Poetic Edda

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The title page of Olive Bray's English translation of Codex Regius entitled Poetic Edda depicting the tree Yggdrasil and a number of its inhabitants (1908) by W. G. Collingwood. The Tree of Yggdrasil.jpg
The title page of Olive Bray's English translation of Codex Regius entitled Poetic Edda depicting the tree Yggdrasil and a number of its inhabitants (1908) by W. G. Collingwood.

The Poetic Edda is the modern name for an untitled collection of Old Norse anonymous narrative poems, which is distinct from the Prose Edda written by Snorri Sturluson. Several versions exist, all primarily of text from the Icelandic medieval manuscript known as the Codex Regius , which contains 31 poems. [1] The Codex Regius is arguably the most important extant source on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends. From the early-19th century onwards, it has had a powerful influence on later Scandinavian literatures – not only through its stories, but also through the visionary force and the dramatic quality of many of the poems. It has also become an inspiring model for many later innovations in poetic meter, particularly in Nordic languages, offering many varied examples of terse, stress-based metrical schemes that lack any final rhyme but instead use alliterative devices and strongly-concentrated imagery. Poets who have acknowledged their debt to the Codex Regius include Vilhelm Ekelund, August Strindberg, J. R. R. Tolkien, Ezra Pound, Jorge Luis Borges, and Karin Boye.

Contents

Codex Regius was written during the 13th century, but nothing was known of its whereabouts until 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson, then Bishop of Skálholt. At the time, versions of the Edda were known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was another Edda, an Elder Edda, which contained the pagan poems that Snorri quotes in his Edda. When Codex Regius was discovered, it seemed that the speculation had proved correct, but modern scholarly research has shown that the Edda was likely written first and that the two were, at most, connected by a common source. [2]

Brynjólfur attributed the manuscript to Sæmundr the Learned, a larger-than-life 12th century Icelandic priest. Modern scholars reject that attribution, but the name Sæmundar Edda is still sometimes associated with both the "Codex Regius" and versions of "Poetic Edda" using it as a source.

Bishop Brynjólfur sent Codex Regius as a present to the Danish king - hence the name given to the codex: Latin : codex regius, lit. 'royal book'. For centuries it was stored in the Royal Library in Copenhagen, but in 1971 it was returned to Iceland. Because air travel at the time was not entirely trustworthy with such precious cargo, it was transported by ship, accompanied by a naval escort. [3]

Composition

The Eddic poems are composed in alliterative verse. Most are in fornyrðislag , while málaháttr is a common variation. The rest, about a quarter, are composed in ljóðaháttr . The language of the poems is usually clear and relatively unadorned. Kennings are often employed, though they do not arise as frequently, nor are they as complex, as those found in skaldic poetry.

Authorship

Like most early poetry, the Eddic poems were minstrel poems, passed orally from singer to singer and from poet to poet for centuries. None of the poems are attributed to a particular author, though many of them show strong individual characteristics and are likely to have been the work of individual poets. While scholars have speculated on hypothetical authors, firm and accepted conclusions have never been reached.

Date

Accurate dating of the poems has long been a source of scholarly debate. Firm conclusions are difficult to reach; lines from the Eddic poems sometimes appear in poems by known poets. For example, Eyvindr skáldaspillir composed in the latter half of the 10th century, and he uses a couple of lines in his Hákonarmál that are also found in Hávamál . It is possible that he was quoting a known poem, but it is also possible that Hávamál, or at least the strophe in question, is the younger derivative work.

The few demonstrably historical characters mentioned in the poems, such as Attila, provide a terminus post quem of sorts. The dating of the manuscripts themselves provides a more useful terminus ante quem.

Individual poems have individual clues to their age. For example, Atlamál hin groenlenzku is claimed by its title to have been composed in Greenland, and seems so by some internal evidence. If so, it can be no earlier than about 985, since there were no Scandinavians in Greenland until that time.

In some cases, old poems may have been interpolated with younger verses or merged with other poems. For example, stanzas 9–16 of Völuspá , the "Dvergatal" or "Roster of Dwarfs", is considered by some scholars to be an interpolation.

Location

The problem of dating the poems is linked with the problem of determining where they were composed. Iceland was not settled until approximately 870, so anything composed before that time would necessarily have been elsewhere, most likely in Scandinavia. More recent poems, on the other hand, are likely Icelandic in origin.

Scholars have attempted to localize individual poems by studying the geography, flora, and fauna to which they refer. This approach usually does not yield firm results. For example, there are no wolves in Iceland, but we can be sure that Icelandic poets were familiar with the species. Similarly, the apocalyptic descriptions of Völuspá have been taken as evidence that the poet who composed it had seen a volcanic eruption in Iceland – but this is hardly certain.

Editions and inclusions

The cover of Lee M. Hollander's Poetic Edda. Poetic Edda Cover.jpg
The cover of Lee M. Hollander's Poetic Edda.

Poems similar to those found in Codex Regius are also included in many editions of the Poetic Edda. Important manuscripts containing these other poems include AM 748 I 4to, Hauksbók , and Flateyjarbók . Many of the poems are also quoted in Snorri's Edda, but usually only in bits and pieces. What poems are included in an edition of the Poetic Edda depends on the editor. Those not found in the Codex Regius are sometimes called the "eddic appendix." Other Eddic-like poems not usually published in the Poetic Edda are sometimes called Eddica minora, and were compiled by Andreas Heusler and Wilhelm Ranisch in their 1903 book titled Eddica minora: Dichtungen eddischer Art aus den Fornaldarsögur und anderen Prosawerken . [4]

English translators are not consistent on the translations of the names of the Eddic poems or on how the Old Norse forms should be rendered in English. Up to three translated titles are given below, taken from the translations of Bellows, Hollander, and Larrington with proper names in the normalized English forms found in John Lindow's Norse Mythology and in Andy Orchard's Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend.

Mythological poems

In Codex Regius

  • Völuspá (Wise-woman's prophecy, The Prophecy of the Seeress, The Seeress's Prophecy)
  • Hávamál (The Ballad of the High One, The Sayings of Hár, Sayings of the High One)
  • Vafþrúðnismál (The Ballad of Vafthrúdnir, The Lay of Vafthrúdnir, Vafthrúdnir's Sayings)
  • Grímnismál (The Ballad of Grímnir, The Lay of Grímnir, Grímnir's Sayings)
  • Skírnismál (The Ballad of Skírnir, The Lay of Skírnir, Skírnir's Journey)
  • Hárbarðsljóð (The Poem of Hárbard, The Lay of Hárbard, Hárbard's Song)
  • Hymiskviða (The Lay of Hymir, Hymir's Poem)
  • Lokasenna (Loki's Wrangling, The Flyting of Loki, Loki's Quarrel)
  • Þrymskviða (The Lay of Thrym, Thrym's Poem)
  • Völundarkviða (The Lay of Völund)
  • Alvíssmál (The Ballad of Alvís, The Lay of Alvís, All-Wise's Sayings)

Not in Codex Regius

  • Baldrs draumar (Baldr's Dreams)
  • Gróttasöngr (The Mill's Song, The Song of Grotti)
  • Rígsþula (The Song of Ríg, The Lay of Ríg, The List of Ríg)
  • Hyndluljóð (The Poem of Hyndla, The Lay of Hyndla, The Song of Hyndla)
    • Völuspá in skamma (The short Völuspá, The Short Seeress' Prophecy, Short Prophecy of the Seeress) - This poem, sometimes presented separately, is often included as an interpolation within Hyndluljóð.
  • Svipdagsmál (The Ballad of Svipdag, The Lay of Svipdag) – This title, originally suggested by Bugge, actually covers two separate poems. These poems are late works and not included in most editions after 1950:
  • Hrafnagaldr Óðins (Odins's Raven Song, Odin's Raven Chant). (A late work not included in most editions after 1900).
  • Gullkársljóð (The Poem of Gullkár). (A late work not included in most editions after 1900).

Heroic lays

After the mythological poems, Codex Regius continues with heroic lays about mortal heroes, examples of Germanic heroic legend. The heroic lays are to be seen as a whole in the Edda, but they consist of three layers: the story of Helgi Hundingsbani, the story of the Nibelungs, and the story of Jörmunrekkr, king of the Goths. These are, respectively, Scandinavian, German, and Gothic in origin. As far as historicity can be ascertained, Attila, Jörmunrekkr, and Brynhildr actually existed, taking Brynhildr to be partly based on Brunhilda of Austrasia, but the chronology has been reversed in the poems.

In Codex Regius

The Helgi Lays
  • Helgakviða Hundingsbana I or Völsungakviða (The First Lay of Helgi Hundingsbane, The First Lay of Helgi the Hunding-Slayer, The First Poem of Helgi Hundingsbani)
  • Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar (The Lay of Helgi the Son of Hjörvard, The Lay of Helgi Hjörvardsson, The Poem of Helgi Hjörvardsson)
  • Helgakviða Hundingsbana II or Völsungakviða in forna (The Second Lay of Helgi Hundingsbane, The Second Lay of Helgi the Hunding-Slayer, A Second Poem of Helgi Hundingsbani)
The Niflung Cycle
  • Frá dauða Sinfjötla (Of Sinfjötli's Death, Sinfjötli's Death, The Death of Sinfjötli) (A short prose text.)
  • Grípisspá (Grípir's Prophecy, The Prophecy of Grípir)
  • Reginsmál (The Ballad of Regin, The Lay of Regin)
  • Fáfnismál (The Ballad of Fáfnir, The Lay of Fáfnir)
  • Sigrdrífumál (The Ballad of The Victory-Bringer, The Lay of Sigrdrífa)
  • Brot af Sigurðarkviðu (Fragment of a Sigurd Lay, Fragment of a Poem about Sigurd)
  • Guðrúnarkviða I (The First Lay of Gudrún)
  • Sigurðarkviða hin skamma (The Short Lay of Sigurd, A Short Poem about Sigurd)
  • Helreið Brynhildar (Brynhild's Hell-Ride, Brynhild's Ride to Hel, Brynhild's Ride to Hell)
  • Dráp Niflunga (The Slaying of The Niflungs, The Fall of the Niflungs, The Death of the Niflungs)
  • Guðrúnarkviða II (The Second Lay of Gudrún or Guðrúnarkviða hin fornaThe Old Lay of Gudrún)
  • Guðrúnarkviða III (The Third Lay of Gudrún)
  • Oddrúnargrátr (The Lament of Oddrún, The Plaint of Oddrún, Oddrún's Lament)
  • Atlakviða (The Lay of Atli). The full manuscript title is Atlakviða hin grœnlenzka, that is, The Greenland Lay of Atli, but editors and translators generally omit the Greenland reference as a probable error from confusion with the following poem.
  • Atlamál hin groenlenzku (The Greenland Ballad of Atli, The Greenlandish Lay of Atli, The Greenlandic Poem of Atli)
The Jörmunrekkr Lays
  • Guðrúnarhvöt (Gudrún's Inciting, Gudrún's Lament, The Whetting of Gudrún.)
  • Hamðismál (The Ballad of Hamdir, The Lay of Hamdir)

Not in Codex Regius

Several of the legendary sagas contain poetry in the Eddic style. Its age and importance is often difficult to evaluate but the Hervarar saga , in particular, contains interesting poetic interpolations.

English translations

The Elder or Poetic Edda has been translated numerous times, the earliest printed edition being that by Cottle 1797, though some short sections had been translated as early as the 1670s. Some early translators relied on a Latin translation of the Edda, including Cottle. [5]

Opinions differ on the best way to translate the text, on the use or rejection of archaic language, and the rendering of terms lacking a clear English analogue. However Cottle's 1797 translation is considered very inaccurate. [5]

A comparison of the second and third verses (lines 5–12) of the Voluspa is given below :

Ek man jǫtna
ár of borna,
þás forðum mik
fœdda hǫfðu ;
níu mank hęima,
níu ívíði,
mjǫtvið mæran
fyr mold neðan.

Ár vas alda
þars Ymir byggði,
vasa sandr né sær,
né svalar unnir ;
jǫrð fansk æva
né upphiminn ;
gap vas ginnunga,
ęn gras hvęrgi.

( Finnur 1932 ) (unchanged orthography)

The Jötuns I remember
early born,
those who me of old
have reared.
I nine worlds remember,
nine trees,
the great central tree,
beneath the earth.

There was in times of old,
where Ymir dwelt,
nor sand nor sea,
nor gelid waves ;
earth existed not,
nor heaven above,
'twas a chaotic chasm,
and grass nowhere,

( Thorpe 1866 )

I remember the Giants born of yore,
who bred me up long ago.
I remember nine Worlds, nine Sibyls,
a glorious Judge beneath the earth.

In the beginning, when naught was,
there was neither sand nor sea nor the cold waves,
nor was earth to be seen nor heaven above.
There was a Yawning Chasm [chaos], but grass nowhere,

( Vigfússon & Powell 1883 )

I remember of yore   were born the Jötuns,
they who aforetime   fostered me :
nine worlds I remember,   nine in the Tree,
the glorious Fate Tree   that springs 'neath the Earth.

'Twas the earliest of times   when Ymir lived ;
then was sand nor sea   nor cooling wave,
nor was Earth found ever,   nor Heaven on high,
there was Yawning of Deeps   and nowhere grass :

( Bray 1908 )

I remember yet   the giants of yore,
Who gave me bread   in the days gone by ;
Nine worlds I knew,   the nine in the tree
With mighty roots   beaneath the mold.

Of old was the age   when Ymir lived ;
Sea nor cool waves   nor sand there were ;
Earth had not been,   nor heaven above,
But a yawning gap,   and grass nowhere.

( Bellows 1923 )

I call to mind the kin of etins
which long ago did give me life.
Nine worlds I know, the nine abodes
of the glorious world-tree the ground beneath.

In earliest times did Ymir live:
was nor sea nor land nor salty waves,
neither earth was there nor upper heaven,
but a gaping nothing, and green things nowhere.

( Hollander 1962 )

I tell of Giants from times forgotten.
Those who fed me in former days:
Nine worlds I can reckon, nine roots of the Tree.
The wonderful Ash, way under the ground

When Ymir lived long ago
Was no sand or sea, no surging waves.
Nowhere was there earth nor heaven above.
But a grinning gap and grass nowhere.

( Auden & Taylor 1969 )

I remember giants   of ages past,
those who called me   one of their kin;
I know how nine roots   form nine worlds
under the earth   where the Ash Tree rises.

Nothing was there   when time began,
neither sands nor seas   nor cooling waves,
Earth was not yet,   nor the high heavens,
but a gaping emptiness   nowhere green.

( Terry 1990 )

I, born of giants, remember very early
those who nurtured me then;
I remember nine worlds, I remember nine giant women,
the mighty Measuring-Tree below the earth.

Young were the years when Ymir made his settlement,
there was no sand nor sea nor cool waves;
earth was nowhere nor the sky above,
chaos yawned, grass was there nowhere.

( Larrington 1996 )

I remember giants
born early in time,
who long ago
had reared me
Nine worlds I remember,
nine wood-ogresses,
glorious tree of good measure,
under the ground.

It was early in the ages
when Ymir made his dwelling:
There was not sand nor sea
nor chill waves.
Earth was not to be found
nor above it heaven:
a gulf was there of gaping voids
and grass nowhere,

( Dronke 1997 )

I recall those giants, born early on,
who long ago brought me up;
nine worlds I recall, nine wood-dwelling witches,
the famed tree of fate down under the earth.

It was early in ages when Ymir made his home,
there was neither sand nor sea, nor cooling waves;
no earth to be found, nor heaven above:
a gulf beguiling, nor grass anywhere.

( Orchard 2011 )

I remember being reared by Jotuns,
in days long gone. If I look back, I recall
nine worlds, nine wood-witches,
that renowned tree of fate below the Earth

Ymir struck camp when time began.
No land, sand or sea folding on itself,
no sky, earth or grass swaying atop its girth,
only the cavern of chaos's gaping gulf.

( Dodds 2014 )

I remember giants born early in time
those nurtured me long ago;
I remember nine worlds, I remember nine giant women,
the mighty Measuring-Tree below the earth.

Early in time Ymir made his settlement,
there was no sand nor sea nor cool waves;
earth was nowhere nor the sky above,
a void of yawning chaos, grass was there nowhere

( Larrington 2014 )

I remember the giants
born so long ago;
in those ancient days
they raised me.
I remember nine worlds,
nine giantesses,
and the seed
from which Yggdrasil sprang.

It was at the very beginning,
it was Ymir's time,
there was no sand, no sea,
no cooling waves,
no earth,
no sky,
no grass,
just Ginnungagap.

( Crawford 2015 )

† The prose translation lacks line breaks, inserted here to match those in the Norse verse given in the same work.

Allusions and quotations

See also

Related Research Articles

"Edda" is an Old Norse term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the Prose Edda and an older collection of poems without an original title now known as the Poetic Edda. The term historically referred only to the Prose Edda, but this since has fallen out of use because of the confusion with the other work. Both works were written down in Iceland during the 13th century in Icelandic, although they contain material from earlier traditional sources, reaching into the Viking Age. The books are the main sources of medieval skaldic tradition in Iceland and Norse mythology.

Norns Group of characters in Norse mythology

The Norns are deities in Norse mythology responsible for shaping the course of human destinies.

<i>Hávamál</i> Old Norse gnomic verses

Hávamál is presented as a single poem in the Codex Regius, a collection of Old Norse poems from the Viking age. The poem, itself a combination of numerous shorter poems, is largely gnomic, presenting advice for living, proper conduct and wisdom. It is considered an important source of Old Norse philosophy.

<i>Völuspá</i> Poem from the Poetic Edda

Vǫluspá is the best known poem of the Poetic Edda. It tells the story of the creation of the world and its coming end and subsequent rebirth, related to the audience by a völva addressing Odin. It is one of the most important primary sources for the study of Norse mythology. The poem is preserved whole in the Codex Regius and Hauksbók manuscripts while parts of it are quoted in the Prose Edda.

<i>Prose Edda</i> 13th-century Norse work of literature

The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse textbook written in Iceland during the early 13th century. The work is often assumed to have been to some extent written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar, lawspeaker, and historian Snorri Sturluson c. 1220. It is considered the fullest and most detailed source for modern knowledge of Norse mythology, the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, and draws from a wide variety of sources, including versions of poems that survive into today in a collection known as the Poetic Edda.

Brunhild Valkyrie or shieldmaiden in Norse mythology

Brunhild, also known as Brunhilda or Brynhild, is a female character from Germanic heroic legend. She may have her origins in the Visigothic princess Brunhilda of Austrasia.

Gudrun Legendary figure in Germanic lore

Gudrun or Kriemhild is the wife of Sigurd/Siegfried and a major figure in Germanic heroic legend and literature. She is believed to have her origins in Ildico, last wife of Attila the Hun, and two queens of the Merovingian dynasty, Brunhilda of Austrasia and Fredegund.

Urðarbrunnr Fictional spring

Urðarbrunnr is a well in Norse mythology. Urðarbrunnr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, the well lies beneath the world tree Yggdrasil, and is associated with a trio of norns. In the Prose Edda, Urðarbrunnr is cited as one of three wells existing beneath three roots of Yggdrasil that reach into three distant, different lands; the other two wells being Hvergelmir, located beneath a root in Niflheim, and Mímisbrunnr, located beneath a root near the home of the frost jötnar. Scholarly theory and speculation surrounds the well.

Hárbarðsljóð

Hárbarðsljóð is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda, found in the Codex Regius and AM 748 I 4to manuscripts. It is a flyting poem with figures from Norse Paganism. Hárbarðsljóð was first written down in the late 11th century but may have had an older history as an oral poem.

Helgakviða Hundingsbana I

"Völsungakviða" or "Helgakviða Hundingsbana I" is an Old Norse poem found in the Poetic Edda. It constitutes one of the Helgi lays, together with Helgakviða Hundingsbana II and Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar.

<i>Hyndluljóð</i> Old Norse poem often considered part of the Poetic Edda

Hyndluljóð is an Old Norse poem often considered a part of the Poetic Edda. It is preserved in its entirety only in Flateyjarbók, but some stanzas are also quoted in the Prose Edda, where they are said to come from Völuspá hin skamma. Hyndluljóð is believed to be a relatively late Eddic poem, dating to the second half of the 12th century or later, although including much older traditions, such as that of the 4th c. Gothic king Ermanaric.

<i>Völundarkviða</i>

Vǫlundarkviða is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. The title is anglicized in various ways, including Völundarkvitha, Völundarkvidha, Völundarkvida, Volundarkvitha, Volundarkvidha and Volundarkvida.

Lóðurr Norse deity

Lóðurr is a god in Norse mythology. In the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá he is assigned a role in animating the first humans, but apart from that he is hardly ever mentioned, and remains obscure. Scholars have variously identified him with Loki, Vé, Vili and Freyr, but consensus has not been reached on any one theory.

Guðrúnarkviða I

Guðrúnarkviða I or the First Lay of Guðrún is simply called Guðrúnarkviða in Codex Regius, where it is found together with the other heroic poems of the Poetic Edda. Henry Adams Bellows considered it to be one of the finest of the eddic poems with an "extraordinary emotional intensity and dramatic force". It is only in this poem that Gjúki's sister Gjaflaug and daughter Gollrönd are mentioned, and the only source where Herborg, the queen of the Huns, appears. The Guðrún lays show that the hard-boiled heroic poetry of the Poetic Edda also had a place for the hardships of women.

Guðrúnarkviða III, The Third Lay of Gudrun, is a short Old Norse poem that is part of the Poetic Edda. It has not left any traces in Völsunga saga and was probably not known by its compilers.

Guðrúnarkviða I, II and III are three different heroic poems in the Poetic Edda with the same protagonist, Gudrun.

<i>Sigrdrífumál</i>

Sigrdrífumál is the conventional title given to a section of the Poetic Edda text in Codex Regius.

Mímisbrunnr Fictional spring

In Norse mythology, Mímisbrunnr is a well associated with the being Mímir, located beneath the world tree Yggdrasil. Mímisbrunnr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. The well is located beneath one of three roots of the world tree Yggdrasil, a root that passes into the land of the giants jötnar where the primordial plane of Ginnungagap once existed. In addition, the Prose Edda relates that the water of the well contains much wisdom, and that Odin sacrificed one of his eyes to the well in exchange for a drink. In the Prose Edda, Mímisbrunnr is mentioned as one of three wells existing beneath three roots of Yggdrasil, the other two being Hvergelmir, located beneath a root in Niflheim, and Urðarbrunnr.

Grove of Fetters

A grove of Fetters is mentioned in the Eddic poem "Helgakviða Hundingsbana II":

Vadgelmir (Vaðgelmir) is a river or stream in Norse mythology. It is mentioned in the eddic poems Grípisspá or SigurÞarkviða Fafnisbana önnur and Völuspá.

References

  1. John Lindow (2002). Norse Mythology: A Guide to Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. pp. 11–. ISBN   978-0-19-983969-8.
  2. Acker, Paul; Larrington, Carolyne (2002), The Poetic Edda: Essays on Old Norse Mythology
  3. Dodds, Jeramy (2014). The Poetic Edda. p. 12. ISBN   978-1770563858.
  4. Harris, Joseph (2005). "Eddic Poetry". Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide (second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press in association with the Medieval Academy of America. p. 68. ISBN   978-0-8020-3823-4.
  5. 1 2 Larrington, Carolyne (2007), Clark, David; Phelpstead, Carl (eds.), "Translating the Poetic Edda into English" (PDF), Old Norse Made New, Viking Society for Northern Research, pp. 21–42
  6. Shippey, Tom (2003), The Road to Middle-earth, Houghton Mifflin, Ch. 3 pp. 70–71, ISBN   0-618-25760-8
  7. Ratecliff, John D. (2007), "Return to Bag-End", The History of The Hobbit, HarperCollins, vol. 2, Appendix III, ISBN   978-0-00-725066-0

Sources

  • Anderson, Rasmus B. (1876), Norse Mythology: Myths of the Eddas, Chicago: S.C. Griggs and company; London: Trubner & Co., Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, ISBN   1-4102-0528-2 , Reprinted 2003
  • Björnsson, Árni, ed. (1975), Snorra-Edda, Reykjavík. Iðunn
  • Magnússson, Ásgeir Blöndal (1989), Íslensk orðsifjabók, Reykjavík
  • Lindow, John (2001), Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN   0-19-515382-0
  • Orchard, Andy (1997), Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend, London: Cassell, ISBN   0-304-36385-5
  • Briem, Ólafur, ed. (1985), Eddukvæði, Reykjavík: Skálholt
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. (1988), Tolkien, Christopher (ed.), The Return of the Shadow, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 240

Bibliography

In reverse chronological order

Original text

Original text with English translation

  • Dronke, Ursula, ed. (1969), The Poetic Edda, Oxford: Clarendon
    • Heroic Poems, vol. I, 1969, ISBN   0198114974 , (Atlakviða, Atlamál in Grœnlenzko, Guðrúnarhvöt, Hamðismál.)
    • Dronke, Ursula (1997), Mythological Poems, vol. II, ISBN   0198111819 , (Völuspá, Rígsthula, Völundarkvida, Lokasenna, Skírnismál, Baldrs draumar.)
    • Dronke, Ursula (2011), Mythological Poems, vol. III, ISBN   978-0198111825 , (Hávamál, Hymiskviða, Grímnismál, Grottasöngr)
  • Bray, Olive, ed. (1908), "Part 1 – The Mythological Poems", The Elder or Poetic Edda: Commonly known as Saemund's Edda, Viking Club Translation Series, Viking Society for Northern Research, vol. 2
  • Vigfússon, Gudbrand; Powell, F. York, eds. (1883), Corpus Poeticum Boreale: The Poetry of the Old Northern Tongue, Oxford: Oxford University Press , (2 vols.)

English translation only

Commentary

  • La Farge, Beatrice; Tucker, John, eds. (1992), Glossary to the Poetic Edda Based on Hans Kuhn's Kurzes Wörterbuch, Heidelberg , Update and expansions of the glossary of the Neckel-Kuhn edition
  • Glendinning, Robert J.; Bessason, Haraldur (1983), Edda: A Collection of Essays, Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba
  • Kommentar zu den Liedern der Edda, ed. by Klaus von See, 7 vols (Heidelberg: Winter, 1997–2012). An edition, German translation, and comprehensive commentary on the Poetic Edda (vol. 1: Vafþrþúðnismál, Grímnismál, Vǫluspá, Hávamál, ISBN   978-3825369637; vol. 2. Skírnismál, Hárbarðslióð, Hymiskviða, Lokasenna, ISBN   3825305341; vol. 3. Völundarkviða, Alvíssmál, Baldrs draumar, Rígsþula, Hyndlolióð, Grottasöngr, ISBN   3825311368; vol. 4. Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, Helgakviða Hiörvarðssonar, Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, ISBN   382535007X; vol. 5. Frá dauða Sinfiotla, Grípisspá, Reginsmál, Fáfnismál, Sigrdrífumál, ISBN   3825351807; vol. 6. Brot af Sigurðarkviðo, Guðrúnarkviða I, Sigurðarkviða in skamma, Helreið Brynhildar, Dráp Niflunga, Guðrúnarkviða II, Guðrúnarkviða III, Oddrúnargrátr, Strophenbruchstücke aus der Volsunga saga ISBN   978-3825355647; vol. 7. Atlakvið in groenlenzka, Atlamál in groenlenzko, Frá Guðrúno, Guðrúnarhvot, Hamðismál, ISBN   978-3825359973).