Rear-view mirror

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Rear-view mirror showing cars parked behind the vehicle containing the mirror Rear-view mirror.jpg
Rear-view mirror showing cars parked behind the vehicle containing the mirror

A rear-view mirror (or rearview mirror) is a flat mirror in automobiles and other vehicles, designed to allow the driver to see rearward through the vehicle's rear window (rear windshield).

Contents

In cars, the rear-view mirror is usually affixed to the top of the windshield on a double-swivel mount allowing it to be adjusted to suit the height and viewing angle of any driver and to swing harmlessly out of the way if impacted by a vehicle occupant in a collision.

The rear-view mirror is augmented by one or more side-view mirrors, which serve as the only rear-vision mirrors on trucks, motorcycles and bicycles.

History

Ray Harroun's Marmon "Wasp" with its rear-view mirror mounted on struts above the car on display in the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum. MarmonWasp.JPG
Ray Harroun's Marmon "Wasp" with its rear-view mirror mounted on struts above the car on display in the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum.

Among the rear-view mirror's early uses is a mention by Dorothy Levitt in her 1909 book The Woman and the Car which noted that women should "carry a little hand-mirror in a convenient place when driving" so they may "hold the mirror aloft from time to time in order to see behind while driving in traffic". However, earlier use is described in 1906, in a trade magazine noting mirrors for showing what is coming behind now popular on closed bodied automobiles, and to likely be widely adopted in a short time. [1] The same year, a Mr. Henri Cain from France patented a "Warning mirror for automobiles". [2] The Argus Dash Mirror, adjustable to any position to see the road behind, appeared in 1908. [3] [4] Earliest known rear-view mirror mounted on a racing vehicle appeared on Ray Harroun's Marmon race car at the inaugural Indianapolis 500 race in 1911. [5] Harroun himself claimed he got the idea from seeing a mirror used for a similar purpose on a horse-drawn vehicle in 1904. [6] Harroun also claimed that the mirror vibrated constantly due to the rough brick surface, and it was rendered largely useless. [7]

Elmer Berger is usually credited with inventing the rear-view mirror, though in fact he was the first to patent it (1921) and develop it for incorporation into production street going automobiles by his Berger and Company.[ citation needed ]

Augmentations and alternatives

Recently, rear-view video cameras have been built into many new model cars, this was partially in response to the rear-view mirrors' inability to show the road directly behind the car, due to the rear deck or trunk obscuring as much as 3–5 meters (10–15  feet) of road behind the car. As many as 50 small children are killed by SUVs every year in the USA because the driver cannot see them in their rear-view mirrors. [8] Camera systems are usually mounted to the rear bumper or lower parts of the car, allowing for better rear visibility.

Aftermarket secondary rear-view mirrors are available. They attach to the main rear-view mirror and are independently adjustable to view the back seat. This is useful to enable adults to monitor children in the back seat.

Anti-glare

Glare from a following vehicle's headlamps in a rear view mirror Memphis in Front of Me, Arkansas in Back of Me.jpg
Glare from a following vehicle's headlamps in a rear view mirror
Prismatic anti-glare
Rear view mirror antiglare-day position.svg
Rear view mirror antiglare-night position.svg
In the "day" position, the driver sees the road behind by reflection on the (rear) metal surface. In the "night" position, the driver sees the dimmer reflection on the (front) glass coating. The light is attenuated in the second mode, which partially compensates the pupillary response.

A prismatic rear-view mirror—sometimes called a "day/night mirror"—can be tilted to reduce the brightness and glare of lights, mostly for high-beam headlights of vehicles behind which would otherwise be reflected directly into the driver's eyes at night. This type of mirror is made of a piece of glass that is wedge-shaped in cross-section—its front and rear surfaces are not parallel.

On manual tilt versions, a tab is used to adjust the mirror between "day" and "night" positions. In the day view position, the front surface is tilted and the reflective back side gives a strong reflection. When the mirror is moved to the night view position, its reflecting rear surface is tilted out of line with the driver's view. This view is actually a reflection of the low-reflection front surface; only a much-reduced amount of light is reflected in the driver's eyes.

"Manual tilt" day/night mirrors first began appearing in the 1930s and became standard equipment on most passenger cars and trucks by the early 1970s.

Automatic dimming

In the 1940s, American inventor Jacob Rabinow developed a light-sensitive automatic mechanism for the wedge-type day/night mirror. [9] Several Chrysler Corporation cars offered these automatic mirrors as optional equipment as early as 1959, but few customers ordered them for their cars and the item was soon withdrawn from the option lists.[ citation needed ] Several automakers[ vague ] began offering rear-view mirrors with automatic dimming again in 1983,[ citation needed ] and it was in the late 1980s that they began to catch on in popularity.[ citation needed ]

Current systems usually use photosensors mounted in the rear-view mirror to detect light and dim the mirror by means of electrochromism. This electrochromic feature has also been incorporated into side-view mirrors allowing them to dim and reduce glare as well.

Suspending objects

A cross necklace suspended from the rear-view mirror of an automobile Preservation (HDR) (2871769974).jpg
A cross necklace suspended from the rear-view mirror of an automobile

Objects are sometimes hung from the rear-view mirror, including cross necklaces, prayer beads, good luck charms, decorations like fuzzy dice, and air fresheners like Little Trees. [10] [11] In some jurisdictions such hanging is illegal on the basis that it impairs the driver's forward view and so compromises safety. [12] Black Lives Matter protesters have cited this as an example of the minor violations used as grounds for traffic stops disproportionately targeting black drivers. [12] [13]

Trucks and buses

On trucks and buses, the load often blocks rearward vision out the backlight. In the U.S. virtually all trucks and buses have a side view mirror on each side, often mounted on the doors and viewed out the side windows, which are used for rear vision. These mirrors leave a large unviewable ("blind") area behind the vehicle, which tapers down as the distance increases. This is a safety issue which the driver must compensate for, often with a person guiding the truck back in congested areas, or by backing in a curve. [14] "Spot mirrors", a convex mirror which provides a distorted image of the entire side of the vehicle, are commonly mounted on at least the right side of a vehicle. In the U.S. mirrors are considered "safety equipment", and are not included in width restrictions. [15] [16]

Motorcycles

Depending on the type of motorcycle, the motorcycle may or may not have rear-view mirrors. Street-legal motorcycles are generally required to have rear-view mirrors. Motorcycles for off-road use only normally do not have rear-view mirrors. Rear-view mirrors come in various shapes and designs and have various methods of mounting the mirrors to the motorcycle, most commonly to the handlebars. Rear-view mirrors can also be attached to the rider's motorcycle helmet.

Bicycles

Some bicycles are equipped with a rear-view mirror mounted on a handlebar. Rear-view mirrors may also be fitted to the bicycle frame, on a helmet on the arm or the frame of a pair of eyeglasses. This allows what is behind to be checked continuously without turning round. Rear-view mirrors almost never come with a new bicycle and require an additional purchase.

Aircraft

In 1956, the Civil Aeronautical Administration proposed a rear-view mirror mounted right above the pilot to keep an eye when private aircraft are landing or taxiing on the runway to prevent collisions. [17] Fighter aircraft usually have one or more rear-view mirrors mounted on the front canopy frame to watch out for chasing aircraft.

Computer monitors

Some computer monitors are fitted with rear-view mirrors to see if anyone is positioned behind the user where they can see sensitive information, such as names and passwords, being keyed in or on the screen. These are used especially on automated teller machines and similar. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Ford Windstar Motor vehicle

The Ford Windstar is a minivan that was produced and sold by Ford. The replacement for the Ford Aerostar, the Windstar adopted the front-wheel drive configuration of the Chrysler minivans. From the 1995 to 2007 model years, three generations of the model line were sold, with the final generation renamed as the Ford Freestar.

Vehicle blind spot Area around vehicle that cannot be directly observed by the driver while at the controls

A blind spot in a vehicle or vehicle blind spot is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly seen by the driver while at the controls, under existing circumstances. In transport, driver visibility is the maximum distance at which the driver of a vehicle can see and identify prominent objects around the vehicle. Visibility is primarily determined by weather conditions and by a vehicle's design. The parts of a vehicle that influence visibility include the windshield, the dashboard and the pillars. Good driver visibility is essential to safe road traffic.

Propulsion transmission Drivetrain transmitting propulsion power

Propulsion transmission is the mode of transmitting and controlling propulsion power of a machine. The term transmission properly refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft, differential, and final drive shafts. In the United States the term is sometimes used in casual speech to refer more specifically to the gearbox alone, and detailed usage differs. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are also used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, and where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted.

Steering wheel Type of steering control in vehicles and vessels (ships and boats)

A steering wheel is a type of steering control in vehicles.

Trailer (vehicle) Towed cargo vehicle

A trailer is an unpowered vehicle towed by a powered vehicle. It is commonly used for the transport of goods and materials.

Drive shaft Mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, tailshaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a component for transmitting mechanical power and torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drivetrain that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

Caster angle The anglebetween the vertical axis and the steering axis of a steered wheel, in side view

The caster angle or castor angle is the angular displacement of the steering axis from the vertical axis of a steered wheel in a car, motorcycle, bicycle, other vehicle or a vessel, as seen from the side of the vehicle. The steering axis in a car with dual ball joint suspension is an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint, or through the center of the kingpin for vehicles having a kingpin.

Three-wheeler Vehicle with three wheels

A three-wheeler is a vehicle with three wheels. Some are motorized tricycles, which may be legally classed as motorcycles, while others are tricycles without a motor, some of which are human-powered vehicles and animal-powered vehicles.

Automotive lighting Lighting system of a motor vehicle

The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated at the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle. They illuminate the roadway ahead for the driver and increase the vehicle's visibility, allowing other drivers and pedestrians to see its presence, position, size, and direction of travel, and its driver's intentions. Emergency vehicles usually have distinctive lighting equipment to warn drivers and indicate priority of movement in traffic.

Motorized bicycle Bicycle with an attached motor or engine and transmission

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Safety reflector Safety item that reflects light

A safety reflector is a retroreflector intended for pedestrians, runners, motorized and non-motorized vehicles. A safety reflector is similar to reflective stripes that can be found on safety vests and clothing worn by road workers and rescue workers. They are sometimes erroneously called luminous badges or luminous tags, but this is incorrect as they do not themselves produce light, but only reflect it.

A glossary of terms relating to automotive design.

Fender (vehicle) Part of an automobile, motorcycle or other vehicle body that frames a wheel well

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Blind spot monitor

The blind spot monitor or blind-spot monitoring is a vehicle-based sensor device that detects other vehicles located to the driver’s side and rear. Warnings can be visual, audible, vibrating, or tactile.

Parking sensor Proximity sensor

Parking sensors are proximity sensors for road vehicles designed to alert the driver of obstacles while parking. These systems use either electromagnetic or ultrasonic sensors.

Backup camera

A backup camera is a special type of video camera that is produced specifically for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing up, and to alleviate the rear blind spot. It is specifically designed to avoid a backup collision. The area directly behind vehicles has been described as a "killing zone" due to associated accidents. Backup cameras are usually connected to the vehicle head unit display.

Side-view mirror

A side-view mirror, also known as a wing mirror, is a mirror placed on the exterior of motor vehicles for the purposes of helping the driver see areas behind and to the sides of the vehicle, outside the driver's peripheral vision.

Collision avoidance system Motorcar safety system

A collision avoidance system (CAS), also known as a pre-crash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigation system, is an advanced driver-assistance system designed to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision. In its basic form, a forward collision warning system monitors a vehicle's speed, the speed of the vehicle in front of it, and the distance between the vehicles, so that it can provide a warning to the driver if the vehicles get too close, potentially helping to avoid a crash. Various technologies and sensors that are used include radar (all-weather) and sometimes laser (LIDAR) and cameras to detect an imminent crash. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching stop signs through a location database. Pedestrian detection can also be a feature of these types of systems.

Back-up collision

Back-up collisions happen when a driver reverses the car into an object, person, or other car. Although most cars come equipped with rear view mirrors which are adequate for detecting vehicles behind a car, they are inadequate on many vehicles for detecting small children or objects close to the ground, which fall in the car's blind spot, particularly directly aft. That area has been called a "killing zone." Large trucks have much larger blind spots that can hide entire vehicles and large adults.

References

  1. The Automobile (weekly), Thursday, 27 December 1906, p. 910
  2. "Brevet d'invention : dispositif de miroir avertisseur pour automobiles". Institut national de la propriété intellectuelle . 8 January 1907. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  3. Cycle & Automobile Trade Journal, 1 December 1908, p249
  4. "All female team create award-winning concept car". Volvo. Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
  5. Ward's Auto World: Rearview Mirror Archived 26 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Davidson, Donald The Talk of Gasoline Alley (radio program). Accessed via WIBC (FM), 28 May 2006
  7. The Talk of Gasoline Alley. 5 May 2010. WFNI.
  8. Tatiana Morales (22 October 2002). "Kids And SUVs: Preventing Accidents - The Early Show". CBS News. Archived from the original on 7 March 2005. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  9. Rabinow, Jacob (18 May 1990). Inventing for Fun and Profit . San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Press. ISBN   978-0-911302-64-6.
  10. Griffin, Alaine (10 August 2010). "Supreme Court Rules On Cross Hanging From Rearview Mirror". Hartford Courant . Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  11. Jain, Geetike (1 October 2020). "What cab drivers around the world hang on their rear-view mirrors". Condé Nast Traveller India. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  12. 1 2 Baker, Mike; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (17 April 2021). "How a Common Air Freshener Can Result in a High-Stakes Traffic Stop". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  13. "Minneapolis police to curb stops for minor traffic violators". Associated Press. 13 August 2021. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  14. "CDL Commercial Drivers License Study Guide" (PDF). Illinois Secretary of State. pp. 23–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  15. "Standard No. 111; Rearview mirrors". Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. U.S. Department of Transportation. 12 April 2013. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  16. "Federal Size and Weight Regulations". U.S. Department of Transportation. 20 June 2012. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  17. "Periscopes for Aircraft" Archived 8 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine Popular Mechanics, June 1956, p. 142.
  18. Bellis, Mary. "History of Automatic Teller Machine" . Retrieved 24 March 2011.