Encyclopedia, 3rd Revised Edition: A Century of Japanese Animation. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN   9781611729092.
  33. Coelho, Victor Anand (2003). The Cambridge Companion to the Guitar. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN   9780521000406.
  34. "Gottfried Yaron, conductor". The Israeli Opera. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  35. "Pictures at an Exhibition, by Boris Ivanov". Boris Ivanov. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  36. Rudy, Mikhail. "Wassily Kandinsky - Pictures at an Exhibition".
  37. "Bilder einer Ausstellung – TOBS Theater Orchester Biel Solothurn".
  38. "Live-Art-Performance in der Kiesofenhalle: Mussorgsky ganz neu interpretiert".
  39. Harss, Marina (October 3, 2014). "New York City Ballet – Ratmansky's Pictures at an Exhibition premiere – New York". DanceTabs.


Further reading